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67th Congress \ SENATE f Document 

1st Session J I No. 7 



PEACE TREATIES 



VARIOUS TREATIES AND 
AGREEMENTS 

BETWEEN 

THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS 

AND 

THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, 

ROUMANIA, BULGARIA, HUNGARY, 

AND TURKEY 

Together with 

CERTAIN OTHER AGREEMENTS SIGNED 

BY THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT PARIS 

AND SAINT GERMAIN-EN-LAYE 




1 - C 



<oH%l 



PRESENTED BY MR. LODGE 
APRIL 25, 1921.— Ordered to be printed 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 






67th Congress \ SENATE /Document 

1st Session / \ No. 7 

PEACE TREATIES^ 



VARIOUS TREATIES AND 
AGREEMENTS 

BETWEEN 

THE ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS 

AND 

THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, 

ROUMANIA, BULGARIA, HUNGARY, 

AND TURKEY 

Together with 

CERTAIN OTHER AGREEMENTS SIGNED 

RY THE PEACE CONFERENCE AT PARIS 

AND SAINT GERMAIN-EN-LAYE 




PRESENTED RY MR. LODGE 
APRIL 25, 1921.— Ordered to be printed 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



"i(,5l 



t 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



JUNIUS! 

DOOMwt-i«T v ... . iSION 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Treaty between the principal allied and associated powers and the Serb- 
Croat-Slovene State 5 

Agreement between the allied and associated powers with regard to, 
Italian reparation payments 13 

Agreement between the allied and associated powers with regard to the 
contributions to the cost of liberation of the territories of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy __i 16 

Convention revising the general act of Berlin of February 26, 1885, and 

the general act and declaration of Brussels of July 2, 1890 — f ? _ 19 

Convention for the control of the trade in arms and ammunition ana 

protocol — , _— 26 

Treaty between the principal allied and associated powers and Rumania. ' 40 

Treaty of peace between the allied and associated powers and Bulgaria . 
with protocol v 47 

Treaty of peace between the allied and associated powers and Hungary 
with protocol and declaration 163 

Treaty of peace between the principal allied powers and Turkey- 320 



PEACE TREATIES. 



TREATY BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED 
POWERS AND THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE. 

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH 
EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, AND JAPAN, 

the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, 

on the one hand ; 

And THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, 

on the other hand; 

Whereas since the commencement of the year 1913 extensive terri- 
tories have been added to the Kingdom of Serbia, and 

Whereas the Serb, Croat and Slovene peoples of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy have of their own free will determined 
to unite with Serbia in a permanent union for the purpose of forming 
a single sovereign independent State under the title of the Kingdom 
of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and 

Whereas the Prince Regent of Serbia and the Serbian Government 
have agreed to this union, and in consequence the Kingdom of the 
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes has been constituted and has assumed 
sovereignty over the territories inhabited by these peoples, and 

Whereas it is necessary to regulate certain matters of international 
concern arising out of the said additions of territory and of this 
union, and 

Whereas it is desired to free Serbia from certain obligations which 
she undertook by the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 to certain Powers and 
to substitute for them obligations to the League of Nations, and 

Whereas the Serb-Croat-Slovene State of its own free will desires 
to give to the populations of all territories included within the State, 
of whatever race, language or religion they may be, full guarantees 
that they shall continue to be governed in accordance with the prin- 
ciples of liberty and justice; 

For this purpose the High Contracting Parties have appointed as 
their Plenipotentiaries : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA : 

The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State; 

The Honourable Henry AVhite, formerly Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome and 
Paris ; 

General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United 
States on the Supreme War Council ; 

5 



PEACE TREATIES. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE 
BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EM- 
PEROR OF INDIA : 

The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, O. M., M. P., 

His Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs: 
The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law, M. P., His Lord 

Privy Seal; 
The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G. C. B., G. C. M. G., 

His Secretary of State for the Colonies; 
The Right Honourable George Nicoll Barnes, M. P., Minister 

without portfolio ; 
And 
for the DOMINION of CANADA : 

The Honourable Sir Albert Edward Kemp, K. C. M. G., Min- 
ister of the Overseas Forces; 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA : 

The Honourable George Foster Pearce, Minister of Defence ; 
for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA : 

The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G. C. B., G. C. M. G. ; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND : 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K. C. M. G., High 
Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 
for INDIA : 

The Right Honourable Baron Sinha, K. C, Under-Secretary 
of State for India ; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC : 

Mr. Georges Clemenceau. President of the Council, Minister of 

War; 
Mr. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
Mr. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance; 
Mr. Andre Tardieu, Commissary General for Franco- American 

Military Affairs; 
Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY : 

The Honourable Tommaso Tittoni, Senator of the Kingdom, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
The Honourable Vittorio Scialoja, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Maggiorino Ferraris, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Guglielmo Marconi, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Silvio Crespi, Deputy; 

HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN : 

Viscount Chinda, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at London ; 

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris : 

Mr. H. Ijuin, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Rome ; 



PEACE TREATIES. 7 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS, 
AND THE SLOVENES : 

Mr. Nicholas P. Pachitch, formerly President of the Council 

of Ministers; 
Mr. Ante Trumbic, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Ivan Zolger, Doctor of Law; 

Who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and 
due form, have agreed as f ollows : 

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers, taking into con- 
sideration the obligations contracted under the present Treaty by 
the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, declare that the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State is definitely 7 discharged from the obligations undertaken in 
Article 35 of the Treaty of Berlin of July 13, 1878. 

CHAPTER I. 

Article 1. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes that the stipulations 
contained in Articles 2 to 8 of this Chapter shall be recognised as 
fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation or official action shall 
conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regu- 
lation or official action prevail over them. 

Article 2. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes to assure full and com- 
plete protection of life and liberty to all inhabitants of the Kingdom 
without distinction of birth, nationality, language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 
shall be entitled to the free exercise, whether public or private, of 
any creed, religion or belief, whose practices are not inconsistent 
with public order or public morals. 

Article 3. 

Subject to the special provisions of the Treaties mentioned below 
the Serb-Croat-Slovene State admits and declares to be Serb-Croat- 
Slovene nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of anj r 
formality, Austrian, Hungarian or Bulgarian nationals habituall} 7 
resident or possessing rights of citizenship (pertinenza, heimatsrecht) 
as the case may be at the date of the coming into force of the 
present Treaty in territory which is or may be recognised as 
forming part of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State under the Treaties 
with Austria, Hungary or Bulgaria respectively, or under any 
Treaties which may be concluded for the purpose of completing the 
present settlement. 

Nevertheless, the persons referred to above who are over eighteen 
years of age will be entitled under the conditions contained in the 
said Treaties to opt for any other nationality which may be open to 
them. Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by 
parents will cover their children under eighteen years of age. 



8 PEACE TREATIES. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within 
the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the 
State for Avhich they have opted. They will be entitled to retain 
their immovable property in the territory of the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State. They may carry with them their movable property of every 
description. No export duties may be imposed upon them in con- 
nection with the removal of such property. 

Article 4. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State admits and declares to the Serb- 
Croat-Slovene nationals ipso facto and without the requirement of 
any formality persons of Austrian, Hungarian or Bulgarian nation- 
ality who were born in the said territory of parents habitually resi- 
dent or possessing rights of citizenship (pertinema, heimatsrecht) as 
the case may be there, even if at the date of the coming into force of 
the present Treaty they are not themselves habitually resident or 
did not possess rights of citizenship there. 

Nevertheless, within two years after the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, these persons may make a declaration before the 
competent Serb-Croat-Slovene authorities in the country in which 
they are resident, stating that they abandon Serb-Croat-Slovene na- 
tionality, and they will then cease to be considered as Serb-Croat- 
Slovene nationals. In this connection a declaration by a husband 
will cover his wife, and a declaration by parents will cover their 
children under eighteen years of age. 

Article 5. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes to put no hindrance in 
the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned 
have, under the Treaties concluded or to be concluded by the Allied 
and Associated Powers with Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, to choose 
whether or not they will acquire Serb-Croat-Slovene nationality. 

Article 6. 

All persons born in the territory of the Serb-Croat- Slovene State 
who are not born nationals of another State shall ipso facto become 
Serb- Croat- Slovene nationals. 

Article 7. 

All Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals shall be equal before the law 
and shall enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction 
as to race, language or religion. 

Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any 
Serb-Croat-Slovene national in matters relating to the enjoyment of 
civil or political rights, as for instance admission to public employ- 
ments, functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and 
industries. 

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Serb- 
Croat-Slovene national of any language in private intercourse, in 



PEACE TREATIES. <) 

commerce, in religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or 
at public meetings. 

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
Government of an offiVial language, adequate facilities shall be given 
to Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals of other speech than that of the 
official language for the use of their own language, either orally or in 
writing, before the courts. 

Article 8. 

Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals who belong to racial, religious or 
linguistic minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in 
law and in fact as the other Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals. In par- 
ticular they shall have an equal right to establish, manage and 
control at their own expense charitable, religious and social institu- 
tions, schools and other educational establishments, with the right to 
use their own language and to exercise their religion freely therein. 

Article 9. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene Government will provide in the public 
educational system in towns and districts in which a considerable 
proportion of Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals of other speech than that 
of the official language are resident adequate facilities for ensuring 
that in the primary schools the instruction shall be given to the 
children of such Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals through the medium 
of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Serb- 
Croat-Slovene Government from making the teaching of the official 
language obligatory in the said schools. 

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of 
Serb-Croat-Slovene nationals belonging to racial, religious or lin- 
guistic minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable 
share in the enjoyment and application of the sums which may be 
provided out of public funds under the State, municipal or other 
budget, for educational, religious or charitable purposes. 

The provisions of the present Article apply only to territory 
transferred to Serbia or to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and 
Slovenes since the 1st January, 1913. 

Article 10. 

The Serb- Croat- Slovene State agrees to grant to the Musulmans 
in the matter of family law and personal status provisions suitable 
for regulating these matters in accordance with Musulman usage. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State shall take measures to assure the 
nomination of a Reiss-Ul-TTlema. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes to ensure protection to 
the mosques, cemeteries and other Musulman religious establish- 
ments. Full recognition and facilities shall be assured to Musulman 
pious foundations (Wakfs) and religious and charitable establish- 
ments now existing, and the Serb-Croat-Slovene Government shall 
not refuse any of the necessary facilities for the creation of new 
religious and charitable establishments guaranteed to other private 
establishments of this nature. 



10 peace treaties. 

Article 11. 

The Serb-Croat- Slovene State agrees that the stipulations in the 
foregoing Articles, so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, 
religions or linguistic minorities, constitute obligations of interna- 
tional concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League 
of Nations. They shall not be modified without the consent of the 
Council of the League of Nations. The United States, the British 
Empire, France, Italy and Japan hereby agree not to withhold their 
assent from any modification in these Articles which is in due form 
assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations. 

The Serb-Croat- Slovene State agrees that any Member of the 
Council of the League of Nations shall have the right to bring to the 
attention of the Council any infraction, or any danger of infraction, 
of any of these obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take 
such action and give such directions as it may deem proper and 
effective in the circumstances. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State further agrees that any difference of 
opinion as to questions of law or fact arising out of these Articles 
between the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and any one of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers or any other Power, a member of the 
Council of the League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an 
international character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the 
League of Nations. The Serb-Croat-Slovene State hereby consents 
that any such dispute shall, if the other party thereto demands, be 
referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The 
decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall have the 
same force and effect. as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant. 

CHAPTER II. 

Article 12. 

Pending the conclusion of new treaties or conventions, all treaties, 
conventions, agreements and obligations between Serbia, on the one 
hand, and any of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, on the 
other hand, which were in force on the 1st August, 1914, or which 
have since been entered into, shall ipso facto be binding upon the 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 13. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes to make no treaty, 
convention or arrangement and to take no other action which will 
prevent her from joining in any general convention for the equitable 
treatment of the commerce of other States that may be concluded 
under the auspices of the League of Nations within five years from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State also undertakes to extend to all the 
Allied and Associated Powers any favours or privileges in customs 
matters which it may grant during the same period of five years 
to any State with which since August 1914 the Allied and Associated 
Powers have been at war, or to any State which in virtue of 
Article 222 of the Treaty with Austria has special customs arrange- 
ments with such States. 



peace treaties. h 

Article 14. 

Pending the conclusion of the general convention referred to 
above, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State undertakes to treat on the same 
footing as national vessels or vessels of the most favored nation the 
vessels of all the Allied and Associated Powers which accord similar 
treatment to Serb-Croat-Slovene vessels. As an exception from this 
provision, the right of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or of any other 
Allied or Associated Power to confine its maritime coasting trade to 
national vessels is expressly reserved. The Allied and Associated 
Powers further agree not to claim under this Article the benefit of 
agreements which the States obtaining territory formerly belonging 
to the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy may conclude as regards coast- 
ing traffic between the ports of the Adriatic Sea. 

Article 15. 

Pending the conclusion under the auspices of the League of 
Nations of a general convention to secure and maintain freedom of 
communications and of transit, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State under- 
takes to accord freedom of transit to persons, goods, vessels, car- 
riages, wagons and mails in transit to or from any Allied or Asso- 
ciated State over Serb-Croat-Slovene territory, including territorial 
waters, and to treat them at least as favourably as Serb-Croat- 
Slovene persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails -respec- 
tively or those of any other more favoured nationality, origin, im- 
portation or ownership, as regards facilities, charges, restrictions 
and all other matters. 

All charges imposed in the territory of the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State on such traffic in transit shall be reasonable having regard to 
the conditions of the traffic. Goods in transit shall be exempt. from 
all customs or other duties. 

Tariffs for transit across the Serb- Croat- Slovene State and tariffs 
between the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and any Allied or Associated 
Power involving through tickets or waybills shall be established at 
the request of the Allied or Associated Power concerned. 

Freedom of transit will extend to postal, telegraphic and tele- 
phonic services. 

Provided that no Allied or Associated Power can claim the benefit 
of these provisions on behalf of any part of its territory in which 
reciprocal treatment is not accorded in respect of the same subject 
matter. 

If within a period of five years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty no general convention as aforesaid shall have been 
concluded under the auspices of the League of Nations, the Serb- 
Croat-Slovene State shall be at liberty at any time thereafter to give 
twelve months 1 notice to the Secretary-General of the League of 
Nations to terminate the obligations of this Article. 

Article 16. 

All rights and privileges accorded by the foregoing Articles to the 
Allied and Associated Powers shall be accorded equally to all States 
Members of the League of Nations. 



12 



PEACE TREATIES. 



The present Treaty, in French, in English and in Italian, of 
which in case of divergence the French text shall prevail, shall be 
ratified. It shall come into force at the same time as the Treaty of 
Peace with Austria. 

The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris. 
Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe 
will be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French 
Republic through their diplomatic representative at Paris that their 
ratification has been given ; in that case they must transmit the 
instrument of ratification as soon as possible. 

A proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn up. 
The French Government will transmit to all the signatory Powers 
a certified copy of the proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications. 

IN FAITH WHEREOF the above-named Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present Treaty. 

DONE at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the tenth day of September 
one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, in a single copy which will 
remain deposited in the archives of the French Republic, and of 
which authenticated copies will be transmitted to each of the Signa- 
tory Powers. 

(L.S.) FRANK L. POLK. 

(L.S.) HENRY WHITE. 

(L.S.) TASKER H. BLISS. 

(L.S.) ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR. 

(L.S.) MILNER. 

(L.S.) GEO. N. BARNES. 

(L.S.) A. E. KEMP. 

(L.S.) G. F. PEARCE. 

(L.S.) MILNER. 

(L.S.) THOS. MACKENZIE. 

(L.S.) SINHA OF RAIPUR. 

(L.S.) G. CLEMENCEAU. 

(L.S.) S. PICHON. 

(L.S.) L.-L. KLOTZ. 

(L.S.) ANDRE TARDIEU. 

(L.S.) JULES CAMBON. 

(L.S.) TOM. TITTONI. 

(L.S.) VITTORIO SCIALOJA. 

(L.S.) MAGGIORINO FERRARIS. 

(L.S.) GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 

(L.S.) S. CHINDA. 

(L.S.) K. MATSUI. 

(L.S.) H. IJUIN. 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BEL- 
GIUM, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, CHINA, CUBA, FRANCE, GREECE, 
ITALY, JAPAN, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, 
ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM AND THE 
CZECHO-SLOVAK STATE, WITH REGARD TO THE ITALIAN REPA- 
RATION PAYMENTS. 

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. 

THE UNDERSIGNED, duly authorised by their respective Gov- 
ernments, have taken note of the declaration made by Italy in 
Article 1 of the present Agreement, and have agreed on the subse- 
quent provisions : 

Article 1. 

Italy declares that she has made the greatest sacrifices and borne 
Jie heaviest financial burdens in the war waged for the liberation of 
Italian territory remaining subject to the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy, and for the other lofty aims of the Allied and Associated 
Powers ; 

That, in addition, the territories ceded to Italy have sacrificed, as 
.a result of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, a large proportion of 
their wealth, and that they have already contributed in other ways 
to the reparation of the damage caused by the war in which they 
have so cruelly suffered ; 

That, nevertheless, with the object of facilitating an agreement 
between the States arising from the dismemberment of Austria- 
Hungary, or acquiring territories of the former Monarchy, as to the 
contribution to be made by them towards the cost of liberating 
the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and of 
reparation, Italy agrees to contribute to these expenses in the 
manner provided in the present Agreement. 

13 



14 peace treaties. 

Article 2. 

Italy, as a State acquiring territory formerly part of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy, agrees, on account of such acquisition, to be 
debited against her approved claims for reparation under the Treaties 
of Peace concluded with Germany, Austria, and the Powers which 
fought upon their side, with a sum in gold francs (the gold franc 
being taken as of the weight and fineness of gold as enacted by law 
on January 1, 1914) to be calculated as set out in Article 3 below. 

Article 3. 

The ratio between the sum to be debited to Italy in accordance 
with Article 2 and the sum of 1,500.000.000 fr. gold (or between 
such sum and the total amount of the contributions to be made by 
Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and the Czecho- 
slovak State, if this amount is less than 1,500,000,000 fr. gold, as 
provided in the Agreement of even date between the same High 
Contracting Parties) shall be the same as the ratio between the 
average revenues for the three financial years 1911, 1912. 1913 of 
the territory transferred to Italy and the average revenues for the 
same years of the whole of the territories of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy transferred, whether to Italy or to the other 
Powers mentioned above, under the Treaties of Peace with Austria 
and Hungary. It is understood, however, that the revenues of the 
provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be excluded from this 
calculation. 

The revenues serving as the basis of this calculation shall be those 
accepted by the Reparation Commission, in accordance with the 
provisions of Article 203, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the 
Treaty of Peace with Austria, as best representing the financial 
capacity of the respective territories. 

Article 4. 

The sum so calculated, together with the value of the property 
and possessions of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy trans- 
ferred to Italy, assessed in accordance with Article 207, Part IX 
(Financial Clauses) of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, shall be 
set off against the approved claims of Italy for reparation. The 
total of these two sums shall be reckoned as payments by way of 
reparation, and no further payments shall be made to Italy on ac- 
count of reparation until the other States to which reparation is due 
shall have received payments on account of a like proportion of 
their approved claims for reparation. 

Done in French, in English and in Italian, of which in case of 
divergence the French text shall prevail, at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 



PEACE TREATIES. 15 

the tenth day of September, 1919, one thousand nine hundred and 
nineteen. 

FRANK L. POLK. 

HENRY WHITE. 

TASKER H. BLISS. 

HYMANS. 

J. VAN DEN HEUVEL. 

E. VANDERVELDE. 

ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR 

MILNER. 

GEO. N. BARNES. 

A. E. KEMP. 

G. F. PEARCE. 

MILNER. 

THOS. MACKENZIE. 

SINHA OF RAIPUR. 

J. R. LOUTSENGTSIANG. 

CHENGTING THOMAS WANG. 

ANTONIO S. DE BUSTAMANTE. 

G. CLEMENCEAU. 

S. PICHON. 

L. L. KLOTZ. 

ANDRE TARDIEU. 

JULES CAMBON. 

N. POLITIS. 

A. ROMANOS. 

TOM. TITTONI. 

VITTORIO SCIALOJA. 

MAGGIORINO FERRARIS. 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 

S. CHINDA. 

K. MATSUI. 

H. IJUIN. 

SALVADOR CHAMORRO. 

ANTONIO BURGOS. 

I. J. PADEREWSKI. 

ROMAN DMOWSKI. 

AFFONSO COSTA. 

CHAROON. 

TRAIDOS PRABANDHU. 

D. KAREL KRAMAR. 

DR. EDUARD BENES. 



AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BEL- 
GIUM, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, CHINA, CUBA, FRANCE, GREECE, 
ITALY, JAPAN, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, 
ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM AND THE 
CZECHO-SLOVAK STATE, WITH REGARD TO THE CONTRIBUTIONS 
TO THE COST OF LIBERATION OF THE TERRITORIES OF THE 
FORMER AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN MONARCHY. 

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. 

THE UNDERSIGNED, duly authorised by their respective Gov- 
ernments, have agreed on the following provisions: 

Article 1. 

Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat- Slovene State and the Czecho- 
slovak State, as States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy is transferred or States arising from the dis- 
memberment of that Monarchy, severally agree to pay, as a con- 
tribution towards the expenses of liberating the said territories, sums 
not exceeding in the aggregate the equivalent of 1,500,000,000 fr. 
gold, the gold franc being taken as of the weight and fineness of 
gold as enacted by law on January 1, 1914. 

Article 2. 

The total amount of the contribution referred to in Article 1 
shall be divided between the said States on the basis of the ratio 
between the average for three financial years 1911, 1912 and 1913 
of the revenues of the territories acquired by them from the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the revenues of the provinces of Bos- 
nia and Herzegovina being excluded from this calculation. 

The revenues forming the basis for this calculation shall be those 
adopted by the Reparation Commission, in accordance with Article 
203, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, 
as best calculated to represent the financial capacity of the respective 
territories. Nevertheless, in no case shall the sum paid by the 
16 



PEACE TREATIES. 17 

Czecho- Slovak State exceed the sum of 750,000,000 fr. Should the 
contribution attributable to the Czecho-Slovak State exceed the sum 
of 750,000,000 fr., the difference between that sum and the sum of 
750,000,000 fr. shall be in diminution of the aggregate sum of 1,500,- 
000^000 fr. and shall not be attributed to the other States. 

Article 3. 

The amount due as above by each State for liberation, together 
with the value of the property and possessions of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy transferred to each of them, assessed in ac- 
cordance with Article 207, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the 
Treaty of Peace with Austria, shall be set off against the approved 
claims, if any, of these States for reparation. 

Article 1. 

If in the case of any of the above States the amount due for libera- 
tion and the value of property transferred is in excess of the ap- 
proved reparation claims, that State shall, within three months of 
the notification to it by the Separation Commission of the amount, 
if any, of its approved claims for reparation, issue bonds to the 
amount of this excess and shall deliver them to such person or body 
as the Governments of the United States of America, the British 
Empire, France and Italy may designate. 

The above bonds shall be to bearer, principal and interest being- 
payable by the issuing State without deduction for any tax or charge 
imposed by it or under its authority. The bonds shall bear interest 
at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, payable half-yearly, beginning 
on January 1, 1926. They shall be repaid in twenty-five equal 
annual drawings, beginning on January 1, 1931. The issuing State, 
however, may, at its option, redeem all or part of the bonds issued 
by it at par and accrued interest at any time, provided ninety days' 
notice of its intention so to do is given to the Governments of the 
United States of America, the British Empire, France and Italy. 

Article 5. 

In the case of those States whose approved claims for reparation 
are in excess of the amount due for liberation and the value of 
property transferred, the amount chargeable to these States in ac- 
cordance with Article 3 shall be reckoned as payments by way of 
reparation, and no further payments on account of reparation shall 
be made to them until the other States to which reparation is due 
shall have received payments on account of a like proportion of their 
approved claims for reparation. 

47S0S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 2 



18 PEACE TREATIES. 

Done in French, in English and in Italian, of which in case of 
divergence the French text shall prevail, at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 
the tenth day of September, one thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 

FRANK L. POLK. 

HENRY WHITE. 

TASKER H. BLISS. 

HYMANS. 

J. VAN DEN HEUVEL. 

E. VANDERVELDE. 

ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR. 

MILNER. 

GEO. N. BARNES. 

A. E. KEMP. 

G. F. PEARCE. 

MILNER. 

THOS. MACKENZIE. 

SINHA OF RAIPUR. 

J. R. LOUTSENGTSIANG. 

CHENGTING THOMAS WANG. 

ANTONIO S. DE BUSTAMENTE. 

G. CLEMENCEAU. 

S. PICHON. 

L. L. KLOTZ. 

ANDRE TARDIEU. 

JULES CAMBON. 

N. POLITIS. 

A. ROMANO S. 

TOM. TITTONI. 

VITTORIO SCIALOJA. 

MAGGIORINO FERRARIS. 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 

S. CHINDA. 

K. MATSUI. 

H. IJUIN. 

SALVADOR CHAMORRO. 

ANTONIO BURGOS. 

I. J. PADEREWSKI. 

ROMAN DMOWSKI. 

AFFONSO COSTA. 

AUGUSTO SOARES. 

CHAROON. 

TRAIDOS PRABANDHU. 

D. KAREL KRAMAR. 

DR. EDUARD BENES. 



CONVENTION REVISING THE GENERAL ACT OF BERLIN, FEBRU- 
ARY 26, 1885, AND THE GENERAL ACT AND DECLARATION OF 
BRUSSELS, JULY 2, 1890. 

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. 

[Translation.] 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMEKICA. BELGIUM, THE 
BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, JAPAN AND POR- 
TUGAL; 

Whereas the General Act of the African Conference, signed at 
Berlin on February 26, 1885, was primarily intended to demonstrate 
the agreement of the Powers with regard to the general principles 
which should guide their commercial and civilising action in the 
little known or inadequately organised regions of a continent where 
slavery and the slave trade still flourished ; and 

Whereas by the Brussels Declaration of July 2, 1890, it was 
found necessary to modify for a provisional period of fifteen years 
the system of free imports established for twenty years by Article 4 
of the said Act, and since that date no agreement has been entered 
into, notwithstanding the provisions of the said Act and Declara- 
tion ; and 

Whereas the territories in question are now under the control of 
recognised authorities, are provided with administrative institutions 
suitable to the local conditions, and the evolution of the native popu- 
lations continues to make progress ; 

Wishing to ensure by arrangements suitable to modern require- 
ments the application of the general principles of civilisation estab- 
lished by the Acts of Berlin and Brussels, 
Have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA : 
The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State; 
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome and 
Paris ; 
General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United 
States on the Supreme War Council : 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS : 

M. Paul Hymans, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of 

State ; 
M. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of the Belgians, 
Minister of State ; 
M. Emile Vandervelde, Minister of Justice, Minister of State; 

19 



20 PEACE TREATIES. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 
IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH DOMINIONS BE- 
YOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA : 

The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, O.M., M.P., His 

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; 
The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law, M.P., His Lord 

Privy Seal; 
The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., His 

Secretary of State for the Colonies; 
The Right Honourable George Nicoll Barnes, M.P., Minister 

without Portfolio ; 

And : 
for the DOMINION of CANADA : 

The Honourable Sir Albert Edward Kempt, K.C.M.G., Min- 
ister of the Overseas Forces : 

for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA : 

The Honourable George Foster Pearce, Minister of Defence; 

for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA : 

The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. ; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND: 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K.C.M.G., High 
Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 
for INDIA : 

The Right Honourable Baron Sinha, K.C., Under-Secretary 
of State for India; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC: 

M. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council, Minister of 

War; 
M. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
M. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance; 
M. Andre Tardieu, Commissary-General for Franco-American 

Military Affairs; 
M. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY: 

The Honourable Tommaso Tittoni, Senator of the Kingdom, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
The Honourable Vittorio Scialoja, Senator of the Kingdom; 
The Honourable Maggiorino Ferrairis, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Guglielmo Marconi, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Silvio Crespi, Deputy ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN : 

Viscount Chinda, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiarv of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at London ; 

M. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 

of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris ; 

H. M. Ijun, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Rome; 



PEACE TREATIES. 21 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC: 

Dr. Affonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of 

Ministers ; 
Dr. Augusto Luiz Vieira Soares, formerly Minister for Foreign 

Affairs ; 

Who, after having communicated their full powers recognised in 
good and due form, 



Have agreed as follows 



Article 1. 



The Signatory Powers undertake to maintain between their re- 
spective nationals and those of States, Members of the League of 
Nations, which may adhere to the present Convention a complete 
commercial equality in the territories under their authority within 
the area defined by Article 1 of the General Act of Berlin of Febru- 
ary 26, 1885, set out in the Annex hereto, but subject to the reserva- 
tion specified in the final paragraph of that article. 

Annex. 

Article 1 of the General Act of Berlin of February 26, 1885. 

The trade of all nations shall enjoy complete freedom : 

1. In all the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its outlets. 
This basin is bounded by the watersheds (or mountain ridges) of 
the adjacent basins, namely, in particular, those of the Niari, the 
Ogowe, the Shari, and the Nile, on the north ; by the eastern water- 
shed line of the affluents of Lake Tanganyika on the east; and by the 
watersheds of the basins of the Zambesi and the Loge on the south. 
It therefore comprises all the regions watered by the Congo and its 
affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries. 

2. In the maritime zone extending along the Atlantic Ocean from 
the parallel situated in 2° 30' of south latitude to the mouth of the 
Loge. 

The northern boundary will follow the parallel situated in 2° 30' 
from the coast to the point where it meets the geographical basin of 
the Congo, avoiding the basin of the Ogowe, to which the provisions 
of the present Act do not apply. 

The southern boundary will follow the course of the Loge to its 
source, and thence pass eastward till it joins the geographical basin 
of the Congo. 

3. In the zone stretching eastward from the Congo Basin as 
above defined, to the Indian Ocean from 5° of north latitude to the 
mouth of the Zambesi in the south, from which point the line of 
demarcation will ascend the Zambesi to 5 miles above its confluence 
Avith the Shire, and then follow the watershed between the affluents 
of Lake Nyassa and those of the Zambesi, till at last it reaches the 
watershed between the waters of the Zambesi and the Congo. 

It is expressly recognised that in extending the principal of free 
trade to this eastern zone, the Conference Powers only undertake 
engagements for themselves, and that in the territories belonging to 



22 PEACE TREATIES. 

an independent Sovereign State this principle shall only be appli- 
cable in so far as it is approved by such State. But the Powers agree 
to use their good offices with the Governments established on the 
African shore of the Indian Ocean for the purpose of obtaining such 
approval, and in any case of securing the most favourable conditions 
to the transit (traffic) of all nations. 

Article 2. 

Merchandise belonging^ to the nationals of the Signatory Powers, 
and to those of States, Members of the League of Nations, which 
may adhere to the present Convention, shall have free access to the 
interior of the regions specified in Article 1. No differential treat- 
ment shall be imposed upon the said merchandise on importation or 
exportation, the transit remaining free from all duties, taxes or dues, 
other than those collected for services rendered. 

Vessels flying the flag of any of the said Powers shall also have 
access to all the coast and to all maritime ports in the territories 
specified in Article 1 ; they shall be subject to no differential treat- 
ment. 

Subject to these provisions, the States concerned reserve to them- 
selves complete liberty of action as to the customs and navigation 
regulations and tariffs to be applied in their territories. 

Article 3. 

In the territories specified in Article 1 and placed under the 
authority of one of the Signatory Powers, the nationals of those 
Powers, "or of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may 
adhere to the present Convention shall, subject only to the limita- 
tions necessary for the maintenance of public security and order, 
enjoy without distinction the same treatment and the same rights as 
the nationals of the Power exercising authority in the territory, with 
regard to the protection of their persons and effects, with regard to 
the acquisition and transmission of their movable and real property, 
and with regard to the exercise of their professions. 

Article 4. 

Each State reserves the right to dispose freely of its property and 
to grant concessions for the development of the natural resources of 
the territory, but no regulations on these matters shall admit of any 
differential treatment between the nationals of the Signatory Powers 
and of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may adhere 
to the present Convention. 

Article 5. 

Subject to the provisions of the present chapter, the navigation of 
the Niger, of its branches and outlets, and of all the rivers, and of 
their branches and outlets, within the territories specified in Article 
1, as well as of the lakes situated within those territories, shall be 
entirely free for merchant vessels and for the transport of goods and 
passengers. 



PEACE TREATIES. 23 

Craft of every kind belonging to the nationals of the Signatory 
Powers and of States, Members of the League of Nations, which may 
adhere to the present Convention shall be treated in all respects on 
a footing of perfect equalit}-. 

Article 6. 

The navigation shall not be subject to any restriction or dues 
based on the mere fact of navigation. 

It shall not be exposed to any obligation in regard to landing, 
station, or depot, or for breaking bulk or for compulsory entry into 
port. 

No maritime or river toll, based on the mere fact of navigation, 
shall be levied on vessels, nor shall any transit duty be levied on 
goods on board. Only such taxes or duties shall be collected as may 
be an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself. The 
tariff of these taxes or duties shall not admit of any differential 
treatment. 

Article 7. 

The affluents of the rivers and lakes specified in Article 5 shall 
in all respects be subject to the same rules as the rivers or lakes of 
which they are tributaries. 

The roads, railways or lateral canals which may be constructed 
with the special object of obviating the innavigability or correcting 
the imperfections of the water route on certain sections of the rivers 
and lakes specified in Article 5, their affluents, branches and outlets, 
shall be considered, in their quality of means of communication, as 
dependencies of these rivers and lakes, and shall be equally open to 
the traffic of the nationals of the Signatory Powers and of the States, 
Members of the League of Nations, which may adhere to the present 
Convention. 

On these roads, railways and canals only such tolls shall be 
collected as are calculated on the cost of construction, maintenance 
and management, and on the profits reasonably accruing to the 
undertaking. As regards the tariff of these tolls, the nationals of 
the Signatory Powers and of States, Members of the League of 
Nations, which may adhere to the present Convention, shall be 
treated on a footing of perfect equality. 

Article 8. 

Each of the Signatory Powers shall remain free to establish the 
rules which it may consider expedient for the purpose of ensuring 
the safety and control of navigation, on the understanding that thes*. 
rules shall facilitate, as far as possible, the circulation of merchant 
vessels. 

Article 9. 

In such sections of the rivers and of their affluents, as well as on 
such lakes, as are not necessarily utilised by more than one riverain 
State, the Governments exercising authority shall remain free to 
establish such systems as may be required for the maintenance of 



24 PEACE TREATIES. 

public safety and order, and for other necessities of the work 
of civilisation and colonisation ; but the regulations shall not admit 
of any differential treatment between vessels or between nationals of 
the Signatory Powers and of States, Members of the League of 
Nations, which may adhere to the present Convention. 

Article 10. 

The Signatory Powers recognise the obligation to maintain in the 
regions subject to their jurisdiction an authority and police forces 
sufficient to ensure protection of persons and of property and, if 
necessary, freedom of trade and of transit. 

Article 11. 

The Signatory Powers exercising sovereign rights or authority in 
African territories will continue to watch over the preservation of 
the native populations and to supervise the improvement of the 
conditions of their moral and material well-being. They will, in 
particular, endeavour to secure the complete suppression of slavery in 
all its forms and of the slave trade by land and sea. 

They will protect and favour, without distinction of nationality or 
of religion, the religious, scientific or charitable institutions and 
undertakings created and organised by the nationals of the other 
Signatory Powers and of States, Members of the League of Nations, 
which may adhere to the present Convention, which aim at leading 
the natives in the path of progress and civilisation. Scientific 
missions, their property and their collections, shall likewise be the 
objects of special solicitude. 

Freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of religion 
are expressly guaranteed to all nationals of the Signatory Powers 
and to those under the jurisdiction of States, Members of the League 
of Nations, which may become parties to the present Convention. 
Similarly, missionaries shall have the right to enter into, and to travel 
and reside in, African territory with a view to prosecuting their 
calling. 

The application of the provisions of the two preceding paragraphs 
shall be subject only to such restrictions as may be necessary for the 
maintenance of public security and order, or as may result from the 
enforcement of the constitutional law of any of the Powers exercising 
authority in African territories. 

Article 12. 

The Signatory Powers agree that if any dispute whatever should 
arise between them relating to the application of the present Con- 
vention which cannot be settled by negotiation, this dispute shall be 
submitted to an arbitral tribunal in conformity with the provisions 
of the Covenant of the League of Nations. 

Article 13. 

Except in so far as the stipulations contained in Article 1 of the 
present Convention are concerned, the General Act of Berlin of 
26th February, 1885, and the General Act of Brussels of 2nd July. 



PEACE TREATIES. 25 

1890, with the accompanying Declaration of equal date, shall be 
considered as abrogated, in so far as they are binding between the 
Powers which are Parties to the present Convention. 

Article 14. 

States exercising authority over African territories, and other 
States, Members of the League of Nations, which were parties either 
to the Act of Berlin or to the Act of Brussels or the Declaration 
annexed thereto, may adhere to the present Convention. The 
Signatory Powers will use their best endeavours to obtain the 
adhesion of these States. 

This adhesion shall be notified through the diplomatic channel to 
the Government of the French Republic, and by it to all the Signatory 
or adhering States. The adhesion will come into force from the date 
of its notification to the French Government. 

Article 15. 

The Signatory Powers will reassemble at the expiration of ten 
years from the coming into force of the present Convention, in order 
to introduce into it such modifications as experience may have shown 
to be necessary. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

Each Power will address its ratification to the French Government, 
which will inform all the other Signatory Powers. 

The ratifications will remain deposited in the archives of the 
French Government. 

The present Convention will come into force for each Signatory 
Power from the date of the deposit of its ratification, and from that 
moment that Power will be bound in respect of other Powers which 
have already deposited their ratifications. 

On the coming into force of the present Convention, the French 
Government will transmit a certified copy to the Powers which, 
under the Treaties of Peace, have undertaken to accept and observe 
it. The names of these Powers will be notified to the States which 
adhere. 

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed 
the present Convention. 

Done at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the 10th day of September, 1919, 
in a single copy, which will remain deposited in the archives of the 
Government of the French Republic, and of which authenticated 
copies will be sent to each of the Signatory Powers. 



CONVENTION FOR THE CONTROL OF THE TRADE IN ARMS AND 
AMMUNITION, AND PROTOCOL. 1 

Signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10, 1919. 
[Translation.] 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BO- 
LIVIA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, CHINA, CUBA, ECUADOR, 
FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, THE HEDJAZ, 
ITALY, JAPAN, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, 
PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE 
STATE, SIAM AND CZECHOSLOVAKIA; 

Whereas the long war now ended, in which most nations have suc- 
cessively become involved, has led to the accumulation in various 
parts of the world of considerable quantities of arms and munitions 
of war, the dispersal of which would constitute a danger to peace and 
public order; 

Whereas in certain parts of the world it is necessary to exercise 
special supervision over the trade in, and the possession of, arms and 
ammunition ; 

Whereas the existing treaties and conventions, and particularly 
the Brussels Act of July 2, 1890, regulating the traffic in arms and 
ammunition in certain regions, no longer meet present conditions, 
which require more elaborate provisions applicable to a wider area 
in Africa and the establishment of a corresponding regime in certain 
territories in Asia ; 

Whereas a special supervision of the maritime zone adjacent to 
certain countries is necessary to ensure the efficacy of the measures 
adopted by the various Governments both as regards the importation 
of arms and ammunition into those countries and the export of such 
arms and ammunition from their own territory ; 

And with the reservation that, after a period of seven years, the 
present Convention shall be subject to revision in the light of the 
experience gained, if the Council of the League of Nations, acting if 
need be by a majority, so recommends; 

Have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries : 

The President of the United States of America : 

The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State; 
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome and 
Paris ; 
General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United 
States on the Supreme War Council ; 

1 Some of the signatures were affixed in Paris and some at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 
26 



PEACE TREATIES. 27 

His Majesty the King of the Belgians : 

M. Paul Hymans, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister of 

State : 
M. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary of His Majesty the King of the Belgians. 

Minister of State ; 
M. Emile Vandervelde, Minister of Justice, Minister of State : 

The President of the Republic of Bolivia : 

M. Ismail Montes, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of Bolivia at Paris; 

His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 

and Ireland and of the British Dominions Beyond the Seas, 

Emperor of India : 
The Right Honourable Arthur James Balfour, O. M., M. P., His 

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs: 
The Right Honourable Andrew Bonar Law, M. P., His Lord 

Priv} T Seal: 
The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G. C. B., G. G. M. G., His 

Secretary of State for the Colonies: 
The Right Honourable George Nicoll Barnes, M. P., Minister 

without Portfolio. 

And 

for the Dominion of Canada : 

The Honourable Sir Albert Edward Kemp, K. C. M. G., Minister 
of the Overseas Forces ; 

for the Commonwealth of Australia : 

The Honourable George Foster Pearce, Minister of Defence ; 

for the Union of South Africa : 

The Right Honourable Viscount Milner, G. C, B., G. C. M. G.; 

for the Dominion of New Zealand : 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K. C. M. G., High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 

for India : 

The Right Honourable Baron Sinha, K. C, Under-Secretary of 
State for India ; 

The President of the Chinese Republic : 

M. Lou Tseng-Tsiang, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
M. Chengting Thomas Wang, formerly Minister of Agriculture 
and Commerce; 

The President of the Cuban Republic : 

M. Antonio Sanchez de Bustamente, Dean of the Faculty of 
Law in the University of Havana, President of the Cuban 
Societv of International Law : 



28 PEACE TREATIES. 

The President of the Republic of Ecuador : 

M. Dora y de Alsua, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of Ecuador at Paris; 
The President of the French Republic : 

M. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council, Minister of 

War; 
M. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
M. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance : 
M. Andre Tardieu, Commissiary-General for Franco-American 

Military Affairs ; 
M. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France ; 
His Majesty the King of the Hellenes : 

M. Nicolas Politis, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
M. Athos Romanos, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary to the French Republic: 
The President of the Republic of Guatemala : 

M. Joaquim Mendez, formerly Minister of State for Public 
Works and Public Instruction. Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Guatemala at Washington, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary on Special Mis- 
sion at Paris ; 
The President of the Republic of Haiti : 

M. Tertullien Guilbaud, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of Haiti to Ecuador ; 
His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz : 
M. Rustem Haidar ; 
M. Abdul Hadi Aouni ; 
His Majesty the King of Italy : 

The Honourable Tommaso Tittoni, Senator of the Kingdom, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
The Honourable Vittorio Scialoja, Senator of the Kingdom; 
The Honourable Maggiorino Ferraris, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Guglielmo Marconi, Senator of the Kingdom; 
The Honourable Silvio Crespi, Deputy ; 
His Majesty the Emperor of Japan : 

Viscount Chinda, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at London ; 
M. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 

of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris ; 
M. H. Ijuin, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiory of 
H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Rome ; 
The President of the Republic of Nicaragua : 

M. Salvador Chamorro, President of the Chamber of Deputies; 
The President of the Republic of Panama : 

M. Antonio Burgos, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of Panama at Madrid ; 
The President of the Republic of Peru : 
M. Carlos G. Candamo, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of Peru at Madrid; 
The President of the Polish Republic : 

M. Ignace J. Paderewski, President of the Council of Ministers, 

Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
M. Roman Dmowski, President of the Polish National Com- 
miteee ; 



PEACE TREATIES. 29 

The President of the Portuguese Republic: 

Dr. Affonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of 

Ministers ; 
Dr. Augusto Luiz Vieira Soares, formerly Minister for Foreign 
Affairs ; 
His Majesty the King of Roumania: 

M. Nicolas Misu, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary of Roumania at London; 
Dr. Alexander Vaida-Voevod, Minister without Portfolio; 
His Majesty the King of the Serbs, the Croats, and the Slovenes: 
M. N. P. Pachitch, formerly President of the Council of Min- 
isters ; 
M. Ante Trumbic, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
M. Ivan Zolger, Doctor of Law; 
His Majesty the King of Siam: 

His Highness Prince Charoon, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Siam at Paris; 
His Serene Highness Prince Traidos Prabandhu, Under-Secre- 
tary of State for Foreign Affairs; 
The President of the Czecho-Slovak Republic: 

M. Charles Kramaf, President of the Council of Ministers; 
M. Edouard Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
Who, having communicated their full powers found in good and 
due form, 

Have agreed as follows: 

CHAPTER I. 

Export of Arms ami Ammunition. 

Article 1. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to prohibit the export of 
the following arms of war :' artillery of all kinds, apparatus for the 
discharge of all kinds of projectiles explosive or gas-diffusing, flame- 
throwers, bombs, grenades, machine-guns and rifled small-bore 
breech-loading weapons of all kinds, as well as the exportation of the 
ammunition for use with such arms. The prohibition of exportation 
shall apply to all such arms and ammunition, whether complete or in 
parts. 

Nevertheless, notwithstanding this prohibition, the High Contract- 
ing Parties reserve the right to grant, in respect of arms whose use 
is not prohibited by International Law, export licences to meet the 
requirements of their Governments or those of the Government of 
any of the High Contracting Parties, but for no other purpose. 

In the case of firearms and ammunition adapted both to warlike 
and also to other purposes, the High Contracting Parties reserve to 
themselves the right to determine from the size, destination, and 
other circumstances of each shipment for what uses it is intended 
and to decide in each case whether the provisions of this Article are 
applicable to it. 



30 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 2. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to prohibit the export of 
firearms and ammunition, whether complete or in parts, other than 
arms and munitions of war, to the areas and zone specified in 
Article 6. 

Nevertheless, notwithstanding this prohibition, the High Contract- 
ing Parties reserve the right to grant export licences on the under- 
standing that such licences shall be issued only by their own 
authorities. Such authorities must satisfy themselves in advance 
that the arms or ammunition for which an export licence is requested 
are not intended for export to any destination, or for disposal in any 
way, contrary to the provisions of this Convention. 

Article 3. 

Shipments to be effected under contracts entered into before the 
coming into force of the present Convention shall be governed by its 
provisions. 

Article 4. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to grant no export licences 
to any country which refuses to accept the tutelage under which it has 
been placed, or which, after having been placed under the tutelage of 
any Power, may endeavour to obtain from any other Power any of 
the arms or ammunition specified in Articles 1 and 2. 

Article 5. 

A Central International Office, placed under the control of the 
League of Nations, shall be established for the purpose of collecting 
and preserving documents of all kinds exchanged by the High Con- 
tracting Parties with regard to the trade in, and distribution of, the 
arms and ammunition specified in the present Convention. 

Each of the High Contracting Parties shall publish an annual re- 
port showing the export licences which it may have granted, together 
with the quantities and destination of the arms and ammunition to 
which the export licences referred. A copy of this report shall be 
sent to the Central International Office and to the Secretary-General 
of the League of Nations. 

Further, the High Contracting Parties agree to send to the Central 
International Office and to the Secretary-General of the League of 
Nations full statistical information as to the quantities and destination 
of all arms and ammunition exported without licence. 

CHAPTER II. 

Import of Arms and Ammunition. Prohibited Areas and Zone of 
Maritim e Sup ervision . 

Article 6. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake, each as far as the terri- 
tory under its jurisdiction is concerned, to prohibit the importation of 
the arms and ammunition specified in Articles 1 and 2 into the fol- 



PEACE TREATIES. 31 

lowing territorial areas, and also to prevent their importation and 
transportation in the maritime zone defined below : 

1. The whole of the Continent of Africa with the exception of 
Algeria, Libya and the Union of South Africa. 

Within this area are included all islands situated within a hundred 
nautical miles of the coast, together with Prince's Island, St. Thomas 
Island and the Islands of Annobon and Socotra. 

2. Transcaucasia, Persia, Gwadar, the Arabian Peninsula and such 
continental parts of Asia as were included in the Turkish Empire on 
August 4, 1914. 

3. A maritime zone, including the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the 
Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, and bounded by a line drawn from 
Cape Guardafui, following the latitude of that cape to its intersection 
with longitude 57° east of Greenwich, and proceeding thence direct 
to the eastern frontier of Persia in the Gulf of Oman. 

Special licences for the import of arms or ammunitions into the 
areas defined above may be issued. In the African area they shall 
be subject to the regulations specified in Articles 7 and 8 or to any 
local regulations of a stricter nature which may be in force. In the 
other areas specified in the present Article, these licences shall be sub- 
ject to similar regulations put into effect by the Governments exercis- 
ing authority there. 

CHAPTER III. 

Supervision on Land. 
Article 7. 

Arms and ammunition imported under special licence into the pro- 
hibited areas shall be admitted only at ports designated for this pur- 
pose by the Authorities of the State, Colony, Protectorate or territory 
under mandate concerned. 

Such arms and ammunition must be deposited by the importer at 
his own risk and expense in a public warehouse under the exclusive 
custody and permanent control of the Authority and of its agents, of 
whom one at least must be a civil official or a military officer. No 
arms or ammunition shall be deposited or withdrawn without the 
previous authorisation of the administration of the State, Colony, 
Protectorate or territory under mandate, unless the arms and ammu- 
nition to be deposited or withdrawn are intended for the forces of the 
Government or the defence of the national territory. 

The withdrawal of arms or ammunition deposited in these ware- 
houses shall be authorised only in the following cases : — 

1. For despatch to places designated by the Government where the 
inhabitants are allowed to possess arms, under the control and re- 
sponsibility of the local Authorities, for the purpose of defence 
against robbers or rebels. 

2. For despatch to places designated by the Government as ware- 
houses and placed under the supervision and responsibility of the 
local Authorities. 

3. For individuals who can show that they require them for their 
legitimate personal use. 



32 peace treaties. 

Article 8. 

In the prohibited areas specified in Article 6, trade in arms and 
ammunition shall be placed under the control of officials of the Gov- 
ernment and shall be subject to the following regulations : 

1. No person may keep a warehouse for arms or ammunition with- 
out a licence. 

2. Any person licensed to keep a warehouse for arms or ammuni- 
tion must reserve for that special purpose enclosed premises having 
only one entry, provided with two locks, one of which can be opened 
only by the officers of the Government. 

The person in charge of a warehouse shall be responsible for all 
arms or ammunition deposited therein and must account for them on 
demand. For this purpose all deposits or withdrawals shall be en- 
tered in a special register, numbered and initialled. Each entry shall 
be supported by references to the official documents authorising such 
deposits or withdrawals. 

3. No transport of arms or ammunition shall take place without a 
special licence. 

4. No withdrawal from a private warehouse shall take place except 
under licence issued by the local Authority on an application stating 
the purpose for which the arms or ammunition are required, and 
supported by a licence to carry arms or by a special permit for the 
purchase of ammunition. Every arm shall be registered and 
stamped; the Authority in charge of the control shall enter on the 
licence to carry arms the mark stamped on the weapon. 

5. No one shall without authority transfer to another person either 
by gift or for any consideration any weapon or ammunition which he 
is licensed to possess. 

Article 9. 

In the prohibited areas and zone specified in Article 6 the manu- 
facture and assembling of arms, or ammunition shall be prohibited, 
except at arsenals established by the local Government or, in the case 
of countries placed under tutelage, at arsenals established by the local 
Government, under the control of the mandatory Power, for the 
defence of its territory or for the maintenance of public order. 

No arms shall be repaired except at arsenals or establishments 
licensed by the local Government for this purpose. No such licence 
shall be granted without guarantees for the observance of the rules 
of the present Convention. 

Article 10. 

Within the prohibited areas specified in Article 6, a State which 
is compelled to utilise the territory of a contiguous State for the im- 
portation of arms or ammunition, whether complete or in parts, or of 
material or of articles intended for armament, shall be authorised on 
request to have them transported across the territory of such State. 

It shall, however, when making any such request, furnish guaran- 
tees that the said articles are required for the needs of its own Gov- 
ernment, and will at no time be sold, transferred or delivered for 
private use nor used in any way contrary to the interests of the High 
Contracting Parties. 



PEACE TREATIES. 33 

Any violation of these conditions shall be formally established in 
the following manner : — 

(a) If the importing State is a sovereign independent Power, the 
proof of the violation shall be advanced by one or more of the Rep- 
resentatives accredited to it of contiguous States among the High 
Contracting Parties. After the Representatives of the other con- 
tiguous States have, if necessary, been informed, a joint enquiry 
into the facts by all these Representatives will be opened, and if 
need be, the importing State will be called upon to furnish expla- 
nations. If the gravity of the case should so require, and if the ex- 
planations of the importing State are considered unsatisfactory, the 
Representatives will jointly notify the importing State that all 
transit licences in its favour are suspended and that all future re- 
quests will be refused until it shall have furnished new and satis- 
factory guarantees. 

The forms and conditions of the guarantees provided by the pres- 
ent Article shall be agreed upon previously by the Representatives 
of the contiguous States among the High Contracting Parties. 
These Representatives shall communicate to each other, as and when 
issued, the transit licences granted by the competent authorities. 

(h) If the importing State has been placed under the mandatory 
system established by the League of Nations, the proof of the viola- 
tion shall be furnished by one of the High Contracting Parties or on 
its own initiative by the Mandatory Powers. The latter shall then 
notify or demand, as the case may be, the suspension and future 
refusal of all transit licences. 

In cases where a violation has been duly proved, no further transit 
licence shall be granted to the offending State without the previous 
consent of the Council of the League of Nations. 

If any proceedings on the part of the importing State or its dis- 
turbed condition should threaten the public order of one of the con- 
tiguous State signatories of the present^ Convention, the importation 
in transit of arms, ammunition, material and articles intended for 
armament shall be refused to the importing State by all the con- 
tiguous States until order has been restored. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Maritime Supervision. 
Article 11. 

Subject to any contrary provisions in existing special agreements, 
or in future agreements, provided that in all cases such agreements 
comply with the provisions of the present Convention, the sovereign 
State or Mandatory Power shall carry out all supervision and police 
measures within territorial waters in the prohibited areas and zone 
specified in Article 6. 

Article 12. 

Within the prohibited areas and maritime zone specified in 
Article 6, no native vessel of less than 500 tons burden shall bp 
allowed to ship, discharge, or tranship arms or ammunition. 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 3 



34 PEACE TREATIES. 

For this purpose, a vessel shall be considered as a native vessel 
if she is either owned by a native, or fitted out or commanded b}^ a 
native, or if more than half of the crew are natives of the countries 
bordering on the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, or the 
Gulf of Oman. 

This provision does not apply to lighters or barges, nor to vessels 
which, without going more than five miles from the shore, are 
engaged exclusively in the coasting trade between different ports of 
the same State, Colony, Protectorate or territory under mandate, 
where warehouses are situated. 

No cargoes of arms or ammunition shall be shipped on the vessels 
specified in the preceding paragraph without a special licence from 
the territorial authority, and all arms or ammunition so shipped shall 
be subject to the provisions of the present Convention. 

This licence shall contain all details necessary to establish the 
nature and quantity of the items of the shipment, the vessel on 
whicn the shipment is to be loaded, the name of the ultimate con- 
signee, and the ports of loading and discharge. It shall also be 
specified thereon that the licence has been issued in conformity with 
the regulations of the present Convention. 

The above regulations do not apply : 

1. To arms or ammunition conveyed on behalf of the Govern- 
ment, provided that they are accompanied by a duly qualified 
official. 

2. To arms or ammunition in the possession of persons provided 
with a licence to carry arms, provided such arms are for the personal 
use of the bearer and are accurately described on his licence. 

Article 13. 

To prevent all illicit conveyance of arms or ammunition within the 
zone of maritime supervision specified in Article 6 (3)_, native vessels 
of less than 500 tons burden not exclusively engaged in the coasting 
trade between different ports of the same State, Colony, Protectorate 
or territory under mandate, not going more than five miles from the 
shore, and'proceeding to or from any point within the said zone, must 
carry a manifest of "their cargo or similar document specifying the 
quantities and nature of the goods on board, their origin and destina- 
tion. This document shall remain covered by the secrecy to which 
it is entitled by the law of the State to which the vessel belongs, and 
must not be examined during the proceedings for the verification of 
the flag unless the interested party consents thereto. 

The provisions as to the above-mentioned documents shall not 
apply to vessels only partially decked, having a maximum crew of ten 
men, and exclusively employed in fishing within territorial waters. 

Article 14. 

Authority to fly the flag of one of the High Contracting Parties 
within the zone of maritime supervision specified in Article 6 (3) 
shall be granted only to such native vessels as satisfy all the three 
following conditions : 

1. The owners must be nationals of the Power whose flag they 
claim to fly. 



PEACE TEEATIES. 35 

2. They must furnish proof that they possess real estate in the 
district of the authority to which their application is addressed, or 
must supply a solvent security as a guarantee for any fines to which 
they may become liable. 

3. Such owners, as well as the captain of the vessel, must furnish 
proof that they enjoy a good reputation, and especially that they 
have never been convicted of illicit conveyance of the articles referred 
to in the present Convention. 

The authorisation must be renewed every year. It shall contain 
the indications necessary to identify the vessel, the name, tonnage, 
type of rigging, principal dimensions, registered number, and signal 
letters. It shall bear the date on which is was granted and the status 
of the official who granted it. 

The name of the native vessel and the amount of her tonnage 
shall be incised and painted in Latin characters on the stern, and the 
initial letters of the name of the port of registry, as well as the 
registration number in the series of the numbers of that port, shall 
be painted in black on the sails. 

Article 15. 

Native vessels to w T hich, under the provisions of the last paragraph 
of Article 13, the regulations relating to the manifest of the cargo are 
not applicable, shall receive from the territorial or consular authori- 
ties, as the case may be, a special licence, renewable annually and 
revocable under the conditions provided for in Article 19. 

This special licence shall show the name of the vessel, her descrip- 
tion, nationality, port of registry, name of captain, name of owner 
and the waters in which she is allowed to sail. 

Article 16. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to apply the following rules 
in the maritime zone specified in Article 6 (3) : — 

1. When a warship belonging to one of the High Contracting 
Parties encounters outside territorial waters a native vessel of less 
than 500 tons burden flying the flag of one of the High Contracting 
Parties, and the commander of the warship has good reason to 
believe that the native vessel is flying this flag without being entitled 
to do so, for the purpose of the illicit conveyance of arms or ammuni- 
tion, he may proceed to verify the nationality of the vessel by 
examining the document authorising the flying of the flag, but no 
other papers. 

2. With this object, a boat commanded by a commissioned officer 
in uniform may be sent to visit the suspected vessel after she has 
been hailed to give notice of such intention. The officer sent on 
board the vessel shall act with all possible consideration and modera- 
tion; before leaving the vessel the officer shall draw up a prodes- 
verbal in the form and language in use in his own country. This 
proces-verbal shall state the facts of the case and shall be dated and 
signed by the officer. 

Should there be on board the warship no commissioned officer 
other than the commanding officer, the above-prescribed operations 



36 PEACE TREATIES. 

may be carried out by the warrant, petty, or non-commissioned 
officer highest in rank. 

The captain or master of the vessel visited, as well as the wit- 
nesses, shall be invited to sign the proces-verbal, and shall have the 
right to add to it any explanations which they may consider 
expedient. 

3. If the authorisation to fly the flag cannot be produced, or if 
this document is not in proper order, the vessel shall be conducted 
to the nearest port in the zone where there is a competent authority 
of the Power whose flag has been flown and shall be handed over to 
such authority. 

Should the nearest competent authority representing the Power 
whose flag the vessel has flown be at some port at such a distance 
from the point of arrest that the warship would have to leave her 
station or patrol to escort the captured vessel to that port, the fore- 
going regulation need not be carried out. In such a case, the vessel 
may be taken to the nearest port where there is a competent authority 
of one of the High Contracting Parties of nationality other than that 
of the warship, and steps shall at once be taken to notify the capture 
to the competent authority representing the Power concerned. 

No proceedings shall be taken against the vessel or her crew until 
the arrival of the representative of the Power whose flag the vessel 
was flying or without instructions from him. 

4. The procedure laid down in paragraph 3 may be followed if, 
after the verification of the flag and in spite of the production of the 
manifest, the commander of the warship continues to suspect the 
native vessel of engaging in the illicit conveyance of arms or ammuni- 
tion. 

The High Contracting Parties concerned shall appoint in the zone 
territorial or consular authorities or special representatives compe- 
tent to act in the foregoing cases, and shall notify their appointment 
to the Central Office and to the other Contracting Parties. 

The suspected vessel may also be handed over to a warship of the 
nation whose flag she has flown, if the latter consents to take charge 
of her. 

Article 17. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to communicate to the Central 
Office specimen forms of the documents mentioned in Articles 12, 13, 
14 and 15, as well as a detailed list of the licences granted in accord- 
ance with the provisions of this Chapter whenever such licences are 
granted. 

Article 18. 

The authority before whom the suspected vessel has been brought 
shall institute a full enquiry in accordance with the laws and rules 
of his country in the presence of an officer of the capturing warship. 

If it is proved at this enquiry that the flag has been illegally flown, 
the detained vessel shall remain at the disposal of the captor, and 
those responsible shall be brought before the courts of his country. 

If it should be established that the use of the flag by the detained 
vessel was correct, but that the vessel was engaged in the illicit con- 



PEACE TREATIES. 37 

veyance of arms or ammunition, those responsible shall be brought 
before the courts of the State under whose flag the vessel sailed. 
The vessel herself and her cargo shall remain in charge of the 
authority directing the inquiry. 

Article 19. 

Any illicit conveyance or attempted conveyance legally established 
against the captain or owner of a vessel authorised to fly the flag of 
one of the Signatory Powers or holding the licence provided for in 
Article 15 shall entail the immediate withdrawal of the said au- 
thorisation or licence. 

The High Contracting Parties will take the necessary measures to 
ensure that their territorial authorities or their consuls shall send to 
the Central Office certified copies of all authorisations to fly their flag 
as soon as such authorisations shall have been granted, as well as 
notice of withdrawal of any such authorisation. They also under- 
take to communicate to the said Office copies of the licences provided 
for under Article 15. 

Article 20. 

The commanding officer of a warship who may have detained a 
vessel flying a foreign flag shall in all cases make a report thereon 
to his Government, stating the grounds on which he acted. 

An extract from this report, together with a copy of the proces- 
verbal drawn up by the officer, warrant officer, petty or non-commis- 
sioned officer sent on board the vessel detained shall be Sent as soon 
as possible to the Central Office and at the same time to the Govern- 
ment whose flag the detained vessel was flying. 

Article 21. 

If the authority entrusted with the enquiry decides that the deten- 
tion and diversion of the vessel or the measures imposed upon her 
were irregular, he shall fix the amount of the compensation due. 
If the capturing officer, or the authorities to whom he is subject, do 
not accept the decision or contest the amount of the compensation 
awarded, the dispute shall be submitted to a court of arbitration 
consisting of one arbitrator appointed by the Government whose flag 
the vessel was flying, one appointed by the Government of the cap- 
turing officer, and an umpire chosen by the two arbitrators thus 
appointed. The two arbitrators shall be chosen, as far as possible, 
from among the diplomatic, consular or judicial officers of the High 
Contracting Parties. These appointments must be made with the 
least possible delay, and natives in the pay of the High Contracting 
Parties shall in no case be appointed. Any compensation awarded 
shall be paid to the person concerned within six months at most from 
the date of the award. 

The decision shall be communicated to the Central Office and to 
the Secretary-General of the League of Nations. 



38 PEACE TREATIES. 

CHAPTER V. 

General Provisions. 
Article 22. 

The High Contracting Parties who exercise authority over terri- 
tories within the prohibited areas and zone specified in Article 6 
agree to take, so far as each may be concerned, the measures required 
for the enforcement of the present Convention, and in particular for 
the prosecution and repression of offences against the provisions 
contained therein. 

They shall communicate these measures to the Central Office and 
to the Secretary-General of the League of Nations, and shall inform 
them of the competent authorities referred to in the preceding 
Articles. 

Article 23. 

The High Contracting Parties will use their best endeavours to 
secure the accession to the present Convention of other States 
Members of the League of Nations. 

This accession shall be notified through the diplomatic channel to 
the Government of the French Republic, and by it to all the signa- 
tory or adhering States. The accession will come into force from 
the date of such notification to the French Government. 

Article 24. 

The High Contracting Parties agree that if any dispute whatever 
should arise between them relating to the application of the present 
Convention which cannot be settled by negotiation, this dispute shall 
be submitted to an arbitral tribunal in conformity with the provisions 
of the Covenant of the League of Nations. 

Article 25. 

All the provisions of former general international Conventions, 
relating to the matters dealt with in the present Convention, shall be 
considered as abrogated in so far as they are binding between the 
Powers which are Parties to the present Convention. 

Article 26. 

The present Convention shall be ratified as soon as possible. 

Each Power will address its ratification to the French Govern- 
ment, who will inform all the other signatory Powers. 

The ratifications will remain deposited in the archives of the 
French Government. 

The present Convention shall come into force for each Signatory 
Power from the date of the deposit of its ratification, and from that 
moment that Power will be bound in respect of other Powers which 
have already deposited their ratifications. 



PEACE TREATIES. 39 

On the coming into force of the present Convention, the French 
Government will transmit a certified copy to the Powers which under 
the Treaties of Peace have undertaken to accept and observe it, and 
are in consequence placed in the same position as the Contracting 
Parties. The names of these Powers will be notified to the States 
which accede. 

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed 
the present Convention. 

Done at Paris, 1 the tenth day of September, one thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen, in a single copy which will remain deposited 
in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, and of 
which authentic copies will be sent to each of the Signatory Powers. 

PROTOCOL. 

At the moment of signing the Convention of even date relating 
to the trade in arms and ammunition, the undersigned Pleni- 
potentiaries declare in the name of their respective Governments that 
they would regard it as contrary to the intention of the High Con- 
tracting Parties and to the spirit of this Convention that, pending 
the coming into force of the Convention, a Contracting Party should 
adopt airy measure which is contrary to its provisions. 

Done at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1 in a single copy, the tenth day 
of September, one thousand nine hundred and nineteen. 

1 Some of the signatures were affixed in Paris and some at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. 



TREATY BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED 
POWERS AND ROUMANIA. 

Signed at Paris, December 9, 1919. 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH 
EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, AND JAPAN, 

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers, 

on the one hand ; 
And ROUMANIA, 

on the other hand; 
Whereas under Treaties to which the Principal Allied and 
Associated Powers are parties large accessions of territory are being 
and will be made to the Kingdom of Roumania, and 

Whereas Roumania desires of her own free will to give full 
guarantees of liberty and justice to all inhabitants both of the old 
Kingdom of Roumania and of the territory added thereto, to 
whatever race, language or religion they may belong, and 1 

Have, after examining the question together, agreed to conclude 
the present Treaty, and for this purpose have appointed as their 
Plenipotentiaries, the following, reserving the right of substituting 
others to sign the Treaty : 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: 
The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under-Secretary of State; 
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador Extraor- 
dinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome and 
Paris ; 
General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United 
States on the Supreme War Council ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE 
BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EM- 
PEROR OF INDIA : 

Sir Eyre Crowe, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Minister Plenipotentiary, 

Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs : 
And 
for the DOMINION of CANADA : 
The Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, K.C.M.G., High 
Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom; 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA: 

The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for 
Australia in the United Kingdom; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND : 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K.C.M.G., High 
Commissioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 

1 This word is an obvious error in the text. 
40 



PEACE TREATIES. 41 

for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA : 

Mr. Reginald Andrew Blankenberg, O.B.E., Acting High 
Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United 
Kingdom ; 
for INDIA : 

Sir Eyre Crowe, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC : 

Mr. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council. Minister of 

War; 
Mr. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
Mr. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance; 
Mr. Andre Tardieu, Minister for the liberated regions ; 
Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY : 

Sir Giacomo de Martino, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN : 

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of H.M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA : 

General Constantin Coanda, Corps Commander, A.D.C. to the 
King, formerly President of the Council of Ministers ; 
WHO HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS : 

CHAPTER I. 

Article 1. 

Roumania undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 2 
to 8 of this Chapter shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and 
that no law, regulation or official action shall conflict or interfere 
with these stipulations, nor shall any law, regulation or official action 
prevail over them. 

Article 2. 

Roumania undertakes to assure full and complete protection of 
life and liberty to all inhabitants of Roumania without distinction of 
birth, nationality, language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants of Roumania shall be entitled to the free exercise, 
whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief, whose 
practices are not inconsistent with public order and public morals. 

Article 3. 

Subject to the special provisions of the Treaties mentioned below, 
Roumania admits and declares to be Roumanian nationals ipso facto 
and without the requirement of any formality all persons habitually 
resident at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty 
within the whole territory of Roumania, including the extensions 
made by the Treaties of Peace with Austria and Hungary, or any 
other extensions which may hereafter be made, if such persons are 
not at that date nationals of a foreign state other than Austria or 
Hungary. 



42 PEACE TREATIES. 

Nevertheless, Austrian and Hungarian nationals who are over 
eighteen years of age will be entitled under the conditions contained 
in the said Treaties to opt for any other nationality which may be 
open to them. Option by a husband will cover his wife and option 
by parents will cover their children under eighteen years of age. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within 
the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the 
State for which they have opted. They will be entitled to retain 
their immovable property in Roumanian territory. They may cany 
with them their movable property of every description. No export 
duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of 
such property. 

Article 4. 

Roumania admits and declares to be Roumanian nationals ipso 
facto and without the requirement of any formality persons of 
Austrian x Hungarian nationality who were born in the territory 
transferred to Roumania by the Treaties of Peace with Austria and 
Hungary, or subsequently transferred to her. of parents habitually 
resident there, even if at the date of the coming into force of the 
present Treaty they are not themselves habitually resident there. 

Nevertheless, within two years after the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, these persons may make a declaration before the 
competent Roumanian authorities in the country in which they are 
resident, stating that they abandon Roumanian nationality, and 
they will then cease to be considered as Roumanian nationals. In this 
connection a declaration by a husband will cover his wife, and a 
declaration by parents will cover their children under eighteen years 
of age. 

Article 5. 

Roumania undertakes to put no hindrance in the way of the exer- 
cise of the right which the persons concerned have, under the Treaties 
concluded or to be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers 
with Austria or Hungary, to choose whether or not they will acquire 
Roumanian nationality. 

Article 6. 

All persons born in Roumanian territory who are not born na- 
tionals of another State shall ipso facto became Roumanian nationals. 

Article 7. 

Roumania undertakes to recognise as Roumanian nationals ipso 
facto and without the requirement of any formality Jews inhabiting 
any Roumanian territory, who do not possess another nationality. 

Article 8. 

All Roumanian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall 
enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to 
race, language or religion. 



1 The word " or " is evidently omitted here. 



PEACE TREATIES. 43 

Differences of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any 
Roumanian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or 
political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, 
functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries. 
No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Roumanian 
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in 
religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public 
meetings. 

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Roumanian Govern- 
ment of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to 
Roumanian nationals of non-Roumanian speech for the use of their 
language, either orally or in writing, before the courts. 

Article 9. 

Roumanian nationals Avho belong to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in 
fact as the other Roumanian nationals. In particular they shall 
have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own 
expense charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other 
educational establishments, with the right to use their own language 
and to exercise their religion freely therein. 

Article 10. 

Roumania will provide in the public educational system in towns 
and districts in which a considerable proportion of Roumanian 
nationals of other than Roumanian speech are resident adequate 
facilities for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction 
shall be given to the children of such Roumanian nationals through 
the medium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent 
the Roumanian Government from making the teaching of the 
Roumanian language obligatory in the said schools. 

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of 
Roumanian nationals belonging to racial, religious or linguistic mi- 
norities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the 
enjoyment and application of the sums which may be provided out 
of public funds under the State, municipal or other budget, for educa- 
tional, religious or charitable purposes. 

Article 11. 

Roumania agrees to accord to the communities of the Saxons and 
Czecklers in Transylvania local autonomy in regard to scholastic and 
religious matters, subject to the control of the Roumanian State. 

Article 12. 

Roumania agrees that the stipulations in the foregoing Articles, 
so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities, constitute obligations of international concern and shall 
be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. They shall 
not be modified without the assent of a majority of the Council of the 



44 PEACE TREATIES. 

League of Nations. The United States, the British Empire, France, 
Italy and Japan hereby agree not to withhold their assent from any 
modification in these Articles which is in due form assented to by a 
majority of the Council of the League of Nations. 

Roumania agrees that any Member of the Council of the League 
of Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Coun- 
cil any infraction, or any danger of infraction, of any of these 
obligations, and that the Council may thereupon take such action 
and give such direction as it may deem proper and effective in the 
circumstances. 

Roumania further agrees that any difference of opinion a.s to ques- 
tions of law or fact arising out of these Articles between the Rouma- 
nian Government and any one of the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the League 
of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character 
under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. Rou- 
mania hereby consents that any such dispute shall, if the other party 
thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent Court of International 
Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court shall be final and shall 
have the same force and effect as an award under Article 13 of the 
Covenant. 

CHAPTER II. 

Article 13. 

Roumania undertakes to make no treaty, convention or arrange- 
ment and to take no other action which will prevent her from joining 
in any general convention for the equitable treatment of the com- 
merce of other States that may be concluded under the auspices of 
the League of Nations within five years from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty. 

Roumania also undertakes to extend to all the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers any favours or privileges in Customs matters which 
she may grant during the same period of five years to any State with 
which since August, 1914, the Allied and Associated Powers have 
been at war. or to any State which in virtue of Article 222 of the 
Treaty with Austria has special Customs arrangements with such 
States. 

Article 14. 

Pending the conclusion of the general convention referred to 
above, Roumania undertakes to treat on the same footing as national 
vessels or vessels of the most favoured nation the vessels of all the 
Allied and Associated Powers which accord similar treatment to 
Roumanian vessels. As an exception from this provision, the right 
of Roumania or of any other Allied or Associated Power to confine 
her maritime coasting trade to national vessels is expressly reserved. 

Article 15. 

Pending the conclusion under the auspices of the League of 
Nations of a general convention to secure and maintain freedom of 
communications and of transit. Roumania undertakes to accord 



PEACE TREATIES. 45 

freedom of transit to persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and 
mails in transit to or from any Allied or Associated State over 
Roumanian territory, including territorial waters, and to treat them 
at least as favourably as the persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons 
and mails respectively of Roumanian or of any other more favoured 
nationality, origin, importation or ownership, as regards facilities, 
charges, restrictions and all other matters. 

All charges imposed in Roumania on such traffic in transit shall be 
reasonable having regard to the conditions of the traffic. Goods in 
transit shall be exempt from all customs or other duties. 

Tariffs for transit across Roumania and tariffs between Roumania 
and any Allied or Associated Power involving through tickets or 
waybills shall be established at the request of the Allied or Asso- 
ciated Power concerned. 

Freedom of transit will extend to postal, telegraphic and telephonic 
services. 

Provided that no Allied or Associated Power can claim the benefit 
of these provisions on behalf of any part of its territory in which 
reciprocal treatment is not accorded in respect of the same subject- 
matter. 

If within a period of five years from the coming into force of this 
Treaty no general convention as aforesaid shall have been concluded 
under the auspices of the League of Nations, Roumania shall be at 
liberty at any time thereafter to give twelve months' notice to the 
Secretary-General of the League of Nations to terminate the obliga- 
tions of the present Article. 

Article 16. 

Pending the conclusion of a general convention on the international 
regime of waterways, Roumania undertakes to apply to such por- 
tions of the river system of the Pruth as may lie within, or form the 
boundary of, her territory, the regime set out in the first paragraph 
of Article 332 and in Articles 333 to 338 of the Treaty of Peace with 
Germany. 

Article 17. 

All rights and privileges accorded by the foregoing Articles to 
the Allied and Associated Powers shall be accorded equally to all 
States Members of the League of Nations. 

The present Treaty, in French, in English and in Italian, of 
which in case of divergence the French text shall prevail, shall be 
ratified. It shall come into force at the same time as the Treaty of 
Peace with Austria. 

The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris. 

Powers of which the seat of Government is outside Europe will 
be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French Republic 
through their diplomatic representative at Paris that their ratifica- 
tion has been given; in that case they must transmit the instrument 
of ratification as soon as possible. 

A proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn up. 

The French Government will transmit to all signatory Powers a 
certified copy of the proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications. 



46 



PEACE TREATIES. 



DONE at Paris, the ninth day of December one thousand nine 
hundred and nineteen in a single copy which will remain deposited 
in the archives of the Government of the French Republic, and of 
which authenticated copies will be transmitted to each of the Signa- 
tory Powers. 

Plenipotentiaries who in consequence of their temporary absence 
from Paris have not signed the present Treaty may do so up to 
December 20, 1919. 

IN FAITH WHEREOF the hereinafter-named Plenipotentiaries, 
whose powers have been found, in good and due form, have signed 
the present Treaty. 

(L. S.) FRANK L. POLK. 

(L.S.) HENRY WHITE. 

(L.S.) TASKER H. BLISS. 

(L. S.) EYRE A. CROWE. 

(L. S.) GEORGE H. PERLEY. 

(L. S.) ANDREW FISHER. 

(L. S.) TH( )MAS MACKENZIE. 

(L. S.) R. A. BLANKENBERG. 

(L.S.) EYRE A. CROWE. 

(L. S.) G. CLEMENCEAU. 

(L.S.) S. PICHON. 

(L. S.) L. L. KLOTZ. 

(L.S.) ANDRE TARDIEU. 

(L. S.) JULES CAMBON. 

(L.S.) G. DE MARTINO. 

(L.S.) K. MATSUI. 

(L.S.) Gl. C. COANDA. 



TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL ALLIED AND ASSO- 
CIATED POWERS AND BULGARIA AND PROTOCOL. 

Signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine, November 27, 1919. 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH 
EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, 

These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers; 

BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA. GREECE, THE HEDJAZ, PO- 
LAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLO- 
VENE STATE, SIAM and CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 

These Powers constituting, with the Principal Powers mentioned 
above, the Allied and Associated Powers, 
of the one part; 
And BULGARIA, 

of the other part; 
Whereas on the request of the Royal Government of Bulgaria an 
Armistice was granted to Bulgaria on September 29, 1918, by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers in order that a Treaty of 
Peace might be concluded, and 

Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers are equally desirous 
that the war in which certain among them were successively involved, 
directl} 7 or indirectly, against Bulgaria, and which originated in the 
declaration of war against Serbia on July 28, 1914, by Austria-Hun- 
gary, and in the hostilities opened by Bulgaria against Serbia on 
October 11, 1915, and conducted by Germany in alliance with Aus- 
tria-Hungary, with Turkey and with Bulgaria, should be replaced 
by a firm, -just and durable Peace, 

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have 
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : 
The Honourable Frank Lyon Polk, Under Secretary of State ; 
The Honourable Henry White, formerly Ambassador Extraordi- 
nary and Plenipotentiary of the United States at Rome and 
Paris ; 
General Tasker H. Bliss, Military Representative of the United 
States on the Supreme War Council; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE 
BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR 
OF INDIA : 
Mr. Cecil Harmsworth, M. P., Under-Secretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs; 
Sir Eyre Crowe, K. C. B., K. C. M. G., Minister Plenipotentiary, 
Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; 

47 



48 PEACE TREATIES. 

And: 
for the DOMINION OF CANADA : 
The Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, K. C. M. G., High 
Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom ; 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA : 
The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for 
Australia in the United Kingdom ; 
for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA: 
Mr. Reginald Andrew Blankenberg, O. B. E., Acting High Com- 
missioner for the Union of South Africa in the United Kingdom ; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND: 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, K. C. M. G., High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 
for INDIA: 

Sir Eyre Crowe, K. C. B., K. C. M. G. ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC; 

Mr. Georges Clemenceau, President of the Council, Minister of 

War; 
Mr. Stephen Pichon, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
Mr. Louis-Lucien Klotz, Minister of Finance ; 
Mr. Andre Tardieu, Commissary General for Franco-American 

Military Affairs; 
Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY: 
The Honourable Maggiorino Ferraris, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
The Honourable Guglielmo Marconi, Senator of the Kingdom ; 
Sir Giacomo de Martino, Envoy extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN : 

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris : 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS: 

Mr. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary, Minister of State; 
Mr. Rolin- Jaequemyns, Member of the Institute of Private Inter- 
national Law, Secretary-General of the Belgian Delegation; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC : 
Mr. Vikyuin Wellington Koo; 
Mr. Sao-ke Alfred Sze; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC : 

Dr. Rafael Martinez Ortiz, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the Cuban Republic at Paris ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES: 

Mr. Eleftherios Veniselos, President of the Council of Ministers ; 
Mr. Nicolas Politis, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HEDJAZ : 
Mr. Rustem Haidar; 
Mr. Abdul Hadi Aouni; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC: 
Mr. Ladislas Grabski; 
Mr. Stanislas Patek, Minister Plenipotentiary; 



PEACE TREATIES. 49 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC : 
Dr. Alfonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of Min- 
isters; 
Mr. Jayme Batalha Rets, Minister Plenipotentiary ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA : 

Mr. Victor Antonesco, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister pleni- 

potentiary of H. M. the King of Roumania at Paris ; 
General Constantin Coanda, Corps Commander, A. D. C. to the 
King, formerly President of the Council of Ministers ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS, 

AND THE SLOVENES : 
Mr. Nicolas P. Pachitch, formerly President of the Council of 
Ministers ; 
Mr. Ante Trttmbic, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Ivan Zolger, Doctor of Law; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF SIAM: 

His Highness Prince Ciiaroon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Siam at Paris ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC: 
Mr. Eduarcl Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Stephen Osusky, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentia^ of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London ; 
BULGARIA: 

Mr. Alexander Stamboeiiski, President of the Council of Min- 
isters, Minister of War ; 
WHO, having communicated their full powers, found in good and 
due form, have AGREED AS FOLLOWS : 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war 
will terminate. 

From that moment, and subject to the provisions of the present 
Treaty, official relations will exist between the Allied and Associated 
Powers and Bulgaria. 

PART I.— THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF 

NATIONS. 

The High Contracting Parties, 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve 
international peace and security 

by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, 
by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations be- 
tween nations, 
by the firm establishment of the understandings of international 

law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and 
by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all 
treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with 
one another, 
Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations. 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 4 



50 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 1. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of 
the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and 
also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede 
without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be 
effected by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two 
months of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof 
shall be sent to all other Members of the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named in 
the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is 
agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided that it shall give 
effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its interna- 
tional obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be 
prescribed by the League in regard to its military, naval and air 
forces and armaments. 

Any Member of the League may. after two years' notice of its 
intention so to do. withdraw from the League, provided that all its 
international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant 
shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

Article 2. 

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected 
through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with 
a permanent Secretariat. 

Article 3. 

The Assembly shall consist of Eepresentatives of the Members of 
the League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time to 
time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at such 
other place as may be decided upon. 

The Assembly "may deal at its meeting with any matter within 
the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League shall have 
one vote, and may have not more than three Representatives. 

Article 4. 

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four 
other Members of the League. These four Members of the League 
shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. 
Until the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members 
of the League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of Bel- 
gium, Brazil, Spain and Greece shall be members of the Council. 
' With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council 
may name additional Members of the League whose Representatives 
shall always be members of the Council ; the Council with like ap- 
proval may increase the number of Members of the League to be se- 
lected by the Assembly for representation on the Council. 



PEACE TREATIES. 51 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, 
and at least once a year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other 
place as may be decided upon. 

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the 
sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be 
invited to send a Representative to sit as a member at any meeting of 
the Council during the consideration of matters specially affecting the 
interests of that Member of the League. 

At meetings of the Council, each Member of the League represented 
on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than one 
Representative. 

Article 5. 

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by 
the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meeting of the As- 
sembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the Mem- 
bers of the League represented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the 
Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate 
particular matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the 
Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members of the 
League represented at the meeting. 

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of the 
Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States 
of America. 

Article 6. 

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the 
League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary General and 
such secretaries and staff as may be required. 

The first Secretary General shall be the person named in the 
Anne::; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed by the 
Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly. 

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed 
by the Secretary General with the approval of the Council. 

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings 
of the Assembly and of the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members 
of the League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses 
of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. 

Article 7. 

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League 
shall be established elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connection with the League, including 
the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. 

Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of the 
League, when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy 
diplomatic privileges and immunities. 



52 PEACE TREATIES. 

The buildings and other property occupied by the League or its 
officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be in- 
violable. 

Article 8. 

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of 
peace requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest 
point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by com- 
mon action of international obligations. 

The Council, taking account of the geographical situation and 
circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduc- 
tion for the consideration and action of the several Governments. 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least 
every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Govern- 
ments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded 
without the concurrence of the Council. 

The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private 
enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave 
objections. The Council shall advise how the evil effects attendant 
upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to 
the necessities of those Members of the League which are not able 
to manufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for 
their safety. 

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and 
frank information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, 
naval and air programmes and the condition of such of their in- 
dustries as are adaptable to war-like purposes. 

Article 9. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the 
Council on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and 
on military, naval and air questions generally. 

Article 10. 

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as 
against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing 
political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any 
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression 
the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation 
shall be fulfilled. 

Article 11. 

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of 
the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of 
concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action 
that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of 
nations. In case any such emergency should arise the Secretary 
General shall on the request of any Member of the Leae-np forthwith 
summon a meeting; of the Council. 



PEACE TREATIES. 53 

It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of 
the League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the 
Council any circumstance whatever affecting international relations 
which threatens to disturb international peace or the good under- 
standing between nations upon which peace depends. 

Article 12. 

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise be- 
tween them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will sub- 
mit the matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, 
and they agree in no case to resort to war until three months after 
the award by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. 

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall 
be made within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council 
shall be made within six months after the submission of the dispute. 

Article 13. 

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute 
shall arise between them which they recognise to be suitable for sub- 
mission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled 
by diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbi- 
tration. 

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of 
international law. as to the existence of any fact which if established 
would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the 
extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any such breach, 
are declared to be among those which are generally suitable for 
submission to arbitration. 

For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration 
to which the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on by the 
parties to the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing between 
them. 

The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full 
good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not 
resort to war against a Member of the League which complies there- 
with. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award, the 
Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto. 

Article 14. 

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the 
League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent 
Court of International Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear 
and determine any dispute of an international character which the 
parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an advisory 
opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council or 
by the Assembly. 

Article 15. 

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute 
likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration in 
accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that 



54 PEACE TREATIES. 

they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute 
may effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the 
dispute to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary arrange- 
ments for a full investigation and consideration thereof. 

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to the 
Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their case 
with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may forthwith 
direct the publication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, 
and if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public 
giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the 
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously 
or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a 
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which 
are deemed just and proper in regard thereto. 

Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make 
public a statement of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions 
regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members 
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties 
to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not 
go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with the 
recommendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed 
to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of one or 
more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve 
to themselves the right to take such action as they shall consider neces- 
sary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is 
found by the Council, to arise out of a matter which by international 
law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the Coun- 
cil shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its 
settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute 
to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of 
either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within 
fourteen days after the submission of the dispute to the Council. 

In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of this Arti- 
cle and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the Council 
shall apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, provided that 
a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in by the Representatives 
of those Members of the League represented on the Council and of a 
majority of the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case 
of the Representatives of the parties to the dispute, shall have the 
same force as a report by the Council concurred in by all the members 
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties 
to the dispute. 

Article 16. 

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its 
covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to 
have committed an act of war against all other Members of the League, 
which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to severance of all 



PEACE TREATIES. 55 

trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between 
their nationals and the nationals of the covenant-breaking State, and 
the prevention of all financial, commercial or personal intercourse 
between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nation- 
als of any other State, whether a Member of the League or not. 

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the 
several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or air 
force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the 
armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League. 

The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually 
support one another in the financial and economic measures which are 
taken under this Article, in order to minimise the loss and incon- 
venience resulting from the above measures, and that they will mu- 
tually support one another in resisting any special measures aimed 
at one of their number by the covenant-breaking State, and that they 
will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory 
to the forces of any of the Members of the League which are co-operat- 
ing to protect the covenants of the League. 

An}' Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the 
League may be declared to be no longer a Member of the League by 
a vote of the Council concurred in by the Representatives of all the 
other Members of the League represented thereon. 

Article IT. 

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a 
State which is not a Member of the League, or between States not 
Members of the League, the State or States not Members of the 
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in 
the League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as 
the Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the pro- 
visions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such 
modifications as may be deemed necessary by the Council. 

Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately 
institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recom- 
mend such action as may seem best and most effectual in the circum- 
stances. 

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of mem- 
bership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall re- 
sort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions of Article 
16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such action. 

If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the 
obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such 
dispute, the Council may take such measures and make such recom- 
mendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settle- 
ment of the dispute. 

Article 18. 

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter 
by any Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the 
Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No such 
treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so regis- 
tered. 



56 peace treaties. 

Article 19. 

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by 
Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable 
and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance 
might endanger the peace of the world. 

Article 20. 

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant 
is accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se 
which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly under- 
take that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements incon- 
sistent with the terms thereof. 

In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Mem- 
ber of the League, have undertaken any obligations inconsistent with 
the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to 
take immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations. 

Article 21. 

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of 
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional 
understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the mainte- 
nance of peace. 

Article 22. 

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the 
late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which 
formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet 
able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the 
modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well- 
being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisa- 
tion and that securities for the performance of this trust should 
be embodied in this Covenant. 

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that 
the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations 
wko by reason of their resources, their experience or their geo- 
graphical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who 
are willing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised 
by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage 
of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the 
territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. 

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire 
have reached a stage of development where their existence as inde- 
pendent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the render- 
ing of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until 
such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these com- 
munities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the 
Mandatory. 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a 
stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration 
of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of 



PEACE TREATIES. 57 

conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public 
order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, 
the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the 
establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of 
military training of the natives for other than police purposes and 
the defence of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for 
the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. 

There are territories, such as South- West Africa an<? certain of the 
South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their popula- 
tion, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of 
civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the 
Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under 
the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, sub- 
ject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interest of the in- 
digenous population. 

In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Coun- 
cil an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its 
charge. 

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised 
by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Mem- 
bers of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and ex- 
amine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Coun- 
cil on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates. 

Article 23. 

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international 
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of 
the League : 

(a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane con- 
ditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their 
own countries and in all countries to which their commercial 
and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will 
establish and maintain the necessary international organisa- 
tions ; 

(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants 
of territories under their control ; 

(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over the 
execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women 
and children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous 
drugs ; 

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the 
trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the 
control of this traffic is necessary in the common interest ; 

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of com- 
munications and of transit and equitable treatment for the 
commerce of all Members of the League. In this connection, 
the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war 
of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind ; 

(/) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international con- 
cern for the prevention and control of disease. 



58 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 24. 

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all inter- 
national bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties 
to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all com- 
missions for the regulation of matters of international interest here- 
after constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League. 

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by 
general conventions but which are not placed under the control of 
international bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League 
shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the 
parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall 
render any other assistance which may be necessary or desirable. 

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat 
the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the 
direction of the League. 

Article 25. 

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the 
establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary na- 
tional Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement 
of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering 
throughout the world. 

Article 26. 

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the 
Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council 
and by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representa- 
tives compose the Assembly. 

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which 
signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a 
Member of the League. 

Annex. 

I. original members of the league of nations. 

United States of America. Haiti. 

Belgium. Hedjaz. 

Bolivia. Honduras. 

Brazil. Italy. 

British Empire. Japan. 

Canada. Liberia. 

Australia. Nicaragua. 

South Africa. Panama. 

New Zealand. Peru. 

India. Poland. 

China. Portugal. 

Cuba. Roumania. 

Ecuador. Serb- Groat- Slovene State. 

France. Siam. 

Greece. Czecho-Slovakia. 

Guatemala. T ] ruguay. 



peace treaties. 59 

states invited to accede to the covenant. 

Argentine Republic. Persia. 

Chili. Salvador. 

Colombia. Spain. 

Denmark. Sweden. 

Netherlands. Switzerland. 

Norway. Venezuela. 
Paraguay. 

ii. first secretary general of the league of nations. 

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K. C. M. G., C. B. 

PART II.— FRONTIERS OF BULGARIA. 

Article 27. 

The frontiers of Bulgaria shall be fixed as follows (see annexed 
Map) : 

1. With the Serb -Croat-Slovene State: 

From the confluence of the Timok and the Danube, which is the 
point common to the three frontiers of Bulgaria, Roumania and the 
Serb-Croat- Slovene State southwards to a point to be selected on 
the course of the Timok near point 38 west of Bregovo, 

the course of the Timok upstream ; 

thence south-westwards to the point east of Vk. Izvor, where the 
old frontier between Serbia and Bulgaria meets the river Bezdanica, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through points 274 and 
367, following generally the watershed between the basins of the 
Timok on the north-west and the Delejna and Topolovitsa on the 
south-east, leaving to the Serb-Croat- Slovene State Kojilovo, Sipi- 
kovo and Halovo with the road connecting the two latter places, and 
to Bulgaria Bregovo, Rakitnica and Kosovo; 

thence southwards to point 1720. about 12 kilometres west-south- 
west of Berkovitsa. 

the old frontier between Bulgaria and Serbia ; 

thence south-eastwards for about H kilometres to point 1929 
( Srebrena gl. ) . 

a line to be fixed on the crest of the Kom Balkan ; 

thence south-south-westwards to point 1109, on the Vidlic Gora 
south of Vlkovija. 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through points 1602 and 
1344, passing east of Grn. Krivodol and crossing the river Kom- 
stica about 1^ kilometres above Dl. Krivodol ; 

thence to a point on the Tsaribrod-Sofiya road immediately west 
of its junction with the road to Kalotina, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Mozgos, west of 
Staninci, east of Brebevnica and through point 738 north-east of 
Lipinci : 

thence west-south-westwards to a point to be selected on the 
course of the river Lukavica about 1,100 metres north-east of 
Slivnica, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 



60 PEACE TREATIES. 

thence southwards to the confluence, west of Visan, of the Lubi- 
vica with the stream on which Dl. Nevlja is situated, 

the course of the Lukavica upstream ; 

thence south-westwards to the confluence of a stream with the 
Jablanica, west of Vrabca, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 879 and 
cutting the road from Trn to Tsaribrod immediately south of the 
junction of this road with the direct road from Trn to Pirot ; 

thence northwards to the confluence of the Jablanica and the 
Jerma (Trnska), 

the course of the Jablanica ; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected on the old frontier at 
the salient near Descani Kladenac, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following the crest of the Ruj 
Planina and passing through points 1199, 1466 and 1706; 

thence south-westwards to point 1516 (Golema Rudina) about IT 
kilometres west of Trn, 

the old Serb-Bulgarian frontier ; 

thence southwards to a point to be selected on the river Jerma 
(Trnska) east of Strezimirovci, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence southwards to the river Dragovishtitsa immediately below 
the confluence of rivers near point 672, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Dzineovci. through 
points 1112 and 1329, following the watershed between the basins of 
the rivers Bozicka and Meljanska and passing through points 1731, 
1671, 1730 and 1058; 

thence south-westwards to the old Serb-Bulgarian frontier at point 
1333, about 10 kilometres north-west of the point where the road 
from Kriva (Egri), Palanka to Kyustendil cuts this frontier, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following the watershed between 
the Dragovishtitsa on the north-west and the Lomnica and Sovolstica 
on the south-east ; 

thence south-eastwards to point 1445 on the Males Planina south- 
west of Dobrilaka, 

the old Serb-Bulgarian frontier ; 

thence south-south-westwards to Tumba (point 1253) on the Bela- 
shitza Planina, the point of junction of the three frontiers of Greece, 
Bulgaria and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 1600 on the 
Ograjden Planina, passing east of Stinek and Badilen, west of 
Bajkovo, cutting the Strumitsa about 3 kilometres east of point 177, 
and passing east of Gabrinovo. 

2. With Greece: 

From the point defined above eastwards to the point where it 
leaves the watershed between the basins of the Mesta-Karasu on the 
south and the Maritsa (Marica) on the north near point 1587 
(Dibikli), 

the frontier of 1913 between Bulgaria and Greece, 

3. On the South, with territories ivhich shall he subsequently 
attributed by the Principal Allied and Associated Poioers: 

Thence eastwards to point 1295 situated about 18 kilometres west 
of Kuchuk-Derbend, 



PEACE TREATIES. Gl 

a line to be fixed on the ground following the watershed between 
the basin of the Maritsa on the north, and the basins of the Mesta 
Karasu and the other rivers which flow directly into the Aegean Sea 
on the south; 

thence eastwards to a point to be chosen on the frontier of 1913 
between Bulgaria and Turkey about 4 kilometres north of Kuchuk- 
Derbend, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following as nearly as possible the 
crest line forming the southern limit of the basin or the Akcehisar 
(Dzuma) Suju; 

thence northwards to the point where it meets the river Maritsa, 

the frontier of 1913; 

thence to a point to be chosen about 3 kilometers below the railway 
station of Hadi-K. (Kadikoj), 

the principal course of the Maritsa downstream; 

thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the apex of the salient 
formed by the frontier of the Treaty of Sofia, 1915, about 10 kilo- 
metres east-south-east of Jisr Mustafa Pasha, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence eastwards to the Black Sen. 

the frontier of the Treaty of Sofia, 1915, then the frontier of 1913. 

4. The Black Sea. 

5. With Roumania: 

From the Black >3ea to the Danube. 

the frontier existing on August 1, 1914; 

thence to the confluence of the Timok and the Danube, 

the principal channel of navigation of the Danube upstream. 

Article 28. 

The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced, for such 
parts as are defined, on the one in a million map attached to the 
present Treaty. In case of differences between the text and the map, 
the text will prevail. 

Article 29. 

Boundaiy Commissions, whose composition is or will be fixed 
in the present Treaty or any other Treaty between the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers and the, or any, interested Powers, 
will have to trace these frontiers on the ground. 

They shall have the power, not only of fixing those portions which 
are defined as " a line to be fixed on the ground," but also, where a 
request to that effect is made by one of the Powers concerned, and 
the Commission is satisfied that it is desirable to do so, of revising 
portions defined by administrative boundaries; this shall not how- 
ever apply in the case of international frontiers existing in August, 
1914, where the task of the Commission will confine itself to the re- 
establishment of sign-posts and boundary-marks. They shall en- 
deavour in both cases to follow as nearly as possible the descriptions 
given in the Treaties, taking into account as far as possible admin- 
istrative boundaries and local economic interests. 

The decisions of the Commissions will be taken by a majority, and 
shall be binding on the parties concerned. 



62 PEACE TKEATIES. 

The expenses of the Boundary Commissions shall be borne in 
equal shares by the two States concerned. 

Article 30. 

In so far as frontiers defined by a waterway are concerned, the 
phrases " course " or " channel " used in the descriptions of the present 
Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the median line of 
the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as regards navigable 
rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. It 
will rest witli the Boundary Commissions provided for by the present 
Treaty to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any changes 
of the course or channel which may take place, or whether it shall 
be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the 
time when the present Treaty comes into force. 

Article 31. 

The various Powers interested undertake to furnish to the Com- 
missions all documents necessary for their tasks, especially authentic 
copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale 
maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, 
and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. 

They also undertake to instruct the local authorities to communi- 
cate to the Commissions all documents, especially plans, cadastral 
and land books, and to furnish on demand all details regarding 
property, existing economic conditions, and other necessary in- 
formation. 

Article 32. 

The various Powers interested undertake to give every assistance 
to the Boundary Commissions, whether directly or through local 
authorities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, 
labour, material (signposts, boundary pillars) necessary for the 
accomplishment of their mission. 

Article 33. 

The various Powers interested undertake to safeguard the trigo- 
nometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by the 
Commissions. 

Article 34. 

The pillars will be placed so as to be intorvisible : they will be 
numbered, and their position and their number will be noted on a 
cartographic document. 

Article 35. 

The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents 
attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies 
will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe Powers and 
the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will de- 
liver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty. 



PEACE TREATIES. 63 

PART III.— POLITICAL CLAUSES. 

Section I. — Serb- Croat- Slovene State. 

Article 36. 

Bulgaria, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied 
and Associated Powers, recognizes the Serb-Croat- Slovene State. 

Article 37. 

Bulgaria renounces in favour of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State all 
rights and title over the territories of the Bulgarian Monarchy situ- 
ated outside the frontiers of Bulgaria as laid down in Article 27, 
Part II (Frontiers of Bulgaria), and recognized by the present 
Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the purpose of completing 
the present settlement, as forming part of the Serb-Croat- Slovene 
State. 

Article 38. 

A Commission consisting of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by the Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State, and one by Bulgaria, shall be constituted within fifteen 
days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the 
spot the frontier line described in Article 27 (1), Part II (Frontiers 
of Bulgaria). 

Article 39. 

Bulgarian nationals habitually resident in the territories assigned 
to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State will acquire Serb- Croat- Slovene 
nationality ipso facto and will lose their Bulgarian nationality. 

Bulgarian nationals, however, who became resident in these terri- 
tories after January 1, 1913, will not acquire Serb-Croat-Slovene 
nationality without a permit from the Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 40. 

Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, Bulgarian nationals over 18 years of age and habitu- 
ally resident in the territories which are assigned to the Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State in accordance with the present Treaty will be entitled 
to opt for their former nationality. Serb-Croat-Slovenes over 18 
years of age who are Bulgarian nationals and habitually resident in 
Bulgaria will have a similar right to opt for Serb-Croat-Slovene 
nationality.' 

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will 
cover their children under 18 years of age. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within 
the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the 
State for which they have opted. 

They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the ter- 
ritory of the other State where they had their place of residence 
before exercising their right to opt. They may carry with them their 



64 PEACE TREATIES. 

movable property of every description. No export or import duties 
may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such 
property. 

Within the same period Serb- Croat- Slovenes who are Bulgarian 
nationals and are in a foreign country will be entitled, in the absence 
of any provisions to the contrary in the foreign law, and if they have 
not acquired the foreign nationality, to obtain Serb-Croat-Slovene 
nationality and lose their Bulgarian nationality by complying with 
the requirements laid down by the Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 41. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Bulgaria 
which the Serb-Croat-Slovene State will have to assume on account 
of the territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in 
accordance with Article 141, Part VIII (Financial Clauses), of the 
present Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not 
decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of 
the cession of the said territory. 

Section II. — Greece. 

Article 42. 

Bulgaria renounces in favour of Greece all rights and title over the 
territories of the Bulgarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers 
of Bulgaria as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Bul- 
garia), and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties con- 
cluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as form- 
ing part of Greece. 

Article 43. 

A Commission consisting of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Greece, and one 
by Bulgaria, will be appointed fifteen days after the coming into 
force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line 
described in Article 27 (2), Part II (Frontiers of Bulgaria), of the 
present Treaty. 

Article 44. 

Bulgarian nationals habitually resident in the territories assigned 
to Greece will obtain Greek nationality ipso facto and will lose their 
Bulgarian nationality. 

Bulgarian nationals, however, who became resident in these terri- 
tories after January 1, 1913, will not acquire Greek nationality 
without a permit from Greece. 

Article 45. 

Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, Bulgarian nationals over 18 years of age and habit- 



PEACE TREATIES. 65 

ually resident in the territories assigned to Greece in accordance with 
the present Treaty will be entitled to opt for Bulgarian nationality. 

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents 
will cover their children under 18 years of age. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within 
the succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the 
State for which they have opted. 

They will be entitled to retain their immoveable property in the 
territory of the other State where they had their place of residence 
before exercising their right to opt. They may carry with them 
their moveable property of every description. No export or import 
duties may be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of 
such property. 

Article 46. 

Greece accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may be 
deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of in- 
habitants of that State who differ from the majority of the popula- 
tion in race, language or religion. 

Greece further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as these 
Powers may deem necessary to protect freedom of transit and equi- 
table treatment for the commerce of other nations. 

Article 47. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Bulgaria 
which Greece will have to assume on account of the territory placed 
under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Article 
141, Part VIII (Financial Clauses), of the present Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not 
decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence 
of the cession of the said territory. 

Section III. — Thrace. 

Article 48. 

Bulgaria renounces in favour of the Principal Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers all rights and title over the territories in Thrace 
which belonged to the Bulgarian Monarchy and which, being situ- 
ated outside the new frontiers of Bulgaria as described in Article 
27 (3), Part II (Frontiers of Bulgaria), have not been at present 
assigned to any State. 

Bulgaria undertakes to accept the settlement made by the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers in regard to these territories, 
particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of the inhabitants. 

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers undertake to ensure 
the economic outlets of Bulgaria to the Aegean Sea. 

The conditions of this guarantee will be fixed at a later date. 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 -5 



66 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section IV. — Protection of Minorities. 

Article 49. 

Bulgaria undertakes that the stipulations contained in this Section 
shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, regula- 
tion or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipula- 
tions, nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over 
them. 

Article 50. 

Bulgaria undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life 
and liberty to all inhabitants of Bulgaria without distinction of birth, 
nationality, language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants of Bulgaria shall be entitled to the free exercise, 
whether public or private of any creed, religion or belief, whose prac- 
tices are not inconsistent with public order or public morals. 

Article 51. 

Bulgaria admits and declares to be Bulgarian nationals ipso facto 
and without the requirement of any formality all persons who are 
habitually resident within Bulgarian territory at the date of the 
coming into force of the present Treaty and who are not nationals 
of any other State. 

Article 52. 

All persons born in Bulgarian territory who are not born nationals 
of another State shall ipso facto become Bulgarian nationals. 

Article 53. 

All Bulgarian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall 
enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, 
language or religion. 

Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any 
Bulgarian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or 
political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, 
functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries. 

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Bulgarian 
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in 
religion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public 
meetings. 

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Bulgarian Government 
of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Bulgarian 
nationals of non-Bulgarian speech for the use of their language, 
either orally orjn writing, before the Courts. 

Article 54. 

Bulgarian nationals who belong to racial, religious" or linguistic 
minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in 
fact as the other Bulgarian nationals. In particular they shall have 



PEACE TREATIES. 67 

an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense 
charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other educa- 
tional establishments, with the right to use their own language and 
to exercise their religion freely therein. 

Article 55. 

Bulgaria will provide in the public educational system in towns 
and districts in which a considerable proportion of Bulgarian 
nationals of other than Bulgarian speech are resident adequate facili- 
ties for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be 
given to the children of such Bulgarian nationals through the medium 
of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the Bul- 
garian Government from making the teaching of the Bulgarian 
language obligatory in the said schools. 

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of 
Bulgarian nationals belonging to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the 
enjoyment and application of sums which may be provided out of 
public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets, for educa- 
tional, religious or charitable purposes. 

Article 56. 

Bulgaria undertakes to place no obstacles in the way of the exercise 
of the right which persons may have under the present Treaty, or 
under the treaties concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers 
with Germany, Austria, Hungary, Russia or Turkey, or with any of 
the Allied and Associated Powers themselves, to choose whether or 
not they will recover Bulgarian nationality. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognise such provisions as the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers may consider opportune with respect 
to the reciprocal and voluntary emigration of persons belonging to 
racial minorities. 

Article 57. 

Bulgaria agrees that the stipulations in the foregoing Articles of this 
Section, so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, religious or 
linguistic minorities, constitute obligations of international concern 
and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of Nations. 
They shall not be modified without the assent of a majority of the 
Council of the League of Nations. The Allied and Associated Powers 
represented on the Council severally agree not to withhold their 
assent from any modification in these Articles which is in due form 
assented to by a majority of the Council of the League of Nations. 

Bulgaria agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of 
Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council 
any infraction, or any danger of infraction, of any of these obliga- 
tions, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give 
such direction as it may deem proper and effective in the circum- 
stances. 

Bulgaria further agrees that any difference of opinion as to ques- 
tions of law or fart arising out of these Articles between, the Bui- 



68 PEACE TREATIES. 

garian Government and any one of the Principal Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers, or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the 
League of Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international 
character under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. 
The Bulgarian Government hereby consents that any such dispute 
shall, if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. The decision of the Per- 
manent Court shall be final and shall have the same force and effect 
as an award under Article 13 of the Covenant. 

Section V. — General Provisions. 

Article 58. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognize the full force of all treaties or 
agreements which may be entered into by the Allied and Associated 
Powers with States now existing or coming into existence in future 
in the whole or part of the former Empire of Russia as it existed on 
August 1, 1914, and to recognize the frontiers of any such States as 
determined therein. 

Bulgaria acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and 
inalienable the independence of the said States. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 143, Part VIII 
(Financial Clauses), and Article 171, Part IX (Economic Clauses), 
of the present Treaty, Bulgaria accepts definitely the abrogation of 
the Brest-Litovsk Treaties and of all treaties, conventions and agree- 
ments entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in Russia. 

The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve the rights of 
Russia to obtain from Bulgaria restitution and reparation based on 
the principles of the present Treaty. 

Article 59. 

Bulgaria hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Austria, 
Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State 
and the Czechoslovak State as these frontiers may be determined 
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Article 60. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of 
Peace and additional conventions which have been or may be con- 
cluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with the Powers who 
fought on the side of Bulgaria, and to recognise whatever disposi- 
tions have been or may be made concerning the territories of the 
former German Empire, of Austria, of Hungary, and of the Otto- 
man Empire, and to recognize the new States within their frontiers 
as there laid down. 

Article 61. 

No inhabitant of territory ceded by Bulgaria under the present 
Treaty shall be disturbed or molested on account of his political 
attitude after July 28, 1914, or of the determination of his nation- 
ality effected in accordance with the present Treaty. 



peace treaties. 69 

Article 62. 

Bulgaria declares that she recognizes the French Protectorate in 
Morocco, and that she will make no claim on behalf of herself or 
her nationals to the benefits or immunities derived from the regime 
of the capitulations in Morocco. All treaties, agreements, arrange- 
ments and contracts concluded by Bulgaria with Morocco are re- 
garded as abrogated as from October 11, 1915. 

Moroccan goods entering Bulgaria shall enjoy the treatment 
accorded to French goods. 

Article 63. 

Bulgaria declares that she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed 
over Egypt by Great Britain on December 18, 1914, and that she 
will make no claim on behalf of herself or her nationals to the bene- 
fits or immunities derived from the regime of the capitulations in 
Egypt. All treaties, agreements, arrangements and contracts con- 
cluded by Bulgaria with Egypt are regarded as abrogated as from 
October 11, 1915. 

Egyptian goods entering Bulgaria shall enjoy the treatment ac- 
corded to British goods. 

PART IV.— MILITARY, NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES. 

In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation 
of the armaments of all nations, Bulgaria undertakes strictly to 
observe the military, naval and air clauses which follow. 

Section I. — Military Clauses. 

CHAPTER I.— GENERAL. 

Article 64. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, the military forces of Bulgaria shall be demobilized to the 
extent prescribed hereinafter. 

Article 65. 

Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished in Bul- 
garia. The Bulgarian Army shall in future only be constituted and 
recruited by means of voluntary enlistment. 

CHAPTER II.— EFFECTIVES AND CADRES OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY. 

Article 66. 

The total number of military forces in the Bulgarian Army shall 
not exceed 20,000 men, including officers and depot troops. 

The formations composing the Bulgarian Army shall be fixed in 
accordance with the wishes of Bulgaria, subject to the following 
reservations. 



70 PEACE TREATIES. 

(1) The effectives of units shall be eompulsorily fixed between the 
maximum and minimum figures shown in Table IV annexed to the 
present Section. 

(2) The proportion of officers, including the personnel of staffs 
and special services, shall not exceed one twentieth of the total effec- 
tives with the colours, and that of non-commissioned officers shall 
not exceed one fifteenth of the total effectives with the colours. 

(3) The number of machine guns, guns and howitzers shall not 
exceed those fixed in Table V annexed to the present Section per 
thousand men of the total effectives with the colours. 

The Bulgarian Army shall be exclusively employed for the mainte- 
nance of order within Bulgarian territory and for the control of the 
frontiers. 

Article 67. 

In no case shall units be formed of greater size than a division, the 
latter being in accordance with Tables I, II -and IV annexed to the 
present Section. The maximum size of the staffs and of all forma- 
tions are given in the Tables annexed to the present Section: these 
figures need not be exactly followed, but they must not in any case 
be exceeded. 

The maintenance or formation of any other group of forces, as 
well as any other organization concerned with military command or 
war preparation, is forbidden. 

Each of the following units may have a depot : 

A regiment of Infantry; 

A regiment of Cavalry; 

A regiment of Field Artillery; 

A battalion of Pioneers. 

Article 68. 

All measures of mobilization or appertaining to mobilization are 
forbidden. 

Formations, administrative services and staffs must not in any case 
include supplementary cadres. 

It is forbidden to carry out any preparatory measures for the 
requisition of animals or any other means of military transport. 

Article 69. 

The number of gendarmes, customs officials, forest guards, local 
or municipal police or other like officials shall be fixed by the Inter- 
Allied Military Commission of Control referred to in Article 98, and 
shall not exceed the number of men employed in a similar capacity 
in 1911 within the territorial limits of Bulgaria as fixed in accord- 
ance with the present Treaty. In no case shall the number of these 
officials who are armed with rifles exceed 10,000. 

The number of these officials may only be increased in the future in 
proportion to the increase of population in the localities or munici- 
palities which employ them. 

These officials, as well as those employed in the railway service, 
must not be assembled for the purpose of taking part in any military 
exercises. 



PEACE TREATIES. 71 

In addition, Bulgaria may establish a special corps of frontier 
guards, which must be recruited by means of voluntary enlistment 
and must not exceed 3,000 men, so that the total number of rifles in 
use in Bulgaria shall not exceed 33,000. 

Article 70. 

Any military formation not dealt with in the above Articles is 
forbidden. Such other formations as may exist in excess of the 
effectives authorized shall be suppressed within the period land down 
in Article 64. 

CHAPTER III.— RECRUITING AND MILITARY TRAINING. 
Article 71. 

All officers, including the gendarmerie, customs, forest and other 
services must be regulars (officers de carrier e). Officers at present 
serving who are retained in the army, gendarmerie or the above- 
mentioned Services must undertake to serve at least up to the age of 
40. Officers at present serving who do not join the new army, 
gendarmerie or the above-mentioned services shall be free from any 
military obligations. They must not take part in any military ex- 
ercises, theoretical or practical. 

Officers newly appointed must undertake to serve on the active list 
of the army, gendarmerie or the above-mentioned services for at 
least 20 consecutive years. 

The proportion of officers leaving the service for any cause before 
the expiration of their term of engagement must not exceed in any 
year one twentieth of the total effectives of officers provided by 
Article 66. If this percentage is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting 
deficit in the cadres shall not be filled up by new appointments. 

Article 72. 

The total length of engagement of non-commissioned officers and 
men shall not be less than 12 years consecutive service with the 
colours. 

The proportion of men dismissed before the expiration of their 
term of service for reasons of health or discipline or for any other 
cause must not exceed in any year one twentieth of the total effectives 
fixed by Article 66. If this number is unavoidably exceeded, the 
resulting deficit shall not be filled by fresh enlistments. • 

CHAPTER IV.— SCHOOLS. EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS. MILI- 
TARY CLUBS AND SOCIETIES. 

Article 73. 

On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of 
the present Treaty there must only exist in Bulgaria one military 
school, strictly set apart for the recruitment of officers for the author- 
ised units. 

The number of students admitted to instruction in the said school 
shall be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the officer 



72 PEACE TREATIES. 

cadres. The students and the cadres shall be reckoned as part of the 
effectives fixed by Article 66. 

Consequently, within the time fixed above, all military colleges or 
similar institutions in Bulgaria, as well as the various schools for offi- 
cers, student officers, cadets, non-commissioned officers or student 
non-commissioned officers, other than the school above provided for, 
shall be abolished. 

Article 74. 

Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 

73 above, universities, societies of discharged soldiers, touring clubs, 
boy scouts' societies, and associations or clubs of every description, 
must not occupy themselves with any military matters. They will on 
no account be allowed to instruct or exercise their pupils or members 
in the use of arms. 

These educational establishments, societies, clubs or other associa- 
tions must have no connection with the Ministry of War or any other 
military authority. 

Article 75. 

In schools and educational establishments of every description, 
whether under State control or private management, the teaching of 
gymnastics shall not include any instruction or drill in the use of 
arms or training for war. 

CHAPTER Y.— ARMAMENT, MUNITIONS AND MATERIAL, FORTIFICA- 
TIONS. 

Article 76. 

On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of 
the present Treaty the armament of the Bulgarian Army shall not 
exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table V annexed to 
the present Section. 

Any excess in relation to effectives shall only be used for such re- 
placements as may eventually be necessary. 

Article 77. 

The stock of munitions at the disposal of the Bulgarian Army shall 
not exceed the amounts fixed in Table V annexed to the present 
Section. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the Bulgarian Government shall deposit any existing sur- 
plus of armament and munitions in such places as shall be notified to 
it by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

No other stock, depot or reserve of munitions shall be formed. 

Article 78. 

The number and calibre of guns constituting the fixed normal 
armament of fortified places existing at the present moment in Bul- 
garia shall be immediately notified to the Principal Allied and Asso- 



PEACE TREATIES. 73 

ciated Powers, and will constitute maximum amounts which may not 
be exceeded. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the maximum stock of ammunition for these guns will be re- 
duced to and maintained at the following uniform rates : 

1,500 rounds per gun for those the calibre of which is 105 mm. 
and under; 

500 rounds per gun for those of higher calibre. 

No new fortifications or fortified places shall be constructed in 
Bulgaria. 

Article 79. 

The manufacture of arms, munitions and of war material shall only 
be carried on in one single factory, which shall be controlled by and 
belong to the State, and whose output shall be strictly limited to the 
manufacture of such arms, munitions and war material as is necessary 
for the military forces and armaments referred to in Articles 66, 69, 
77 and 78 above. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, 
storage or design of arms, munitions or any other war material shall 
be abolished or converted to purely commercial uses. 

Within the same length of time all arsenals shall also be suppressed, 
except those to be used as depots for the authorised stocks of muni- 
tions, and their staffs discharged. 

The plant of any establishments or arsenals existing in excess of the 
needs of the authorised manufacture shall be rendered useless or con- 
verted to purely commercial uses, in accordance with the decisions of 
the Militarv Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in 
Article 98. 

Article 80. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty all arms, munitions and war material, including any kind of 
anti-aircraft material, of whatever origin, existing in Bulgaria in 
excess of the authorised quantity shall be handed over to the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers. 

This delivery shall take place at such points in Bulgarian territory 
as may be appointed by the said Powers, who shall also decide on the 
disposal of such material. 

Article 81. 

The importation into Bulgaria of arms, munitions and war material 
of all kinds is forbidden. 

The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of 
arms, munitions and war material shall also be forbidden. 

Article 82. 

The use of flame throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, 
and all similar liquids, materials or processes being prohibited, their 
manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Bulgaria. 



74 



PEACE TREATIES. 



Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage or use of 
the said products or processes is equally forbidden. 

The manufacture and importation into Bulgaria of armoured cars, 
tanks, or any similar machines suitable for use in war are equally 
forbidden. 

Table I. — Composition and maximum effect ires of an Infantry Division. 



Units. 



Headquarters of an Infantry Division 

Headquarters of Divisional Infantry 

Headquarters of Divisional Artillery 

3 Regiments of Infantry J (on the basis of 65 officers and 2,000 men per regiment). . 

1 Squadron 

1 Battalion of Trench Artillery (3 Companies) !"!!!""!""""!""]! 

1 Battalion of Pioneers 2 

Regiment Field Artillery a ."..*..*."."."."."."....."."."."."."... 

1 Battalion Cyclists (comprising 3 Companies) 

1 Signal Detachment « 

Divisional Medical Corps. 

Divisional Parks and Trains 

Total for an Infantry Division 



Maximum effec- 


tives of each unit. 


Officers. 


Men. 


25 


70 


5 


50 


4 


30 


195 


6,000 


6 


160 


14 


500 


14 


500 


80 


1,200 


18 


450 


11 


330 


28 


550 


14 


940 


414 


10,780 



1 Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry. Each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infantry 
and 1 machine gun Company. 

2 Each Battalion comprises 1 Headquarters, 2 Pioneer Companies, 1 Bridging Section, 1 Searchlight 
Section. 

3 Each Regiment comprises 1 Headquarters, 3 Groups of Field or Mountain Artillery, comprising S 
Batteries, each Battery comprising 4 guns or howitzers (field or mountain). 

* This detachment comprises: telegraph and telephone detachment, 1 listening section, 1 carrier pigeon 
section. 

Table II. — Composition and maximum effectives for a Cavalry Division. 



Maximum effec- 
tives of each unit. 



Units. 



Headquarters of a Cavalry Division 

Regiment of Cavalry * 

Group of Field Artillery (3 Batteries) 

Group of motor machine-guns and armoured cars 
Miscellaneous services 



Total for a Cavalry Division of six regiments 




1 Each Regiment comprises 4 Squadrons. 

2 Each group comprises 9 fighting cars, each carrying one gun, 1 machine gun and 1 spare machine gun, 
4 communication cars, 2 small lorries for stores, 7 lorries, including 1 repair lorry, 4 motor cycles. 

Note.— The large Cavalry Units may include a variable number of regiments and be divided into inde- 
pendent brigades within the limit of the effectives laid down above. 



PEACE TREATIES. 75 

Table III. — Composition and maximum effectives for a mixed brigade. 



Maximum effec- 
tives of each unit. 



Units. 



Headquarters of a Brigade 

2 Regiments of Infantry 1 

1 Cyclist Battalion (3 Companies) 

1 Cavalry Squadron 

1 Group Field or Mountain Artillery (3 Batteries) . 

1 Trench Mortar Company 

Miscellaneous services 

Total for Mixed Brigade 



Officers. 


Men. 


10 


50 


130 


4,000 


18 


450 


5 


100 


20 


400 


5 


150 


10 


200 



5,350 



1 Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry. Each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infan- 
try and 1 Machine gun Company. 

Table IV. — Minimum effectives of units whatever organisation is adopted in the 

army. 

(Division's, Mixed Brigades, etc.) 



Units. 



Maximum effec- 
J fives (for reference) 



Officers. Men 



Infantry Division 

Cavalry Division 

Mixed Brigade 

Regiment of Infantry 

Battalion of Infantry 

Company of Infantry or Machine-guns 

Cyclist Group 

Regiment of Cavalry 

Squadron of Cavalry 

Regiment of Artillery 

Battery of Field Artillery 

Company of Trench Mortars 

Battalion of Pioneers 

Battery of Mountain Artillery 



414 
259 
198 
65 
16 
3 

18 
30 
6 
80 
4 
3 
14 
5 



10, 7S0 

5,380 

5, 3.50 

2, 000 

650 

160 

450 

720 

160 

1,200 

150 

150 

500 

320 



Minimum effec- 
tives. 



Officers. 



300 

ISO 

140 

52 

12 

2 

12 

20 

3 

60 

2 

2 



8,000 

3,650 

4,250 

1,600 

500 

120 

300 

450 

100 

1,000 

120 

100 

300 

200 



Table V. — Maximum authorised armaments and munition supplies. 



Material. 



Rifles or Carbines J 

Machine guns, heavy or light 

Trench Mortars, light 

Trench Mortars medium 

Guns or howitzers (field or mountain). 



Quantity 

for 1,000 

men. 



1,150 
15 

2 

3 



Amount of 

munitions per 

arm (rifles, 

guns, etc.). 



500 rounds. 

10,000 rounds. 
(1,000 rounds. 
\500 rounds. 

1,000 rounds. 



1 Automatic rifles or carbines are counted as light machine guns. 

Note. — No heavy gun, i. e. of a calibre greater than 105 mm., is authorised, with the exception of the 
normal armament of fortified places. 



76 PEACE TKEAT1ES. 

Section II. — Naval Clauses. 
Article 83. 

From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all 
Bulgarian warships, submarines included, are declared to be finally 
surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Bulgaria will, however, have the right to maintain on the Danube 
and along her coasts for police and fishery duties not more than 
four torpedo boats and six motor boats, all without torpedoes and 
torpedo apparatus, to be selected by the Commission referred to in 
Article 99. 

The personnel of the above vessels shall be organized on a purely 
civilian basis. 

The vessels allowed to Bulgaria must only be replaced by lightly- 
armed patrol craft not exceeding 100 tons displacement and of non- 
military character. 

Article 84. 

All warships, including submarines, now under construction in Bul- 
garia shall be broken up. The work of breaking up these vessels 
shall be commenced as soon as possible after the coming into force 
of the present Treaty. 

Article 85. 

Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking up of 
Bulgarian warships of all kinds, whether surface vessels or sub- 
marines, may not be used except for purely industrial or commercial 
purposes. 

They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries. 

Article 86. 

The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for com- 
mercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Bulgaria. 

Article 87. 

All arms, ammunition and other naval war material, including 
mines and torpedoes, which belonged to Bulgaria at the date of the 
signature of the Armistice of September 29, 1918. are declared to be 
finally surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Article 88. 

During the three months following the coming into force of the 
present Treaty the high-power wireless telegraphy station at Sofia 
shall not be used for the transmission of messages concerning naval, 
military or political questions of interest to Bulgaria, or any State 
which has been allied to Bulgaria in the war, without the assent of 
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. This station may be 
used for commercial purposes, but only under the supervision of the 
said Powers, who will decide the wave-length to be used. 



PEACE TREATIES. 77 

During- the same period Bulgaria shall not build any more high- 
power wireless telegraphy stations in her own territory or that of 
Germany. Austria, Hungary or Turkey. 

Section III. — Air Clauses. 

Article 89. 

The armed forces of Bulgaria must not include any military or 
naval air forces. No dirigible shall be kept. 

Article 90. 

Within two months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the personnel of the air forces on the rolls of the Bulgarian 
land and sea forces shall be demobilised. 

Article 91. 

Until the complete evacuation of Bulgarian territory by the Allied 
and Associated troops the aircraft of the Allied and Associated 
Powers shall enjoy in Bulgaria freedom of passage through the air, 
freedom of transit and of landing. 

Article 92. 

During the six months following the coming into force of the pres- 
ent Treaty the manufacture, importation and exportation of aircraft, 
parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft, and parts of engines for air- 
craft shall be forbidden in all Bulgarian territory. 

Article 93. 

On the coming into force of the present Treaty all military and 
naval aeronautical material must be delivered by Bulgaria and at 
her expense to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Delivery must be effected at such places as the Governments of the 
said Powers may select, and must be completed within three months. 

In particular, this material will include all items under the fol- 
lowing heads which are or have been in use or were designed for 
warlike purposes: 

Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manu- 
factured, repaired or assembled. 

Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or 
assembled. 

Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen. 

Dirigible sheds and shelters of every land for aircraft. 

Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Bulgaria, 
be maintained inflated with hydrogen ; the plant for the manufacture 
of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles, may, at the discretion 
of the said Powers, be left to Bulgaria until the time when the dir- 
igibles are handed over. 

Engines for aircraft. 

Nacelles and fuselages. 



78 PEACE TREATIES. 

Armament (guns, machine guns, light machine guns, bomb-drop- 
ping apparatus, torpedo-dropping apparatus, synchror.izfi.tion appa- 
ratus, aiming apparatus). 

Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks of 
explosives or of material for their manufacture). 

Instruments for use on aircraft. 

Wireless apparatus and photographic or cinematograph appa- 
ratus for use on aircraft. 

Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads. 

The material referred to above shall not be removed without special 
permission from the said Governments. 

Section IV. — Inter- Allied Commissions of Control. 

Article 94. 

All military, naval and air clauses contained in the present Treaty 
for the execution of which a time limit is prescribed shall be executed 
by Bulgaria under the control of Inter- Allied Commissions appointed 
for this purpose by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment in all matters concerning the execution of the military, naval 
and air clauses. They will communicate to the Bulgarian authorities 
the decisions which the Principal Allied and Associated Powers have 
resei ved the right to take or which the execution of the said clauses 
may necessitate. 

Article 95. 

The Inter- Allied Commissions of Control may establish their 
organisations at Sofia, and shall be entitled as often as they think fit 
to proceed to any point whatever in Bulgarian territory, or to send 
-u! (-commissions or to authorise one or more of their members to go 
to any such point. 

Article 96. 

The Bulgarian Government must furnish to the Inter-Allied Com- 
missions of Control all such information and documents as the latter 
may think necessary to ensure the execution of their mission, and all 
means (both in personnel and in material) which the said Commis- 
sions may need to ensure the complete execution of the military, 
naval or air clauses. 

The Bulgarian Government must attach a qualified representative 
to each Inter- Allied Commission of Control, with the duty of leceiv- 
ing the communications which the Commission may have to address 
to the Bulgarian Government, and of furnishing it with or pro- 
curing all information or documents demanded. 

Article 97. 

The upkeep and cost of the Commissions of Control and the ex- 
penses involved by their work shall be borne by Bulgaria. 



peace treaties. 79 

Article 98. 

It will be the special duty of the Military Inter-Allied Commis- 
sion of Control : 

(1) to fix the number of gendarmes, customs officials, forest 
guards, local or municipal police, or other like officials, which Bul- 
garia shall be authorised to maintain in accordance with Article 69 ; 

(2) to receive from the Bulgarian Government any information 
relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, the 
armament of the fortified works, fortresses and forts, and the location 
of the works or factories for the production of arms, munitions and 
war material and their operations. 

It will take delivery of the arms, munitions, war mate, ial and plant 
intended for war construction, will select the points where such de- 
livery is to be effected, and will supervise the works of destruction 
and of rendering things useless or the transformation of material 
which are to be carried out in accordance with the present Treaty. 

Article 99. 

It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter- Allied Commission 
of Control to take delivery of arms, munitions, and other naval war 
material, and to supervise the destruction and breaking up provided 
for in Article 84. 

The Bulgarian Government must furnish to the Naval Inter- 
Allied Commission of Control all such information and documents 
as the Commission may deem necessary to ensure the complete execu- 
tion of the naval clauses, in particular the designs of the warships, 
the composition of their armaments, the details and models of the 
guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines,' explosives, wireless telegraphic 
apparatus, and in general everything relating to naval Avar material, 
as well as all legislative or administrative documents or regulations. 

Article 100. 

It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter- Allied Com- 
mission of Control to make an inventory of the aeronautical material 
which is actually in possession of the Bulgarian Government, to in- 
spect aeroplane, balloon and motor manufacturies and factories pro- 
ducing arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by air- 
craft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks and 
depots situated in Bulgarian territory, and to authorise where neces- 
sary the removal of material and to take delivery of such material. 

The Bulgarian Government must furnish to* the Aeronautical In- 
ter-Allied Commission of Control all such information and legisla- 
tive, administrative or other documents which the Commission may 
think necessary to ensure the complete execution of the air clauses, 
and in particular a list of the personnel belonging to all Bulgarian 
air services and of the existing material, as well as of that in process 
of manufacture or on order, and a complete list of all establishments 
working for aviation, of their positions and of all sheds and landing- 
grounds. 



80 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section V. — General Articles. 
Article 101. 

After the expiration of a period of three months from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty the Bulgarian laws must have been 
modified and shall be maintained by the Bulgarian Government in 
conformity with this Part of the present Treaty. 

Within the same period all the administrative or other measures 
relating to the execution of this Part of the Present Treaty must 
have been taken by the Bulgarian Government. 

Article 102. 

The following portions of the Armistice of September 29, 1918 : 
paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 6, remain in force in so far as they are not 
inconsistent with the stipulations of the present Treaty. 

Article 103. 

Bulgaria undertakes from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty not to accredit to any foreign country any military, naval or 
air mission, and not to send or allow the departure of any such mis- 
sion ; she undertakes moreover to take the necessary steps to prevent 
Bulgarian nationals from leaving her territory in order to enlist in 
the army, fleet or air service of any foreign Power, or to be attached 
to any such Power with the purpose of helping in its training, or 
generally to give any assistance to the military, naval or air instruc- 
tion in a foreign country. 

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake on their part that 
from the coming into force of the present Treaty they will neither 
enlist in their armies, fleets or air services not attach to them any 
Bulgarian national with the object of helping in military training, 
or in general employ any Bulgarian national as a military, naval or 
air instructor. 

The present arrangement, however, in no way hinders the right of 
France to recruit for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French 
military laws and regulations. 

Article 104. 

So long as the present Treaty remains in force Bulgaria undertakes 
to submit to any investigation which the Council of the League of 
Nations by a majority vote may consider necessary. 

Part V. — Prisoners of War and Graves. 

Section I. — Prisoners of War. 

Article 105. 

The repatriation of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are 
Bulgarian nationals shall take place as soon as possible after the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, and shall be carried out 
with the greatest rapiditv. 



PEACE TREATIES. 81 

Article 106. 

The repatriation of Bulgarian prisoners of war and interned 
civilians shall, in accordance with Article 105, be carried out by a 
Commission composed of representatives of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers on the one part, and of the Bulgarian Government on 
the other part. 

For each of the Allied and Associated Powers a Sub-Commission, 
c "iiposed exclusively of Representatives of the interested Power and 
of Delegates of the Bulgarian Government, shall regulate the details 
of carrying into effect the repatriation of prisoners of war. 

Article 107. 

From the time of their delivery into the hands of the Bulgarian 
authorities the prisoners of war and interned civilians are to be 
returned without delay to their homes by the said authorities. 

Those amongst them who before the war were habitually resident 
in territory occupied by the troops of the Allied and Associated 
Powers are likewise to be sent to their homes, subject to the consent 
and control of the military authorities of the Allied and Associated 
armies of occupation. 

Article 108. 

The whole cost of repatriation from the moment of starting shall be 
borne by the Bulgarian Government, who shall also provide the 
means of transport and working personnel considered necessary by 
the Commission referred to in Article 106. 

Article 109. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or under- 
going sentence for offences against discipline shall be repatriated 
irrespective of the completion of their sentence or of the proceedings 
pending against them. 

This stipulation shall not apply to prisoners of war and interned 
civilians punished for offences committed subsequent to October 15, 
1919. 

During the period pending their repatriation all prisoners of war 
and interned civilians shall remain subject to the existing regula- 
tions, more especially as regards work and discipline. 

Article 110. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting trial or 
undergoing sentence for offences other than those against discipline 
may be detained. 

Article 111. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes to admit to its territory 
without distinction all persons liable to repatriation. 

Prisoners of war or Bulgarian nationals who do not desire to be 
repatriated may be excluded from repatriation; but the Allied and 
4780S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 6 



82 PEACE TREATIES. 

Associated Governments reserve to themselves the right either to 
repatriate them or to take them to a neutral countiw or to allow them 
to reside in their own territories. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes not to institute any ex- 
ceptional proceedings against these persons or their families nor to 
take any repressive or vexatious measures of any kind whatsoever 
against them on this account. 

Article 112. 

The Allied and Associated Governments reserve the right to make 
the repatriation of Bulgarian prisoners of war and Bulgarian na- 
tionals in their hands conditional upon the immediate notification 
and release by the Bulgarian Government of any prisoners of war 
and other nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers who may 
be still retained in Bulgaria against their will. 

Article 113. 

An Inter-Allied Commission for enquiry and control shall be 
formed for the purpose of: 

(1) searching for non-repatriated Allied and Associated na- 
tionals; 

(2) identifying those who have expressed their desire to remain 
within Bulgarian territory; 

(3) establishing criminal acts punishable by the penalties referred 
to in Part VI (Penalties) of the present Treaty, committed by Bul- 
garians against the persons of prisoners of war or Allied and Asso- 
ciated nationals during their captivity. 

This Commission shall consist of a representative of each of the 
following Powers, viz. : the British Empire, France, Italy, Greece. 
Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

The result of the enquiries made by this Commission shall be trans- 
mitted to each of the Governments concerned. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes : 

(1) to give every facility to this Commission, to furnish it with 
all necessary means of transport: to allow it free access to camps, 
prisons, hospitals and all other places; and to place at its disposal 
all documents, whether public or private, which would facilitate its 
enquiries ; 

(2) to impose penalties upon any Bulgarian officials or private 
persons who have concealed the presence of any nationals of any 
of the Allied or Associated Powers, or have neglected to reveal the 
presence of any such after it had come to their knowledge. 

Article 114. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes, from the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, to restore without delay all articles, 
money, securities and documents which have belonged to nationals 
of the Allied and Associated Powers and which have been retained 
by the Bulgarian authorities. 



PEACE TREATIES. 83 

Article 115. 

The High Contracting Parties waive reciprocally all repayment 
of sums due for the maintenance of prisoners of war in their respec- 
tive territories. 

Section II. — Graves. 
Article 116. 

The Allied and Associated Governments and the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment will cause to be respected and maintained the graves of 
the soldiers and sailors buried in their respective territories. 

They agree to recognise any Commission appointed by any one 
of these Governments for the purpose of identifying, registering, 
caring for or erecting suitable memorials over the said graves, and 
to facilitate the discharge of its duties. 

Furthermore they reciprocally agree to afford, so far as the provi- 
sions of their laws and the requirements of public health allow, 
every facility for giving effect to requests that the bodies of their 
soldiers and sailors may be transferred to their own country. 

Article 117. 

The graves of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are 
nationals of the different belligerant States and have died in cap- 
tivity shall be properly maintained in accordance with Article 116 
of the present Treaty. 

The Allied and Associated Governments on the one part and the 
Bulgarian Government on the other part reciprocally undertake 
also to furnish to each other: 

(1) a complete list of those who have died, together with all infor- 
mation useful for identification; 

/%y ' ill information as to the number and position of the graves 
of all those who have been buried without identification. 

PART VI.— PENALTIES. 

Article 118. 

The Bulgarian Government recognises the right of the Allied and 
Associated Powers to bring before military tribunals persons accused 
of having committed acts in violation of the laws and customs of 
war. Such persons shall, if found guilty, be sentenced to punish- 
ments laid down by law. This provision will apply notwithstand- 
ing any proceedings or prosecution before a tribunal in Bulgaria or 
in the territory of her allies. 

The Bulgarian Government shall hand over to the Allied and 
Associated Powers, or to such one of them as shall so request, all 
persons accused of having committed an act in violation of the laws 
and customs of war, who are specified either by name or by the 
rank, office or employment which they held under the Bulgarian 
authorities. 



84 peace treaties. 

Article 119. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of 
the Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before the military 
tribunals of that Power. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than 
one of the Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before 
military tribunals composed of members of the military tribunals 
of the Powers concerned. 

In every case the accused will be entitled to name his own counsel. 

Article 120. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes to furnish all documents 
and information of every kind, the production of which may be 
considered necessary to ensure the full knowledge of the incrimi- 
nating acts, the discovery of offenders and the just appreciation of 
responsibility. 

PAKT VII.— REPARATION. 

Article 121. 

Bulgaria recognises that, by joining in the war of aggression 
which Germany and Austria-Hungary waged against the Allied 
and Associated Powers, she has caused to the latter losses and sacri- 
fices of all kinds, for which she ought to make complete reparation. 

On the other hand, the Allied and Associated Powers recognise 
that the resources of Bulgaria are not sufficient to enable her to 
make complete reparation. 

Bulgaria, therefore, agrees to pay, and the Allied and Associated 
Powers agree to accept, as being such reparation as Bulgaria is able 
to make, the sum of 2.250,000,000 (two and a quarter milliards) 
francs gold. 

This amount shall (except as hereinafter provided) be discharged 
by a series of half-yearly payments on January 1 and July 1 in 
each year, beginning on July 1, 1920. 

The payments on July 1, 1920. and January 1, 1921, shall repre- 
sent interest at the rate of 2 per cent, per annum from January 1, 
1920, on the total sum due by Bulgaria. Thereafter, each half- 
yearly payment shall include, besides the payment of interest at 5 
per cent, per annum, the provision of a sinking fund sufficient to 
extinguish the total amount due bv Bulgaria in 37 years from 
January 1. 1921. 

These sums shall be remitted through the Inter- Allied Commission 
referred to in Article 130 to the Reparation Commission created by 
the Treaty of Peace with Germany of June 28, 1919, as constituted 
by the Treaty with Austria of September 10, 1919, Part VIII, Annex 
II, paragraph 2; (this Commission is hereinafter referred to as 
the Reparation Commission), and shall be disposed of by the Repa- 
ration Commission in accordance with the arrangements already 
made. 

Payments required in accordance with the preceding stipulations 
to be made in cash may at any time be accepted by the Reparation 



PEACE TREATIES. 85 

Commission, on the proposal of the Inter- Allied Commission, in the 
form of chattels, properties, commodities, rights, concessions, within 
or without Bulgarian territory, ships, bonds, shares or securities 
of any kind, or currency of Bulgaria or of other States, the value 
of such substitutes for gold being fixed at a fair and just amount by 
the Reparation Commission itself. 

If the Eepa ration Commission desires at any time to dispose, 
either by sale or otherwise, of gold bonds based on the payments 
to be made by Bulgaria, it shall have power to do so. The nominal 
amount of the bonds shall be fixed by it, after taking due account 
of the provisions of Articles 122, 123 and 129 of this Part, in con- 
sultation with the Inter-Allied Commission, but shall in no case 
exceed the total capital sums due by Bulgaria then outstanding. 

Bulgaria undertakes in such case to deliver to the Reparation 
Commission, through the Inter-Allied Commission, the necessary 
bonds in such form, number, denominations and terms as the Repa- 
ration Commission may determine. 

These bonds shall be direct obligations of the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment, but all arrangements for the service of the bonds shall be 
made by the Inter- Allied Commission. The Inter-Allied Commis- 
sion shall pay all interest, sinking fund or other charges connected 
with the bonds out of the half-yearly payments to be made by Bul- 
garia in accordance with this Article. The surplus, if any, shall 
continue to be paid to the order of the Reparation Commission. 

These bonds shall be free of all taxes and charges of every descrip- 
tion established or to be established by Bulgaria. 

Article 122. 

The Inter- Allied Commission shall from time to time consider the 
resources and capacity of Bulgaria, and, after giving her representa- 
tives a just opportunity to be heard, shall have discretion to recom- 
mend to the Reparation Commission either a reduction or a post- 
ponement of any particular payment due or a reduction of the total 
capital sum to be paid by Bulgaria. 

The Reparation Commission shall have power by a majority of 
votes to make any reduction or postponement up to the extent recom- 
mended by the Inter- Allied Commission. 

Article 123. 

Bulgaria shall have the power at any time, if she so desires, to 
make immediate payments in reduction of the total capital sum 
due over and above the half-yearly payments. 

Article 124. 

Bulgaria recognises the transfer to the Allied and Associated 
Powers of any claims to payment or repayment which Germany, 
Austria, Hungary or Turkey may have against her, in accordance 
with Article 261 of the Treaty of Peace with Germany, and the cor- 
responding Articles of the Treaties with Austria, Hungary and 
Turkey. 

The Allied and Associated Powers, on the other hand, agree not 
to require from Bulgaria any payment in respect of claims so trans- 



86 



PEACE TREATIES. 



ferred, as they have taken these claims into account in fixing the 
amount to be paid by Bulgaria under Article 121. 

Article 125. 

In addition to the payments mentioned in Article 121, Bulgaria 
undertakes to return, in accordance with the procedure to be laid 
down by the Inter-Allied Commission, objects of any nature and 
securities taken away, seized or sequestrated in the territory in- 
vaded in Greece, Rouniania or Serbia, in cases in which it is possible 
to identify them in Bulgarian territory, except in the case of live- 
stock, which shall be dealt with in accordance with Article 127. 

For this purpose, the Governments of Greece, Roumania and the 
Serb- Croat- Slovene State shall deliver to the Inter- Allied Com- 
mission within four months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty lists of the objects and securities which they can prove to 
have been carried off from the invaded territories and which can 
be identified and found in Bulgarian territory. They will also give 
at the same time all information possible to assist in the discovery 
and identification of these articles. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes to facilitate by all means 
in its power the discovery of the said objects and securities, and to 
pass within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty a law requiring all Bulgarian nationals to disclose all such 
objects and securities in their possession under penalty of being 
treated as receivers of stolen goods. 

Article 126. 

Bulgaria undertakes to seek for and forthwith to return to Greece, 
Roumania and the Serb- Croat- Slovene State respectively any records 
or archives or any articles of archseological, historic or artistic in- 
terest which have been taken away from the territories of those 
countries during the present war. 

Any dispute between the Powers above named and Bulgaria as to 
their ownership of any such articles shall be referred to an arbitrator 
to be appointed by the Inter- Allied Commission, and whose decision 
shall be final. 

Article 127. 

Bulgaria further undertakes to deliver to Greece, Roumania and 
the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, within six months from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty, live-stock of the descriptions and 
in the numbers set out hereunder : 



Bulls (18 months to 3 years) . . . 

Milch Cows (2 to 6 years) 

Horses and Mares (3 to 7 years) 

Mules 

Draught Oxen 

Sheep 



GREECE. 


ROUMANIA. 


15 


60 


1,500 


6,000 


2,250 


5,250 


450 


1,050 


1,800 


3,400 


6,000 


15,000 



SERB- 

CROAT- 

SLOVENE 

STATE. 



50 
6,000 
5, 000 
1,000 
4,000 
12, 000 



PEACE TREATIES. 87 

These animals shall be delivered at such places as may be appointed 
by the respective Governments. They shall be inspected before de- 
livery by agents appointed by the Inter-Allied Commission, who 
shall satisfy themselves that the animals so delivered are of average 
health and condition. 

No credit shall be made to Bulgaria in respect of their value ; the 
animals handed over shall be regarded as having been delivered in 
restitution for animals taken away by Bulgaria during the war from 
the territories of the countries named. 

In addition to the deliveries provided for above, the Inter-Allied 
Commission shall be at liberty to grant, if they find it possible to do 
so, to Greece, Roumania and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, within 
two years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, such 
quantities of live-stock as they may consider themselves justified in 
so granting. The value of such deliveries shall be placed to the credit 
of Bulgaria. 

Article 128. 

By way of special compensation for the destruction caused to the 
coal-mines situated on Serbian territory occupied by the Bulgarian 
armies, Bulgaria undertakes, subject to the proviso contained in the 
final paragraph of this Article, to deliver to the Serb-Croat-Slovene 
State during five years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty 50,000 tons of coal a year from the output of the Bulgarian 
State mines at Pernik. These deliveries shall be made free on rail 
on the Serb-Croat- Slovene frontier on the Pirot-Sofia railway. 

The value of these deliveries will not be credited to Bulgaria, and 
will not be taken in diminution of the payment required under 
Article 121. 

Provided, nevertheless, that these deliveries will only be made sub- 
ject to the approval of the Inter- Allied Commission, which approval 
shall only be given if and in so far as the Commission is satisfied that 
such deliveries of coal will not unduly interfere with the economic 
life of Bulgaria ; the decision of the Commission on this point shall 
be final. 

Article 129. 

The following shall be reckoned as credits to Bulgaria in respect 
to her reparation obligations : 

Amounts which the Reparation Commission may consider should 
be credited to Bulgaria under Part VIII (Financial Clauses), Part 
IX (Economic Clauses) and Part XI (Ports, Waterways and Rail- 
ways) of the present Treaty. 

Article 130. 

In order to facilitate the discharge by Bulgaria of the obligations 
assumed by her under the present Treaty, there shall be established 
at Sofia as soon as possible after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty an Inter- Allied Commission. 

The Commission shall be composed of three members to be ap- 
pointed respectively by the Governments of the British Empire, 
France and Italy. Each Government represented on the Commis- 



88 PEACE TREATIES. 

sion shall have the right to withdraw therefrom upon six months' 
notice filed with the Commission. 

Bulgaria shall be represented by a Commissioner, who shall take 
part in the sittings of the Commission whenever invited by the Com- 
mission to do so, but shall not have the right to vote. 

The Commission shall be constituted in the form and shall possess 
the powers prescribed by the present Treaty, including the Annex 
to this Part. 

The Commission shall continue in existence as long as any of the 
payments due under the terms of this Part of the present Treaty 
remain unpaid. 

The members of the Commission shall enjoy the same rights and 
immunities as are enjoyed in Bulgaria by duly accredited diplomatic 
agents of friendly Powers. 

The Bulgarian Government agrees to provide by law. within six 
months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the authority 
necessary for enabling the Commission to carry out its duties. The 
text of this law must be approved in advance by the Powers repre- 
sented on the Commission. It must conform to the principles and 
rules laid down in the Annex to this Part, and also to any other rele- 
vant provisions laid down in the present Treaty. 

Article 131. 

Bulgaria undertakes to pass, issue and maintain in force any legis- 
lation, orders and decrees that may be necessary to give effect to the 
provisions of this Part. 

Annex. 

1. The Commission shall elect a Chairman annually from its mem- 
bers, and it shall establish its own rules and procedure. 

Each member shall have the right to nominate a deputy to act for 
him in his absence. 

Decisions shall be taken by the vote of the majority, except when 
a unanimous vote is expressly required. Abstention from voting is 
to be treated as a vote against the proposal under discussion. 

The Commission shall appoint such agents and employees as it 
may deem necessary for its work. 

The costs and expenses of the Commission shall be paid by Bul- 
garia and shall be a first charge on the revenues payable to the 
Commission. The salaries of the members of the Commission shall 
be fixed on a reasonable scale by agreement from time to time be- 
tween the Governments represented on the Commission. 

2. Bulgaria undertakes to afford to the members, officers and agents 
of the Commission full power to visit and inspect at all reasonable 
times any places, public works or undertakings Bulgaria, and to 
furnish to the said Commission all records, documents and informa- 
tion which it may require. 

3. The Bulgarian Government undertakes to place at the disposal 
of the Commission in each half-year sufficient sums in francs gold, or 
such other currency as the Commission may decide, to enable it to 
remit at due date the payments due on account of reparation or of 
other obligations undertaken by Bulgaria under the present Treaty. 



PEACE TREATIES. 89 

In the law relating- to the working of the Commission, there shall 
be prescribed a list of the taxes and revenues (now existing or here- 
after to be created) estimated to be sufficient to produce the sums 
above referred to. This list of taxes and revenues shall include all 
revenues or receipts arising from concessions made or to be made for 
the working of mines or quarries or for the carrying out of any 
works of public utility or of any monopolies for the manufacture 
or sale of any articles in Bulgaria. This list of taxes and revenues 
may be altered from time to time with the unanimous consent of the 
Commission. 

If at any time the revenues so assigned shall prove insufficient, 
the Bulgarian Government undertakes to assign additional revenues. 
If the Bulgarian Government does not assign sufficient revenues 
within three months of a demand by the Commission, the Commis 
sion shall have the right to add to the list additional revenues created 
or to be created, and the Bulgarian Government undertakes to pass 
the necessary legislation. 

In case of default by Bulgaria in the performance of her obliga- 
tions under Articles 121 and 130 and this Annex the Commission 
shall be entitled to assume to the extent and for the period fixed by 
it the full control and management of and to undertake the collection 
of such taxes and sources of revenue and to hold and disburse the 
proceeds thereof, and to apply any net proceeds after meeting the 
cost of administration and collection to the satisfaction of the repa- 
ration obligations of Bulgaria, subject to any priorities laid down 
in the present Treaty. 

In the case of such action by the Commission, Bulgaria undertakes 
to recognise the authority and powers of the said Commission to 
abide by its decisions and to obey its directions. 

4. By agreement with the Bulgarian Government, the Commission 
shall have power to assume the control and management and the 
collection of any taxes, even if no default has occurred. 

5. The Commission shall also take over any other duties which 
may be assigned to it under the present Treaty. 

6. No member of the Commission shall be responsible, except to 
the Government appointing him, for any action or omission in the 
performance of his duties. No one of the Allied or Associated 
Governments assumes any responsibility in respect of any other 
Government. 

PAET VIII.— FINANCIAL CLAUSES. 

Article 132. 

Subject to the provisions of Article 138, and to such exceptions as 
the Inter- Allied Commission established by Article 130, Part VII 
(Separation) of the present Treaty, may unanimously approve, a 
first charge upon all the assets and revenues of Bulgaria shall be 
the cost of reparation and all other costs arising under the present 
Treaty or any treaties or agreements supplementary thereto, or 
under arrangements concluded between Bulgaria and the Allied and 
Associated Powers during the Armistice signed on September 29. 
1918. 



90 PEACE TREATIES. 

Up to May 1, 1921, the Bulgarian Government shall not export or 
dispose of, and shall prohibit the export or disposal of, gold without 
the previous approval of the Inter- Allied Commission. 

Article 133. 

There shall be paid by Bulgaria the total cost of all armies of 
the Allied and Associated Governments occupying territorjr within 
her boundaries, as defined in the present Treaty, from the date of 
the signature of the Armistice of September 29, 1918, until the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, including the keep of men 
and beasts, lodging and billeting, pay and allowances, salaries and 
wages, bedding, heating, lighting, clothing, equipment, harness and 
saddlery, armament and rollingstock, air services, treatment of sick 
and wounded, veterinary and remount services, transport services 
of all sorts (such as by rail, sea or river, motor lorries), commu- 
nications and correspondence, and, in general, the cost of all admin- 
istrative or technical services, the working of which is necessary for 
the training of troops and for keeping their numbers up to strength 
and preserving their military efficiency. 

The cost of such liabilities under the above heads, so far as they 
relate to purchases or requisitions by the Allied and Associated Gov- 
ernments in the occupied territory, shall be paid by the Bulgarian 
Government to the Allied and Associated Governments in any legal 
currency of Bulgaria. In cases where an Allied or Associated Gov- 
ernment, in order to make such purchases or requisitions in the 
occupied territory, has incurred expenditure in a currency other 
than Bulgarian currency, such expenditure shall be reimbursed in 
Bulgarian currency at the rate of exchange current at the date of 
reimbursement, or at an agreed rate. 

All other of the above costs shall be paid in the currency of the 
country to which the payment is due. 

Article 134. 

Bulgaria engages to pay towards the charge for the service of 
the external pre-war Ottoman Public Debt, both in respect of terri- 
tory ceded by Turkey under the Treaty of Constantinople, 1913, for 
the period during which such territory was under Bulgarian sov- 
ereignty, and in respect of territory the cession of which is confirmed 
by the present Treaty, such sums as may be determined hereafter by 
a Commission to be appointed for the purpose of determining to 
what extent the cession of Ottoman territory will involve the obliga- 
tion to contribute to that debt. 

Article 135. 

The priority of the charges established by Articles 132, 133, and 
134 of this Part shall be as follows: 

(i) the cost of military occupation as defined by Article 133; 

(ii) the service of such part of the external pre-war Ottoman Pub- 
lic Debt as may be attributed to Bulgaria under the present Treaty 
or any treaties or agreements supplementary thereto in respect of 



PEACE TREATIES. 91 

the cession to Bulgaria of territory formerly belonging to the Otto- 
man Empire; 

(iii) the cost of reparation as prescribed by the present Treaty or 
any treaties or agreements supplementary thereto. 

Article 136. 

Bulgaria confirms the surrender of all material handed over or 
to be handed over to the Allied and Associated Powers in accord- 
ance with the Armistice of September 29, 1918, and recognises the 
title of the Allied and Associated Powers to such material. 

There shall be credited to Bulgaria against the sums due from her 
to the Allied and Associated Powers for reparation the value, as 
assessed by the Reparation Commission referred to in Article 121, 
Part VII (Reparation) of the present Treaty, acting through the 
Inter- Allied Commission, of such of the above material for which, 
as having non-military value, credit should, in the judgment of the 
Reparation Commission, be allowed. 

Property belonging to the Allied and Associated Governments 
or their nationals, restored or surrendered under the Armistice 
Agreement in specie, shall not be credited to Bulgaria. 

Article 137. 

The right of each of the Allied and x\ssociated Powers to dispose 
of enemy assets and property within its jurisdiction at the date of 
the coming into force of the present Treaty is not affected by the 
foregoing provisions. 

Article 138. 

All rights created and all securities specifically assigned in con- 
nection with loans contracted or guaranteed by the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment which were actually contracted or guaranteed before 
August 1. 1914, are maintained in force without any modification. 

Article 139. 

If, in accordance with Articles 235 and 260 of the Treaty of Peace 
with Germany, signed on June 28, 1919, and the corresponding 
Articles in the Treaties with Austria and Hungary, all rights, in- 
terests and securities held by any German, Austrian or Hungarian 
national under the contracts and agreements regulating the loan 
contracted by Bulgaria in Germany in July, 1914, are taken over 
by the Reparation Commission, the Bulgarian Government under- 
takes to do everything in its power to facilitate this transfer. The 
Bulgarian Government likewise undertakes to hand over to the 
Reparation Commission Trithin six months from the coming into 
force of the present Treaty all such rights, interests and securities 
held by Bulgarian nationals under the contracts and agreements 
regulating the said loan. The rights, interests and securities held 
by Bulgarian nationals will be valued by the Reparation Commis- 
sion, and their value will be credited to Bulgaria on account of the 
sums due for reparation, and Bulgaria shall be responsible for in- 
demnifying her nationals so dispossessed. 



92 PEACE TREATIES. 

Notwithstanding anything in the preceding- Article, the Repara- 
tion Commission shall have full power, in the event of the transfer 
to it of the interests mentioned above, to modify the terms of the 
contracts and agreements regulating the loan, or to make any other 
arrangements connected therewith which it shall deem necessary, 
provided that (1) the rights under the contracts and agreements 
of any persons interested therein other than German, Austrian, 
Hungarian or Bulgarian nationals, and (2) the rights of the holders 
of Bulgarian Treasury Bills issued in France in 1912 and 1913 to 
be reimbursed out of the proceeds of the next financial operation 
undertaken by Bulgaria, are not prejudiced thereby. By agree- 
ment with the parties concerned, the claims referred to above may 
be paid off either in cash or in an agreed amount of the bonds of 
the loan. 

Any arrangement with regard to the loan and the contracts and 
agreements connected therewith shall be made after consultation 
with the Inter- Allied Commission, and the Inter- Allied Commission 
shall act as agent of the Reparation Commission in any matters con- 
nected with the loan, if the Reparation Commission so decides. 

Article 140. 

Nothing in the provisions of this Part shall prejudice in any man- 
ner charges or mortgages lawfully effected in favour of the Allied and 
Associated Powers or their nationals respectively, before the date at 
which a state of war existed between Bulgaria and the Allied or 
Associated Powers concerned, by the Government of Bulgaria or by 
Bulgarian nationals on assets in their ownership at that date, except 
in so far as variations of such charges or mortgages are specifically 
provided for under the terms of the present Treaty or any treaties 
or agreements supplementary thereto. 

Article 141. 

Any Power to which Bulgarian territory is ceded in accordance 
with the present Treaty undertakes to pay a contribution towards 
the charge for the Bulgarian Public Debt as it stood on October 11, 
1915, including the share of the Ottoman Public Debt attaching to 
Bulgaria in accordance with the principles laid down in Article 134. 

The Reparation Commission, acting through the Inter-Allied 
Commission, will fix the amount of the Bulgarian Public Debt on 
October 11, 1915, taking into account only such portion of the debt 
contracted after August 1, 1914. as was not employed bj 7 Bulgaria 
in preparing the war of aggression. 

The portion of the Bulgarian Public Debt for which each State 
is to assume responsibility will be such as the Principal Allied and 
Associated Powers, acting through the Inter- Allied Commission, 
may determine to be equitable, having regard to the ratio between 
the revenues of the ceded territory and the total revenues of Bulgaria 
for the average of the three complete financial A T ears next before the 
Balkan War of 1912. 



PEACE TREATIES. 93 

Article 142. 

Any Power to which Bulgarian territory is ceded in accordance 
with the present Treaty shall acquire all property and possessions 
situated within such territory belonging to the Bulgarian Govern- 
ment, and the value of such property and possessions so acquired 
shall be fixed by the Reparation Commission and placed by it to 
the credit of Bulgaria (or of Turkey in the case of property and 
possessions ceded to Bulgaria under the Treaty of Constantinople, 
1913), and to the debit of the Power acquiring such property or 
possessions. 

For the purposes of this Article the property and possessions of 
the Bulgarian Government shall be deemed to include all the prop- 
erty of the Crown. 

Article 143. 

Bulgaria renounces any benefit disclosed by the Treaties of Buch- 
arest and Brest-Litovsk, 1918, and by the Treaties supplementary 
thereto, and undertakes to transfer either to Eoumania or to the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, as the case may be, any 
monetary instruments, specie, securities and negotiable instruments 
or goods which she may have received under the aforesaid Treaties. 

Any sums of money and all securities, instruments and goods, of 
whatsoever nature, to be paid, delivered or transferred under the 
provisions of this Article, shall be disposed of by the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers in a manner hereafter to be deter- 
mined by those Powers. 

Article 144. 

The Bulgarian Government undertakes to refrain from prevent- 
ing or impeding such acquisition by the German, Austrian, Hunga- 
rian or Turkish Governments of any rights and interests of German, 
Austrian, Hungarian or Turkish nationals in public utility under- 
takings or concessions operating in Bulgaria as may be required by 
the Reparation Commission under the terms of the Treaties of Peace 
between Germany, Austria, Hungary and Turkey and the Allied 
and Associated Powers. 

Article 145. 

Bulgaria undertakes to transfer to the Reparation Commission 
any claims which she or Bulgarian nationals who acted on her be- 
half may have to payment or reparation by Germany, Austria, 
Hungary or Turkey, or their nationals, particularly any claims 
which may arise now or hereafter in the fulfilment of undertakings 
made between Bulgaria and those Powers during the war. 

Any sums which the Reparation Commission may recover in re- 
spect of such claims shall be transferred to the credit of Bulgaria 
on account of the sums due for reparation. 

Article 146. 

Any monetary obligation arising out of the present Treaty shall 
be understood to be expressed in terms of gold, and shall, unless 
some other arrangement is specifically provided for in any particular 



94 PEACE TREATIES. 

case under the terms of this Treaty or any treaty or agreement sup- 
plementary thereto, be payable at the option of the creditors in 
pounds sterling payable in London, gold dollars of the United States 
of America payable in New York, gold francs payable in Paris, or 
gold lire payable in Rome. 

For the purposes of this Article the gold coins mentioned above 
shall be defined as being of the weight and fineness of gold as en- 
acted by law on January 1, 1914. 

PART IX.— ECONOMIC CLAUSES. 

Section I. — Commercial Relations. 

CHAPTER I.— CUSTOMS REGULATIONS, DUTIES AND RESTRICTIONS. 

Article 147. 

Bulgaria undertakes that goods the produce or manufacture of 
any one of the Allied or Associated States imported into Bulgarian 
territory, from whatsoever place arriving, shall not be subjected 
to oilier or higher duties or charges (including internal charges) 
than those to which the like goods the produce or manufacture of 
any other such State or of any other foreign country are subject. 

Bulgaria will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restric- 
tion on the importation into Bulgarian territory of ai> g< ols 
produce or manufacture of the territories of any one of the Allied 
or Associated States, from whatsoever place arriving, which shall 
not equally extend to the importation of the like goods the produce 
or manufacture of any other such State or of any other foreign 
country. 

Article 148. 

Bulgaria further undertakes that, in the matter of the v 
applicable on importation, no discrimination against the commerce 
of any of the Allied and Associated States as com}i:;r d with any 
other of the said States or any other foreign country shall be made, 
even by indirect means, such as customs regulations or procedure, 
methods of verification or analysis, conditions of payment of duties, 
tariff classification or interpretation, or the operation of monopolies. 

Article 149. 

In all that concerns exportation Bulgaria undertakes that good-. 
natural products or manufactured articles exported from Bulgarian 
territory to the territories of any one of the Allied or .Associated 
States shall not be subjected to other or higher duties or charges 
(including internal charges) than those paid on the like goods ex- 
ported to any other such State or to any other foreign country. 

Bulgaria will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restric- 
tion on the exportation of any goods sent from her territory to 
any one of the Allied or Associated States which shall not equally 
extend to the exportation of the like goods, natural products or 
manufactured articles sent to any other such State or to any other 
foreign country. 



PEACE TREATIES. 95 

Article 150. 

Every favour, immunity or privilege in regard to the importation, 
exportation or transit of goods granted by Bulgaria to any Allied 
or Associated State or to any other foreign country whatever shall 
simultaneously and unconditionally, without request and without 
compensation, be extended to all the Allied and Associated States. 

Article 151. 

During the period of one year after the coming into force of 
the present Treaty, the duties imposed by Bulgaria on imports 
from Allied and Associated States shall not be higher than the 
most favourable duties which were applied to imports into 
Bulgaria on July 28, 1914. 

The payment of customs duties on such imports on a gold basis 
may, subject to the provisions of Article 150, be required in all 
cases where by Bulgarian law such payment in gold could be 
required on July 28, iVil, provided that the rate of conversion of 
gold notes shall be periodically fixed by the Separation Com- 
misssion. 

CHAPTER II.— SHIPPING. 

Article 152. 

As regards sea fishing, maritime coasting trade and maritime 
towage, vessels of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in 
Bulgaria, even in territorial waters, the treatment accorded to 
vessels of the most favored nation. 

Article 153. 

In the case of vessels of the Allied or Associated Powers, all classas 
of certificates or documents relating to the vessel which were recog- 
nised as valid by Bulgaria before the war, or which may hereafter be 
recognised as valid by the principal maritime States, shall be recog- 
nised by Bulgaria as valid and as equivalent to the corresponding- 
certificates issued to Bulgarian vessels. 

A similar recognition shall be accorded to the certificates and docu- 
ments issued to their vessels by the Governments of new States, 
whether they have a sea-coast or not, provided that such certificates 
and documents shall be issued in conformity with the general prac- 
tice observed in the principal maritime States. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to recognise the flag flown by 
the vessels of an Allied or Associated Power having no sea-coast which 
are registered at some one specified place situated in its territory; 
such place shall serve as the port of registry of such vessels. 

CHAPTER III.— UNFAIR COMPETITION. 

Article 154. 

Bulgaria undertakes to adopt all the necessary legislative and ad- 
ministrative measures to protect goods the produce or manufacture 
of any one of the Allied and Associated Powers from all forms of 
unfair competition in commercial transactions. 



9G PEACE TREATIES. 

Bulgaria undertakes to prohibit and repress by seizure and by 
other appropriate remedies the importation, exportation, manufac- 
ture, distribution, sale or offering for sale in her territory of all 
goods bearing upon themselves or their usual get-up or wrappings 
any marks, names, devices or descriptions whatsoever which are cal- 
culated to convey, directly or indirectly, a false indication of the 
origin, type, nature or special characteristics of such goods. 

Article 155. 

Bulgaria undertakes, on condition that reciprocity is accorded in 
these matters, to respect any law, or any administrative or judicial 
decision given in conformity with such law, in force in any Allied 
or Associated State and duly communicated to her by the proper 
authorities, defining or regulating the right to any regional appella- 
tion in respect of wines or spirits produced in the State to which the 
region belongs or the conditions under which the use of any such 
appellation may be permitted; and the importation, exportation, 
manufacture, distribution, sale or offering for sale of products or 
articles bearing regional appellations inconsistent with such law or 
order shall be prohibited by Bulgaria and repressed by the measures 
prescribed in the preceding Article. 

CHAPTER IV.— TREATMENT OF NATIONALS OF ALLIED AND 
ASSOCIATED POWERS. 

Article 156. 
Bulgaria undertakes : 

(a) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers to any prohibition in regard to the exercise of occupations, 
professions, trade and industry, which shall not be equally appli- 
cable to all aliens without exception; 

(b) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers in regard to the rights referred to in paragraph (a) to any 
regulation or restriction which might contravene, directly or indi- 
rectly, the stipulations of the said paragraph, or which shall be 
other or more disadvantageous than those which are applicable to 
nationals of the most favoured nation; 

(c) Not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, their property, rights or interests, including companies and 
associations in which they are interested, to any charge, tax or im- 
post, direct or indirect, other or higher than those which are or may 
be imposed on her own nationals or their property, rights or in- 
terests, or on the nationals of any more favoured nation or their 
property, rights or interests ; 

(d) Not to subject the nationals of any one of the Allied and As- 
sociated Powers to any restriction which was not applicable on July 
1. 1914, to the nationals of such Powers unless such restriction is 
likewise imposed on her own nationals. 

Article 157. 

The nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in 
Bulgarian territory a constant protection for their persons and for 
their property, rights and interests, and shall have free access to the 
courts of law. 



peace treaties. 97 

Article 158. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognise any new nationality which has 
been or may be acquired by her nationals under the laws of the Al- 
lied and Associated Powers and in accordance with the decisions of 
the competent authorities of these Powers pursuant to naturalisa- 
tion laws or under treaty stipulations, and to regard such persons as 
having, in consequence of the acquisition of such new nationality, 
in all respects severed their allegiance to their country of origin. 

Article 159. 

The Allied and Associated Powers may appoint consuls-general, 
consuls, vice-consuls and consular agents in Bulgarian towns and 
ports. Bulgaria undertakes to approve the designation of the 
consuls-general, consuls, vice-consuls and consular agents whose 
names shall be notified to her, and to admit them to the exercise of 
their functions in conformity with the usual rules and customs. 

CHAPTER V.— GENERAL ARTICLES. 

Article 160. 

The obligations imposed on Bulgaria by Chapter I and by Article 
152 of Chapter II above shall cease to have effect five years from 
the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, unless 
otherwise provided in the text, or unless the Council of the League 
of Nations shall, at least twelve months before the expiration of 
that period, decide that these obligations shall be maintained for a 
further period with or without amendment. 

Article 156 of Chapter IV shall remain in operation, with or 
without amendment, after the period of five years for such further 
period, if any, not exceeding five years, as may be determined by a 
majority of the Council of the League of Nations. 

Article 161. 

If the Bulgarian Government engages in international trade, it 
shall not in respect thereof have or be deemed to have any rights, 
privileges or immunities of sovereignty. 

Section II. — Treaties. 

Article 162. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject 
to the provisions thereof, the multilateral treaties, conventions and 
agreements of an economic or technical character enumerated below 
and in the subsequent Articles shall alone by applied as between 
Bulgaria and those of the Allied and Associated Powers party 
thereto : 

(1) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the international 
circulation of motor-cars. 

47808— S. Doc. 7\ 67-1 T 



98 PEACE TREATIES. 

(2) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway 
trucks subject to customs inspection, and Protocol of May 18, 1907. 

(3) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the technical stand- 
ardisation of railways. 

(4) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of 
customs tariffs and the organisation of an International Union for 
the publication of customs tariffs. 

(5) Convention of May 20, 1875, regarding the unification and 
improvement of the metric system. 

(6) Convention of November 29, 1906, regarding the unification 
of pharmacopoeial formula? for potent drugs. 

(7) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an 
International Agricultural Institute at Rome. 

(8) Arrangement of December 9, 1907, for the creation of an 
International Office of Public Hygiene at Paris. 

Article 163. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply the conventions and agreements here- 
inafter mentioned, in so far as concerns them, Bulgaria undertaking 
to comply with the special stipulations contained in this Article. 

Postal ( 'on ventions. 

Conventions and agreements of the Universal Postal Union con- 
cluded at Vienna on July 4, 1891. 

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Wash- 
ington on June 15, 1897. 

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Rome 
on May 26. 1906. 

Telegraph, ic Conventions. 

International telegraphic conventions signed at St. Petersburg* 
on July 10/22, 1875. 

Regulations and tariffs drawn up by the International Tele- 
graphic Conference, Lisbon, June 11, 1908. 

Bulgaria undertakes not to refuse her assent to the conclusion by 
the new States of the special arrangements referred to in the con- 
ventions and agreements relating to the Universal Postal Union and 
to the International Telegraphic Union, to which the said new States 
have adhered or may adhere. 

Article 164. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the Inter- 
national Radio-Telegraphic Convention of July 5, 1912, Bulgaria 
undertaking to comply with the provisional regulations which will 
be indicated to her by the Allied and Associated Powers. 

If within five years after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty a new convention regulating international radio-telegraphic 
communication should have been concluded to take the place of the 



PEACE TREATIES. 99 

Convention of July 5, 1912, this new convention shall bind Bulgaria, 
even if Bulgaria should refuse either to take part in drawing up the 
convention or to subscribe thereto. 

This new convention will likewise replace the provisional regula- 
tions in force. 

Article 165. 

Until the conclusion of a new convention concerning fishing in the 
waters of the Danube to replace the Convention of November U9, 1901, 
the transitory regime to be established will be settled by an arbi- 
trator appointed by the European Commission of the Danube. 

Article 1G6. 
Bulgaria undertakes: 

(1) Within a period of tweve months from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty to adhere in the prescribed form to the Inter- 
national Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883, for the protection 
of industrial property, revised at Washington on June 2, 1911, and 
the International Convention of Berne of September 9, 1886, for the 
protection of literary and artistic works, revised at Berlin on Novem- 
ber 13. 1908, and the Additional Protocol of Berne of March 20. 1914, 
relating to the protection of literary and artistic works ; 

(2) Within the same period to recognise and protect by effective 
legislation in accordance with the principles of the said Conventions 
the industrial, literary and artistic property of nationals of the Allied 
and Associated States. 

In addition and independently of the obligations mentioned above, 
Bulgaria undertakes to continue to assure such recognition and such 
protection to all the industrial, literary and artistic property of the 
nationals of each of the Allied and Associated States to an extent at 
least as great as upon July 28, 1914, and upon the same conditions. 

Article 167. 

Bulgaria undertakes to adhere to the conventions and agreements 
hereunder enumerated, or to ratify them: 

(1) Conventions of March 14, 1884, December 1, 1886. and March 
23. 1887, and Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protection 
of submarine cables. 

(2) Convention of December 31, 1913, regarding the unification of 
commercial statistics. 

(3) Conventions of September 23, 1910. respecting the unification 
of certain regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea. 

(4) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding the exemption of 
hospital ships from dues and charges in ports. 

(5) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of 
nightwork for women. 

(6) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of the 
use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches. 

(7) Conventions of May 18, 1904, and May 4, 1910, regarding the 
suppression of the White Slave Traffic. 

(8) Convention of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of 
obscene publications. 



100 PEACE TREATIES. 

(9) Sanitary Conventions of January 30, 1892, April 15, 1893, 
April 3, 1894, March 19, 1897, and December 3, 1903. 

(10) Conventions of November 3, 1881, and April 15, 1889, re- 
garding precautionary measures against phylloxera. 

(11) Convention of March 19, 1902, regarding the protection of 
birds useful to agriculture. 

Article 168. 

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers, being guided by the 
general principles or special provisions of the present Treaty, shall 
notify to Bulgaria the bilateral treaties or conventions of all kinds 
which such Allied or Associated Power wishes to revive with 
Bulgaria. 

The notification referred to in the present Article shall be made 
either directly or through the intermediary of another Power. Re- 
ceipt thereof shall be acknowledged in writing by Bulgaria. The 
date of the revival shall be that of the notification. 

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake among themselves 
not to revive with Bulgaria any conventions or treaties which are not 
in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty. 

The notification shall mention any provisions of the said conven- 
tions and treaties which, not being in accordance with the terms of 
the present Treaty, shall not be considered as revived. 

In case of any difference of opinion, the League of Nations will 
be called on to decide. 

A period of six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty is allowed to the Allied and Associated Powers within which 
to make the notification. 

( )nlv those bilateral treaties and conventions which have been the 
subject of such a notification shall be revived between the Allied and 
Associated Powers and Bulgaria ; all the others are and shall remain 
abrogated. 

The above rules apply to all bilateral treaties or conventions exist- 
ing between the Allied and Associated Powers and Bulgaria, even if 
the said Allied and Associated Powers have not been in a state of war 
with Bulgaria. 

Article 169. 

Bulgaria recognises that all the treaties, conventions or agree- 
ments which she has concluded with Germany, Austria, Hungary 
or Turkey since August 1, 1914, until the coming into force of the 
present Treaty are and remain abrogated by the present Treaty. 

Article 170. 

Bulgaria undertakes to secure to the Allied and Associated Pow- 
ers, and to the officials and nationals of the said Powers, the enjoy- 
ment of all the rights and advantages of any kind which she may 
have granted to Germany, Austria, Hungary or Turkey, or to the 
officials and nationals of these States by treaties, conventions or 
arrangements concluded before August 1, 1914, so long as those 
treaties, conventions or arrangements remain in force. 



PEACE TEEATIES. 101 

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to accept or 
not the enjoyment of these rights and advantages. 

Article 171. 

Bulgaria recognises that all treaties, conventions or arrangements 
which she concluded with Russia, or with any State or Government 
of which the territory previously formed a part of Russia, before 
August 1, 1914, or after that date until the coming into force of 
the present Treaty, or with Eoumania after August 15, 1916, until 
the coming into force of the present Treaty, are and remain abro- 
gated. 

Article 172. 

Should an Allied or Associated Power, Russia, or a State or Gov- 
ernment of which the territory formerly constituted a part of Rus- 
sia, have been forced since August 1, 1914, by reason of military 
occupation or by any other means or for anA^ other cause, to grant 
or to allow to be granted by the act of any public authority, con- 
cessions, privileges and favours of any kind to Bulgaria or to a 
Bulgarian national, such concessions, privileges and favours are 
?'/as(9 facto annulled by the present Treaty. 

No claims or indemnities which may result from this annulment 
shall be charged against the Allied or Associated Powers or the 
Powers, States, Governments or public authorities which are re- 
leased from their engagements by the present Article. 

Article 173. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty Bulgaria under- 
takes to give the Allied and Associated Powers and their nationals 
the benefit ipso facto of the rights and advantages of any kind which 
she has granted by treaties, conventions or arrangements to non- 
belligerent States or their nationals since August 1, 1914, until the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, so long as those treaties, 
conventions or arrangements remain in force. 

Article 174. 

Those of the High Contracting Parties who have not vet signed, 
or who have signed but not yet ratified, the Opium Convention 
signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, agree to bring the said 
Convention into force, and for this purpose to enact the necessary 
legislation without delay and in any case within a period of twelve 
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Furthermore, they agree that ratification of the present Treaty 
should, in the case of Powers which have not yet ratified the Opium 
Convention, be deemed in all respects equivalent to the ratification 
of that Convention, and to the signature of the Special Protocol 
which was opened at The Hague in accordance with the resolutions 
adopted by the Third Opium Conference in 1914 for bringing the 
said Convention into force. 



102 PEACE TREATIES. 

For this purpose the Government of the French Republic will 
communicate to the Government of the Netherlands a certified copy 
of the protocol of the deposit of ratifications of the present Treaty, 
and will invite the Government of the Netherlands to accept and 
deposit the said certified copy as if it were a deposit of ratifications 
of the Opium Convention and a signature of the Additional Pro- 
tocol of 1914. 

Article 175. 

The immunities and privileges of foreigners as well as the rights 
of jurisdiction and of consular protection enjoyed by the Allied and 
Associated Powers in Bulgaria toy virtue of the capitulations, usages 
and treaties, may form the subject of special conventions between 
each of the Allied and Associated Powers concerned and Bulgaria. 

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers will enjoy in Bul- 
garia in the matters mentioned above most favoured nation treat- 
ment. 

The Allied and Associated Powers concerned undertake among 
themselves to conclude only such conventions as shall conform to 
the stipulations of the present Treaty. In case of difference of 
opinion among them, the League of Nations will be called upon to 
decide. 

Section III. — Debts. 

Article 176. 

There shall be settled through the intervention of Clearing Offices 
to be established by each of the High Contracting Parties within 
three months of the notification referred to in paragraph (e) here- 
after the following classes of pecuniary obligations: 

(1) Debts payable before the war and due by a national of one 
of the Contracting Powers, residing within its territory, to a na- 
tional of an Opposing Power, residing within its territory; 

(2) Debts which became payable during the war to nationals of 
one Contracting Power residing within its territory and arose out of 
transactions or contracts with the nationals of an Opposing Power, 
resident within its territory, of which the total or partial execution 
was suspended on account of the existence of a state of war; 

(?>) Interest which has accrued due before and during the war to a 
national of one of the Contracting Powers in respect of securities 
issued or taken over by an Opposing Power, provided that the pay- 
ment of interest on such securities to the nationals of that Power or to 
neutrals has not been suspended during the war; 

(4) Capital sums which have become payable before and during 
the war to nationals of one of the Contracting Powers in respect of 
securities issued by one of the Opposing Powers, provided that the 
payment of such capital sums to nationals of that Power or to neutrals 
has not been suspended during the Avar. 

The proceeds of liquidation of enemy property, rights and interests 
mentioned in Section IV and in the Annex thereto will be accounted 
for through the Clearing Offices, in the currency and at the rate of 
exchange hereinafter provided in paragraph (d), and disposed of 
by them under the conditions provided by the said Section and Annex. 



PEACE TREATIES. 103 

The settlements provided for in this Article shall be effected accord- 
ing to the following principles and in accordance with the Annex to 
this Section : 

(a) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall prohibit, as from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty, both the payment and the 
acceptance of payment of such debts, and also all communications be- 
tween the interested parties with regard to the settlement of the said 
debts otherwise than through the Clearing Offices ; 

(b) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be respectively 
responsible for the payment of such debts due by its nationals, except 
in the cases where before the war the debtor was in a state of bank- 
ruptcy or failure, or had given formal indication of insolvency, or 
where the debt was due by a company whose business has been liqui- 
dated under emergency legislation during the war. Nevertheless, 
debts due by the inhabitants of territory invaded or occupied by the 
enemy before the Armistice will not be guaranteed by the States of 
which those territories form part ; 

(c) The sums due to the nationals of one of the Contracting Powers 
by the nationals of an Opposing Power will be debited to the Clear- 
ing Office of the country of the debtor, and paid to the creditor by the 
Clearing Office of the country of the. creditor; 

(d) Debts shall be paid or credited in the currency of such one of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, their colonies or protectorates, or 
the British Dominions or India, as may be concerned. If the debts are 
payable in some other currency they shall be paid or credited in the 
currency of the country concerned, whether an Allied or Associated 
Power, Colony, Protectorate, British Dominion or India, at the pre- 
war rate of exchange. 

For the purpose of this provision, the pre-war rate of exchange shall 
be defined as the average cable transfer rate prevailing in the Allied 
or Associated country concerned during the month immediately pre- 
ceding the outbreak of war between the Power concerned and Bul- 
garia. 

If a contract provides for a fixed rate of exchange governing the 
conversion of the currency in which the debt is stated into the cur- 
rency of the Allied or Associated Power concerned, then the above 
provisions concerning the rate of exchange shall not apply. 

In the case of the new States of Poland and Czecho- Slovakia, the 
currency in which and the rate of exchange at which debts shall be 
paid or* credited shall be determined by the Reparation Commission 
provided for in Part VII (Reparation), unless they shall have been 
previously settled by agreement between the States interested ; 

(e) The provisions of this Article and of the Annex hereto shall not 
apply as between Bulgaria on the one hand and any one of the Allied 
and Associated Powers, their colonies or protectorates, or any one of 
the British Dominions or India, on the other hand, unless within a 
period of one month from the deposit of the ratification of the present 
Treaty by the Power in question, or of the ratification on behalf 
of such Dominion or of India, notice to that effect is given to Bul- 
garia by the Government of such Allied or Associated Power or of 
such Dominion or of India as the case may be ; 

(/') The Allied and Associated Powers who have adopted this Arti- 
cle and the Annex hereto may agree between themselves to apply them 



104 PEACE TREATIES. 

to their respective nationals established in their territory so far as 
regards matters between their nationals and Bulgarian nationals. In 
this case the payments made by application of this provision will be 
subject to arrangements between the Allied and Associated Clearing 
Offices concerned. 

Annex. 

1. 

Each of the High Contracting Parties will, within three months 
from the notification provided for in Article 176, paragraph (e), 
establish a Clearing Office for the collection and payment of enemy 
debts. 

Local Clearing Offices may be established for any particular portion 
of the territories of the High Contracting Parties. Such local Clear- 
ing Offices may perform all the functions of a central Clearing Office 
in their respecth T e districts, except that all transactions with the Clear- 
ing Office in the opposing State must be effected through the central 
Clearing Office. 

2. 

In this Annex the pecuniary obligations referred to in the first 
paragraph of Article 176 are described as " enemy debts", the per- 
sons from whom the same are due as " enemy debtors", the persons 
to whom they are due as " enemy creditors ", the Clearing Office in 
the country of the creditor is called the " Creditor Clearing Office " 
and the Clearing Office in the country of the debtor is called the 
" Debtor Clearing Office ". 



The High Contracting Parties will subject contraventions of para- 
graph (a) of Article 176 to the same penalties as are at present 
provided by their legislation for trading with the enemy. They 
will similarly prohibit within their territory all legal process relat- 
ing to payment of enemy debts, except in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this Annex. 

4. 

The Government guarantee specified in paragraph (b) of Article 
176 shall take effect whenever, for any reason, a debt shall not be 
recoverable, except in a case where at the date of the outbreak of war 
the debt was barred by the laws of prescription in force in the 
country of the debtor, or where the debtor was at that time in a 
state of bankruptcy or failure or had given formal indication of 
insolvency, or where the debt was due by a company whose business 
has been liquidated under emergency legislation during the war. 
In such case the procedure specified by this Annex shall apply to 
payment of the dividends. 

The terms " bankruptcy " and " failure " refer to the application 
of legislation providing for such juridical conditions. The expres- 
sion formal indication of insolvency " bears the same meaning as it 
has in English law. 



PEACE TREATIES. 105 

5. 

Creditors shall give notice to the Creditor Clearing Office within 
six months of its establishment of debts due to them, and shall 
furnish the Clearing Office with any documents and information re- 
quired of them. 

The High Contracting Parties will take all suitable measures to 
trace and punish collusion between enemy creditors and debtors. 
The Clearing Offices will communicate to one another any evidence 
and information which might help the discovery and punishment of 
such collusion. 

The High Contracting Parties will facilitate as much as possible 
postal and telegraphic Communication at the expense of the parties 
concerned and through the intervention of the clearing Offices be- 
tween debtors and creditors desirous of coming to an agreement as 
to the amount of their debt. 

The Creditor Clearing Office will notify the Debtor Clearing Office 
of all debts declared to it. The Debtor Clearing Office will, in due 
course, inform the Creditor Clearing Office which debts are admitted 
and which debts are contested. In the latter case, the Debtor Clear- 
ing Office will give the grounds for the non-admission of debt. 

6. 

When a debt has been admitted, in whole or in part, the Debtor 
Clearing Office will at once credit the Creditor Clearing Office with 
the amount admitted, and at the same time notify it of such credit. 



The debt shall be deemed to be admitted in full and shall be 
credited forthwith to the Creditor Clearing Office unless within three 
months from the receipt of the notification or such longer time as 
may be agreed to by the Creditor Clearing Office notice has been 
given by the Debtor Clearing Office that is not admitted. 



When the whole or part of a debt is not admitted the two Clear- 
ing Offices will examine into the matter jointly and will endeavour 
to bring the parties to an agreement. 

9. 

The Creditor Clearing Office will pay to the individual creditor 
the sums credited to it out of the funds placed at its disposal by the 
Government of its country and in accordance with the conditions 
fixed by the said Government, retaining any sums considered neces- 
sary to cover risks, expenses or commissions. 

10. ' 

Any person having claimed payment of an enemy debt which is 
not admitted in whole or in part shall pay to the Clearing Office, 
by way of fine, interest at 5 per cent, on the part not admitted. Any 



106 PEACE TREATIES. 

person having unduly refused to admit the whole or part of a debt 
claimed from him shall pay, by way of fine, interest at 5 per cent, 
on the amount with regard to which his refusal shall be disallowed. 

Such interest shall run from the date of expiration of the period 
provided for in paragraph 7 until the date on which the claim shall 
have been disallowed or the debt paid. 

Each Clearing Office shall, in so far as it is concerned, take steps 
to collect the fines above provided for, and will be responsible if 
such fines cannot be collected. 

The fines will be credited to the other Clearing Office, which shall 
retain them as a contribution towards the cost of carrying out the 
present provisions. 

11. 

The balance between the Clearing Offices shall be struck every 
three months and the credit balance paid in cash by the debtor State 
within a month. 

Nevertheless, any credit balances which may be due by one or 
more of the Allied and Associated Powers shall be retained until 
complete pajmient shall have been effected of the sums due to the 
Allied or Associated Powers or their nationals on account of the war. 

12. 

To facilitate discussion between the Clearing Offices each of them 
shall have a representative at the place where the other is established. 

13. 

Except for special reasons all discussions in regard to claims will, 
so far as possible, take place at the Debtor Clearing Office. 

14. 

In conformity with Article 176, paragraph (&), the High Con- 
tracting Parties are responsible for the payment of the enemy debts 
owing by their nationals. 

The Debtor Clearing Office will therefore credit the Creditor 
Clearing Office with all debts admitted, even in case of inability to 
collect them from the individual debtor. The Governments con- 
cerned will, nevertheless, invest their respective Clearing Offices with 
all necessary powers for the recovery of debts which have been 
admitted. 

As an exception, the admitted debts owing by persons having suf- 
fered injury from acts of war shall only be credited to the Creditor 
Clearing Office when the compensation due to the person concerned 
in respect of such injury shall have been paid. 

15. 

Each Government will defray the expenses of the Clearing Office 
set up in its territory, including the salaries of the staff. 



PEACE TREATIES. 107 

16. 

Where the two Clearing Offices are unable to agree whether a 
debt claimed is due, or in case of a difference between an enemy 
debtor and an enemy creditor, or between the Clearing Offices, the 
dispute shall either be referred to arbitration if the parties so agree 
under conditions fixed by agreement between them, or referred to the 
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI hereafter. 

At the request of the Creditor Clearing Office the dispute may, 
however, be submitted to the jurisdiction of the Courts of the place 
of domicile of the debtor. 

17. 

Recovery of sums found by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, the 
Court, or the Arbitration Tribunal to be due shall be effected through 
the Clearing Offices, as if these sums were debts admitted by the 
Debtor Clearing Office. 

18. 

Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint an agent who 
will be responsible for the presentation to the Mixed Arbitral Tri- 
bunal of the cases conducted on behalf of its Clearing Office. This 
agent will exercise a general control over the representatives or 
counsel employed by its nationals. 

Decisions will be arrived at on documentary evidence, but it will 
be open to the Tribunal to hear the parties in person, or according 
to their preference by their representatives approved by the two 
Governments, or by the agent referred to above, who shall be com- 
petent to intervene along with the party or to reopen and maintain 
a claim abandoned by the same. 

19. 

The Clearing Offices concerned will lay before the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal all the information and documents in their possession, so 
as to enable the Tribunal to decide rapidly on the cases which are 
brought before it. 

20. 

Where one of the parties concerned appeals against the joint de- 
cision of the two Clearing Offices he shall make a deposit against 
the costs, which deposit shall only be refunded when the first judg- 
ment is modified in favour of the appellant and in proportion to the 
success he may attain, his opponent in case of such a refund being re- 
quired to pay an equivalent proportion of the costs and expenses. 
Security accepted by the Tribunal may be substituted for a deposit. 

A fee of 5 per cent of the amount in dispute shall be charged in 
respect of all cases brought before the Tribunal. This fee shall, 
unless the Tribunal directs otherwise, be borne by the unsuccessful 
party. Such fee shall be added to the deposit referred to. It is 
also independent of the security. 

The Tribunal may award to one of the parties a sum in respect 
of the expenses of the proceedings. 



108 PEACE TREATIES. 

Any sum payable under this paragraph shall be credited to the 
Clearing Office of the successful party as a separate item. 

21. 

With a view to the rapid settlement of claims, due regard shall 
be paid in the appointment of all persons connected with the Clear- 
ing Offices or with the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to their knowledge 
of the language of the other country concerned. 

Each of the Clearing Offices will be at liberty to correspond with 
the other and to forward documents in its own language. 

22. 

Subject to any special agreement to the contrary between the Gov- 
ernments concerned, debts shall carry interest in accordance with the 
following provisions : 

Interest shall not be payable on sums of money due by way of 
dividend, interest or other periodical payments which themselves 
represent interest on capital. 

The rate of interest shall be 5 per cent, per annum except in cases 
where, by contract, law or custom, the creditor is entitled to pay- 
ment of interest at a different rate. In such cases the rate to which 
he is entitled shall prevail. 

Interest shall run from the date of commencement of hostilities 
(or, if the sum of money to be recovered fell due during the war, 
from the date at which it fell due) until the sum is credited to the 
Clearing Office of the creditor. 

Sums due by way of interest shall be treated as debts admitted by 
the Clearing Offices and shall be credited to the Creditor Clearing 
Office in the same way as such debts. 

23. 

AVhere by decision of the Clearing Offices or the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal a claim is held not to fall within Article 176, the creditor 
shall be at liberty to prosecute the claim before the Courts or to take 
such other proceedings as may be open to him. 

The presentation of a claim to the Clearing Office suspends the op- 
eration of any period of prescription. 

24. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the 
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive and to render them 
binding upon their nationals. 

25. 

In any case where a Creditor Clearing Office declines to notify a 
claim to the Debtor Clearing Office, or to take any step provided for 
in this Annex, intended to make effective in whole or in part a request 
of which it has received due notice, the enemy creditor shall be en- 
titled to receive from the Clearing Office a certificate setting out the 



PEACE TREATIES. 109 

amount of the claim, and shall then be entitled to prosecute the claim 
before the courts or to take such other proceedings as may be open 
to him. 

Section IV. — Properties, Rights and Interests. 

Article 177. 

The question of private property, rights and interests in an enemy 
country shall be settled according to the principles laid down in 
this Section and to the provisions of the Annex hereto. 

(a) The exceptional war measures and measures of transfer (de- 
fined in paragraph 3 of the Annex hereto) taken by Bulgaria with 
respect to the property, rights and interests of nationals of Allied or 
Associated Powers, including companies and associations in which 
they are interested, when liquidation has not been completed, shall 
be immediately discontinued or stayed and the property, rights and 
interests concerned restored to their owners, who shall enjoy full 
rights therein in acordance with the provisions of Article 178. The 
Bulgarian Government will revoke all legislative or administrative 
provisions which it may have made during the war forbidding com- 
panies of Allied and Associated nationality or companies in which 
Allied or Associated nationals are interested to enjoy the benefit of 
concessions or contracts in Bulgaria. 

(b) Subject to any contrary stipulations which may be provided 
for in the present Treaty, the^AUied and Associated Powers reserve 
the right to retain and liquidate all property, rights and interests 
belonging at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty 
to Bulgarian nationals, or companies controlled by them, within 
their territories, colonies, possessions and protectorates, including 
territories ceded to them by the present Treaty. 

The liquidation shall be carried out in accordance with the laws 
of the Allied or Associated State concerned, and the Bulgarian 
owner shall not be able to dispose of such property, rights or inter- 
ests nor to subject them to any charge without the consent of that 
State. 

Bulgarian nationals who acquire ipso facto the nationality of an 
Allied or Associated Power in accordance with the provisions of the 
present Treaty will not be considered as Bulgarian nationals within 
the meaning of this paragraph. 

(e) The price or the amount of compensation in respect of the ex- 
ercise of the right referred to in paragraph (b) will be fixed in ac- 
cordance with the methods of sale or valuation adopted by the laws 
of the county in which the property has been retained or liquidated. 

(d) As between the Allied and Associated Powers or their nation- 
als on the one hand and Bulgaria or her nationals on the other hand, 
all the exceptional war measures, or measures of transfer, put into 
operation by the Allied and Associated Powers, or acts done or to be 
clone in execution of such measures as defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 
of the Annex hereto, shall be considered as final and binding upon 
all persons except as regards the reservations laid down in the pres- 
ent Treaty. If however in the States referred to in paragraph (i) of 
this Article measures prejudicial to the property, rights and interests 
of Bulgarian nationals and not in accordance with the local law 



110 PEACE TREATIES. 

have been taken, the Bulgarian proprietor shall be entitled to com- 
pensation for the damage caused to him. This compensation shall 
be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Section VI. 
The same measures and all others affecting the property, rights and 
interests of nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers — notably, 
acts of requisition or seizure, wheresoever effected, by the civil or 
military authorities, the troops or the population of Bulgaria, or 
effected in Bulgaria by the civil or military authorities or the troops 
of the Powers allied with Bulgaria — are declared void, and the Bul- 
garian Government will take all measures necesary for the restora- 
tion of such property, rights and interests. 

(e) The nationals of Allied and Associated Powers shall be en- 
titled to compensation in respect of damage or injury inflicted upon 
their property, rights or interests, including any company or asso- 
ciation in which they are interested, in Bulgarian territory as it 
existed on September 20, 1915, by the application either of the ex- 
ceptional war measures or measures of transfer mentioned in para- 
graphs 1 and 3 of the Annex hereto. The claims made in this respect 
by such nationals shall be investigated, and the total of the compen- 
sation shall be determined by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided 
for in Section VI, or by an arbitrator appointed by that Tribunal. 
This compensation shall be borne by Bulgaria, and may be charged 
upon the property of Bulgarian nationals within the territory or 
under the control of the claimant's State. This property may be 
constituted as a pledge for enemy liabilities under the conditions 
fixed by paragraph 1 of the Annex hereto. The payment of this 
compensation may be made by the Allied or Associated State, and 
the amount will be debited to Bulgaria. 

(/) Whenever a national of an Allied or Associated Power is en- 
titled to property which has been subjected to a measure of. transfer 
in Bulgarian territory and expresses a desire for its restitution, his 
claim for compensation in accordance with paragraph (e) shall be 
satisfied by the restitution of the said property if it still exists in 
specie. 

In such case Bulgaria shall take all necessary steps to restore the 
evicted owner to the possession of his property, free from all encum- 
brances or burdens with which it may have been charged after the 
liquidation, and to indemnify all third parties injured by the 
restitution. 

If the restitution provided for in this paragraph cannot be ef- 
fected, private agreements arranged by the intermediation of the 
Powers concerned or the Clearing Offices provided for in the Annex 
to Section III may be made, in order to secure that the national of 
the Allied or Associated Power may secure compensation for the 
injury referred to in paragraph (e) by the grant of advantages or 
equivalent which he agrees to accept in place of the property, rights 
or interests of which he was deprived. 

Through restitution in accordance with this Article, the price or 
the amount of compensation fixed by the application of paragraph 
(e) will be reduced by the actual value of the property restored, ac- 
count being taken of compensation in respect of loss of use or de- 
terioration. 

([/) The rights conferred by paragraph (/) arc reserved to owners 
who are nationals of Allied or Associated Powers within whose ter- 



PEACE TREATIES. Ill 

ritory legislative measures prescribing the general liquidation of 
enemy property, rights or interests were not applied before the sig- 
nature of the Armistice. 

(A) Except in cases where, by application of paragraph (/), resti- 
tutions in specie have been made, the net proceeds of sales of enemy 
property, rights or interests, wherever situated, carried out either by 
virtue of war legislation, or by application of this Article, and in 
general all cash assets of enemies, shall be dealt with as follows : 

(1) As regards Powers adopting Section III and the Annex 
thereto, the said proceeds and cash assets shall be credited to the 
Power of which the owner is a national, through the Clearing Office 
established thereunder ; any credit balance in favour of Bulgaria re- 
sulting therefrom shall be dealt Avith as provided in Article 129, Part 
Vll (Reparation), of the present Treaty. 

(2) As regards Powers not adopting Section III and the Annex 
thereto, the proceeds of the property, rights and interests, and the 
cash assets, of the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers held by 
Bulgaria shall be paid immediately to the person entitled thereto or 
to his Government ; the proceeds of the property, rights and inter- 
ests, and the cash assets, of Bulgarian nationals received by an Allied 
or Associated Power shall be subject to disposal by such Power in 
accordance with its laws and regulations, and may be applied in pay- 
ment of the claims and debts defined by this Article or paragraph 4 
of the Annex hereto. Any property, rights and interests or proceeds 
thereof or cash assets not used as above provided may be retained by 
the said Allied and Associated Power, and if retained the cash value 
thereof shall be dealt with as provided in Article 129, Part VII 
(Reparation), of the present Treaty. 

(i) In the case of liquidations effected in new States which are 
signatories of the present Treaty as Allied and Associated Powers, 
or in States to which Bulgarian territory is transferred by the pres- 
ent Treaty, or in States which are not entitled to share in the repa- 
ration payments to be made by Bulgaria, the proceeds of liquidations 
effected by such States shall, subject to the rights of the Reparation 
Commission under the present Treaty, particularly under Article 
121, Part VII (Reparation), of the present Treaty, be paid direct to 
the owner. If, on the application of that owner, the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal provided for by Section VI of this Part, or an arbitrator 
appointed by that Tribunal, is satisfied that the conditions of the sale 
or measures taken by the Government of the State in question out- 
side its general legislation were unfairly prejudicial to the price 
obtained, the Tribunal or arbitrator shall have discretion to award 
to the owner equitable compensation to be paid by that State. 

(j) Bulgaria undertakes to compensate her nationals in respect of 
the sale or retention of their property, rights or interests in Allied 
or Associated States. 

(k) The amount of all taxes and imposts upon capital levied or 
to be levied by Bulgaria on the property, rights and interests of the 
nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers from September 29, 
1918, until three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights or interests which have 
been subjected to exceptional measures of war, until restitution in 
accordance with the present Treaty, shall be restored to the owners. 



112 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 178. 

Bulgaria undertakes, with regard to the property, rights and inter- 
ests, including companies and associations in which they were inter- 
ested, restored to nationals of Allied and Associated Powers in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Article 177 : 

(a) to restore and maintain, except as expressly provided in the 
present Treaty, the property, rights and interests of the nationals 
of Allied or Associated Powers in the legal position obtaining in re- 
spect of the property, rights and interests of Bulgarian nationals 
under the laws in force before the war; 

(b) not to subject the property, rights or interests of the nationals 
of the Allied or Associated Powers to any measures in derogation of 
property rights which are not applied equally to the property, rights 
and interests in Bulgarian nationals, and to pay adequate compen- 
sation in the event of the application of these measures. 

Article 179. 

Diplomatic or consular claims made before the war by the Repre- 
sentatives or Agents of the Allied and Associated Powers with re- 
gard to the private property, rights or interests of nationals of those 
Powers shall, on the application of the Power concerned, be submit- 
ted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI. 

Annex. 

I. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 177, paragraph (d), 
the validity of vesting orders and of orders for the winding up of 
businesses or companies, and of any other orders, directions, de- 
cisions or instructions of any court or any department of the Gov- 
ernment of any of the Allied and Associated Powers made or given, 
or purporting to be made or given, in pursuance of war legislation 
with regard to enemy property, rights and interests is confirmed. 
The interests of all persons shall be regarded as having been effec- 
tively dealt with by any order, direction, decision or instruction deal- 
ing with property in which they may be interested, whether or not 
such interests are specifically mentioned in the order, direction, de- 
cision or instruction. No question shall be raised as to the regularity 
of a transfer of any property, rights or interests dealt with in pur- 
suance of any such order, direction, decision or instruction. Every 
action taken' with regard to any property, business or company, 
whether as regards its investigation, sequestration, compulsory ad- 
ministration, use, requisition, supervision, or winding up, the sale or 
management of property, rights or interests, the collection or dis- 
charge of debts, the payment of costs, charges or expenses, or any 
other matter whatsoever, in pursuance of order, directions, decisions 
or instructions of any court or of any department of the Government 
of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, made or given, or pur- 
porting to lie made or given, in pursuance of war legislation with 
regard to enemy property, rights or interests, is confirmed. Pro- 
vided that the provisions of this paragraph shall not be held to preju- 



PEACE TREATIES. 113 

dice the titles to property heretofore acquired in good faith and for 
value and in accordance with the laws of the country in which the 
property is situated by nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers. 

2. 

No claim or action shall be made or brought against any Allied 
or Associated Power or against any person acting on behalf of or 
under the direction of any legal authority or department of the 
Government of such a Power by Bulgaria or by any Bulgarian 
national wherever resident in respect of any act or omission with 
regard to his property, rights or interests during the war or in 
preparation for the war. Similarly, no claim or action shall be 
made or brought against any person in respect of any act or omission 
under or in accordance with the exceptional war measures, laws or 
regulations of anv Allied or Associated Power. 



In Article 177 and this Annex the expression " exceptional war 
measures" includes measures of all kinds, legislative, administra- 
tive, judicial or others, that have been taken or will be taken here- 
after with regard to enemy property, and which have had or will 
have the effect of removing from the proprietors the power of dis- 
position over their property, though without affecting the owner- 
ship, such as measures of supervision, of compulsory administra- 
tion, and of sequestration; or measures which have had or will have 
as an object the seizure of, the use of, or the interference with enemy 
assets, for whatsoever motive, under whatsoever form or in what- 
soever place. Acts in the execution of these measures include all 
detentions, instructions, orders or decrees of Government depart- 
ments or courts applying these measures to enemy property, as 
well as acts performed by any person connected with the adminis- 
tration or the supervision of enemy property, such as the payment 
of debts, the collecting of credits, the payment of any costs, charges 
or expenses, or the collecting of fees. 

Measures of transfer are those which have affected or will affect 
the ownership of enemy property by transferring it in whole or 
in part to a person other than the enemy owner, and without his 
consent, such as measures directing the sale, liquidation or devolu- 
tion of ownership in enemy property, or the cancelling of titles or 
securities. 



All property, rights and interests of Bulgarian nationals within 
the territory of any Allied or Associated Power and the net proceeds 
of their sale, liquidation or other dealing therewith may be charged 
by that Allied or Associated Power in the first place with payment 
of amounts due in respect of claims by the nationals of that Allied 
or Associated Power with regard to their property, rights and in- 
terests, including companies and associations in which they are 
interested, in Bulgarian territory, or debts owing to them by Bul- 
garian nationals, and with payment of claims growing out of acts 

47S08— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 S 



114 PEACE TREATIES. 

committed by the Bulgarian Government or by any Bulgarian au- 
thorities since October 11, 1915, and before that Allied or Associated 
Power entered into the war. The amount of such claims may be 
assessed by an arbitrator appointed by M. Gustave Ador, if he is 
willing, or if no such appointment is made by him, by an arbitrator 
appointed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section 
V. They may be charged in the second place with payment of the 
amounts due in respect of claims by the nationals of such Allied or 
Associated Power with regard to their property, rights and interests 
in the territory of other enemy Powers, in so far as those claims are 
otherwise unsatisfied. 

5. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 177, where immedi- 
ately before the outbreak of war a company incorporated in an 
Allied or Associated State had rights in common with a company 
controlled by it and incorporated in Bulgaria to the use of trade- 
marks in third countries, or enjoyed the use in common with such 
company of unique means of reproduction of goods or articles for 
sale in third countries, the former company shall alone have the 
right to use these trade -marks in third countries to the exclusion of 
the Bulgarian company, and these unique means of reproduction 
shall be handed over to the former company, notwithstanding any 
action taken under Bulgarian war legislation with regard to the 
latter company or its business, industrial property or shares. Never- 
theless, the former company, if requested, shall deliver to the latter 
company derivative copies permitting the continuation of repro- 
duction of articles for use within Bulgarian territory. 

6. 

Up to the time when restitution is carried out in accordance with 
Article 177, Bulgaria is responsible for the conservation of prop- 
erty, rights and interests of the nationals of Allied or Associated 
Powers, including companies and associations in which they are 
interested, that have been subjected by her to exceptional war 
measures. 



Within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty 
the Allied or Associated Powers will specify the property, rights 
and interests over which they intend to exercise the right provided 
in Article 177, paragraph (/). 

8. 

The restitution provided in Article 177 will be carried out by order 
of the Bulgarian Government or of the authorities which have been 
substituted for it. Detailed accounts of the action of administrators 
shall be furnished to the interested persons by the Bulgarian au- 
thorities upon request, which may be made at any time after the 
coming into force of the present Treaty. 



PEACE TREATIES. 115 

9. 

Until completion of the liquidation provided by Article 177, para- 
graph (fr), the property, rights and interests of Bulgarian nationals 
will continue to be subject to exceptional war measures that have 
been or will be taken with regard to them. 

10. 

Bulgaria will, within six months of the coming into force of the. 
present Treaty, deliver to each Allied or Associated Power all securi- 
ties, certificates, deeds or other documents of title held by its na- 
tionals and relating to property, rights or interests situated in the 
territory of that Allied or Associated Power, including any shares, 
stock, debentures, debenture stock or other obligations of any com- 
pany incorporated in accordance with the laws of that Power. 

Bulgaria will at any time on demand of any Allied or Associated 
Power furnish such information as may be required with regard to 
the property, rights and interests of Bulgarian nationals within the 
territory of such Allied or Associated Power, or with regard to any 
transactions concerning such property, rights or interests effected 
since September 1, 1915. 

11. 

The expression " cash assets " includes all deposits or funds estab- 
lished before or after the existence of a state of war, as well as all 
assets coming from deposits, revenues or profits collected by adminis- 
trators, sequestrators or others from funds placed on deposit or other- 
wise, but does not include sums belonging to the Allied or Associated 
Powers or to their component States, Provinces or Municipalities. 

12. 

All investments wheresoever effected with the cash assets of na- 
tionals of the High Contracting Parties, including companies and 
associations in which such nationals were interested, by persons re- 
sponsible for the administration of enemy properties or having con- 
trol over such administration, or by order of such persons or of any 
authority whatsoever, shall be annulled. These cash assets shall be 
accounted for irrespective of any such investment. 

13. 

Within one month from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, or on demand at any time, Bulgaria will deliver to the 
Allied and Associated Powers all accounts, vouchers, records, docu- 
ments and information of any kind which may be within Bulgarian 
territory, and which concern the property, rights and interests of the 
nationals of those Powers, including companies and associations in 
which they are interested, that have been subjected to an exceptional 
war measure, or to a measure of transfer either in Bulgarian terri- 
tory or in territory occupied by Bulgaria or her allies. 



116 PEACE TREATIES. 

The controllers, supervisors, managers, administrators, sequestra- 
tors, liquidators and receivers shall be personally responsible under 
guarantee of the Bulgarian Government for the immediate delivery 
in full of these accounts and documents, and for their accuracy. 

14. 

The provisions of Article ITT and this Annex relating to property, 
rights and interests in an enemy country, and the proceeds of the 
liquidation thereof, apply to debts, credits and accounts, Section III 
regulating only the method of payment. 

In the settlement of matters provided for in Article ITT between 
Bulgaria and the Allied or Associated States, their colonies or pro- 
tectorates, or any one of the British Dominions or India, in respect 
of any of which a declaration shall not have been made that they 
adopt Section III, and between their respective nationals, the pro- 
visions of Section III respecting the currency in which payment is 
to be made and the rate of exchange and of interest shall apply unless 
the Government of the Allied or Associated Power concerned shall, 
within six months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, 
notify Bulgaria that one or more of the said provisions are not to 
be applied. 

15. 

The provisions of Article 1T7 and this Annex apply to industrial, 
literary and artistic property which has been or will be dealt with in 
the liquidation of property, rights, interests, companies or businesses 
under war legislation by the Allied or Associated Powers, or in 
accordance with the stipulations of Article ITT, paragraph (b). 

Section V. — Contracts, Prescriptions, Judgments. 

Article 180. 

(a) Any contract concluded between enemies shall be regarded as 
having been dissolved as from the time when any two of the parties 
became enemies, except in respect of any debt or other pecuniary 
obligation arising out of any act done or money paid thereunder, and 
subject to the exceptions and special rules with regard to particular 
contracts or classes of contracts contained herein or in the Annex 
hereto. . 

(b) Any contract of which the execution shall be required in the 
general interest, within six months from the date of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, by the Government of the Allied or 
Associated Power of which "one of the parties is a national, shall be 
ex( opted from dissolution under this Article. 

AVhen the execution of the contract thus kept alive would, owing 
to the alteration of trade conditions, cause one of the parties sub- 
stantial prejudice, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Sec- 
tion VI shall be empowered to grant to the prejudiced party equitable 
compensation. . 

(<") Having regard to the provisions of the constitution and law 
of the United States of America, of Brazil, and of Japan, neither the 



PEACE TREATIES. 117 

present Article, nor Article 183, nor the Annex hereto shall apply to 
contracts made between nationals of these States and Bulgarian na- 
tionals; nor shall Article 189 apply to the United States of America 
or its nationals. 

(d) The present Article and the Annex hereto shall not apply to 
contracts the parties to which became enemies by reason of one of 
them being an inhabitant of territory of which the sovereignty has 
been transferred, if such party shall acquire under the present Treaty 
the nationality of an Allied or Associated Power, nor shall they 
apply to contracts between nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers between whom trading has been prohibited by reason of one 
of the parties being in Allied or Associated territory in the occupa- 
tion of the enemy. 

(<?) Nothing in the present Article or the Annex hereto shall be 
deemed to invalidate a transaction lawfully carried out in accordance 
with a contract between enemies if it has been carried out with the 
authority of one of the belligerent Powers. 

Article 181. 

Transfers of territory under the present Treaty shall not prejudice 
the private rights referred to in the Treaties of Constantinople, 1913, 
of Athens, 1913, and of Stamboul, 1914. 

Transfers of territory by or to Bulgaria under the present Treaty 
shall similarly and to the same extent ensure the protection of these 
private rights. 

In case of disagreement as to the application of this Article the 
difference shall be submitted to an arbitrator appointed by the Coun- 
cil of the League of Nations. 

Article 182. 

Concessions, guarantees of receipts, and rights of exploitation in 
Bulgarian territory as fixed by the present Treaty in which nationals 
of the Allied and Associated Powers, or companies or associations 
controlled by such nationals, are interested may in case either of 
abnormal conditions of working or of dispossession resulting from 
conditions or measures of war be extended on the application of the 
interested partj% which must be presented within three months from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty, for a period to be deter- 
mined by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, which shall take account of 
the period of dispossession or of abnormal conditions of working. 

All arrangements approved or agreements come to before the entry 
of Bulgaria into the war between the Bulgarian authorities and com- 
panies or associations controlled by Allied financial groups are con- 
firmed. Nevertheless, periods of time, prices and conditions therein 
laid down may be revised having regard to the new economic condi- 
tions. In case of disagreement the decision shall rest with the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal. 

Article 183. 

(a) All periods of prescription, or limitation of right of action, 
whether they began to run before or after the outbreak of war, shall 
be treated in the territory of the High Contracting Parties, so far as 



118 PEACE TREATIES. 

regards relations between enemies, as having been suspended for the 
duration of the war. They shall begin to run again at earliest three 
months after the coming into force of the present Treaty. This pro- 
vision shall apply to the period prescribed for the presentation of 
interest or dividend coupons or for the presentation for repayment of 
securities drawn for repayment or repayable on any other ground. 

(b) Where, on account of failure to perform any act or comply 
with any formality during the Avar, measures of execution have been 
taken in Bulgarian territory to the prejudice of a national of an 
Allied or Associated Power, the claim of such national shall, if the 
matter does not fall within the competence of the Courts of an Allied 
or Associated Power, be heard by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal pro- 
vided for by Section VI. 

(c) Upon the application of any interested person who is a national 
of an Allied or Associated Power, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall 
order the restoration of the rights which have been prejudiced by the 
measures of execution referred to in paragraph (&), wherever, having 
regard to the particular circumstances of the case, such restoration is 
equitable and possible. 

If such restoration is inequitable or impossible the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal may grant compensation to the prejudiced party to be 
paid by the Bulgarian Government. 

(d) Where a contract between enemies has been dissolved by reason 
either of failure on the part of either party to carry out its provisions 
or of the exercise of a right stipulated in the contract itself the party 
prejudiced may apply to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal for relief. 
The Tribunal will have the powers provided for in paragraph (c). 

(e) The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article 
shall apply to the nationals of Allied and Associated Powers who 
have been prejudiced by reason of measures referred to above taken 
by Bulgaria in invaded or occupied territory, if they have not been 
otherwise compensated. 

(/) Bulgaria shall compensate any third party who may be preju- 
diced by any restitution or restoration ordered by the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal under the provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this 
Article. 

(g) As regards negotiable instruments, the period of three months 
provided under paragraph (a) shall commence as from the date on 
which any exceptional regulations applied in the territories of the 
interested Power with regard to negotiable instruments shall have 
definitely ceased to have force. 

Article 184. 

As between enemies no negotiable instrument made before the war 
shall be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure 
within the required time to present the instrument for acceptance or 
payment or to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to draw- 
ers or indorsers or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure 
to complete any formality during the war. 

Where the period within which a negotiable instrument should 
have been presented for acceptance or for payment, or within which 
notice of non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to 



PEACE TREATIES. 119 

the drawer or indorser, or within which the instrument should have 
been protested, has elapsed during the war, and the party who should 
have presented or protested the instrument or have given notice of 
non-acceptance or non-payment has failed to do so during the war, a 
period of not less than three months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty shall be allowed within which presentation, notice of 
non-acceptance or non-payment or protest may be made. 

Article 185. 

Judgments given by the Courts of an Allied or Associated Power in 
all cases which under the present Treaty they are competent to 
decide shall be recognised in Bulgaria as final, and shall be en- 
forced without it being necessary to have them declared executory. 

If a judgment or measure of execution in respect of any dispute 
which may have arisen has been given during the war by a Bul- 
garian judicial authority against a national of an Allied or Asso- 
ciated Power or a company or association in which one of such 
nationals was interested, in a case in which either such national or 
such company or association was not able to make their defence, the 
Allied or Associated national who has suffered prejudice thereby 
shall be entitled to recover compensation, to be fixed by the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI. 

At the instance of the national of the Allied or Associated Power 
the compensation above mentioned may, upon order to that effect 
of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, be effected where it is possible by 
replacing the parties in the situation which they occupied before the 
judgment was given by the Bulgarian Court. 

The above compensation may likewise be obtained before the 
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal by the nationals of Allied or Associated 
Powers who have suffered prejudice by judicial measures taken in 
invaded or occupied territories, if they have not been otherwise 
compensated. 

Article 186. 

Any company incorporated in accordance with some law other 
than that of Bulgaria owning property, rights or interests in Bul- 
garia, which is now or shall hereafter be controlled by nationals of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, shall have the right, within five 
years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, to transfer 
its property, rights and interests to another company incorporated in 
accordance with Bulgarian law or the law of one of the Allied and 
Associated Powers whose nationals control it; and the company to 
which the property is transferred shall continue to enjoy the same 
rights and privileges which the other company enjoyed under the 
laws of Bulgaria and the terms of the present Treaty. This com- 
pany shall not be subjected to any special tax on account of this 
transfer. 

Article 187. 

For the purpose of Sections III, IV, V and VII, the expression 
" during the war " means for each Allied or Associated Power the 
period between the commencement of the state of war between that 
Power and Bulgaria and the coming into force of the present Treaty 



120 PEACE TREATIES. 

Annex. 
I. General Provisions. 



Within the meaning of Articles 180, 183 and 184, the parties to a 
contract shall be regarded as enemies when trading between them 
shall have been prohibited by or otherwise became unlawful under 
laws, orders or regulations to which one of those parties was subject. 
They shall be deemed to have become enemies from the date when 
such trading was prohibited or otherwise became unlawful. 

2. 

The following classes of contracts are excepted from dissolution by 
Article 180 and, without prejudice to the rights contained in Article 
177 (b) of Section IV, remain in force subject to the application of 
domestic laws, orders or regulations made during the war by the 
Allied and Associated Powers and subject to the terms of the con- 
tracts : 

(a) Contracts having for their object the transfer of estates or of 
real or personal property where the property therein had passed or 
the object had been delivered before the parties became enemies; 

(b) Leases and agreements for leases of land and houses; 

(c) Contracts of mortgage, pledge or lien; 

(d) Concessions concerning mines, quarries or deposits; 

(e) Contracts between individuals or companies and States, prov- 
inces, municipalities, or other simlar juridical persons charged with 
administrative functions, and concessions granted by States, prov- 
inces, municipalities, or other similar juridical persons charged with 
administrative functions, including contracts and concessions con- 
cluded or accorded by the Turkish Government in the territories 
ceded by the Turkish Empire to Bulgaria before the coming into 
force of the present Treaty. 



If the provisions of a contract are in part dissolved under Article 
180, the remaining provisions of that contract shall, subject to the 
same application of domestic law as is provided for in paragraph 2, 
continue in force if they are severable, but where they are not sever- 
able the contract shall be deemed to have been dissolved in its en-' 
tirety. 

II. Provisions relating to certain classes of Contracts. 

Stock Exchange and Commercial Exchange Contracts. 

4. 

(a) Rules made during the war by any recognised Exchange or 
Commercial Association providing for the closure of contracts en- 
tered into before the war by an enemy are confirmed by the High 
Contracting Parties, as also any action taken thereunder, provided : 



PEACE TREATIES. 121 

(1) That the contract was expressed to be made subject to the 
rules of the Exchange or Association in question ; 

(2) That the rules applied to all persons concerned; 

(3) That the conditions attaching to the closure were fair and 
reasonable. 

(b) The preceding paragraph shall not apply to rules made during 
the occupation by Exchanges or Commercial Associations in the dis- 
tricts occupied by the enemy. 

Security. 



The sale of a security held for an unpaid debt owing by an enemy 
shall be deemed to have been valid irrespective of notice to the 
owner if the creditor acted in good faith and with reasonable care 
and prudence, and no claim by the debtor on the ground of such 
sale shall be admitted. 

This stipulation shall not apply to any sale of securities effected 
by an enemy during the occupation in regions invaded or occupied 
by the enemy. 

Negotiable Instrumen ts. 

6. 

As regards Powers which adopt Section III and the Annex there- 
to the pecuniary obligations existing between enemies and resulting 
from the issue of negotiable instruments shall be adjusted in con- 
formity with the said Annex by the instrumentality of the Clearing 
Offices, which shall assume the rights of the holder as regards the 
various remedies open to him. 



If a person has either before or during the war become liable upon 
a negotiable instrument in accordance with an undertaking given 
to him by a person who has subsequently become an enemy, the 
latter shall remain liable to indemnify the former in respect of his 
liability notwithstanding the outbreak of war. 

III. Contracts of Insurance. 

8. 

Contracts of insurance entered into by any person with another 
person who subsequently became an enemy will be dealt with in 
accordance with the following paragraphs. 

Fire Insurance. 

9. 

Contracts for the insurance of property against fire entered into 
by a person interested in such property with another person who sub- 
sequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to have been dis- 



122 PEACE TREATIES. 

solved by the outbreak of war, or by the fact of the person becoming 
an enemy, or on account of the failure during the war and for a 
period of three months thereafter to perform his obligations under 
the contract, but they shall be dissolved at the date when the annual 
premium becomes payable for the first time after the expiration of a 
period of three months after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty. 

A settlement shall be effected of unpaid premiums which became 
due during the Avar, or of claims for losses which occurred during 
the war. 

10. 

Where by administrative or legislative action an insurance against 
fire effected before the war has been transferred during the war 
from the original to another insurer, the transfer will be recognized 
and the liability of the original insurer will be deemed to have ceased 
as from the date of the transfer. The original insurer will, however, 
be entitled to receive on demand full information as to the terms of 
the transfer, and if it should appear that these terms were not 
equitable they shall be amended so far as may be necessary to render 
them equitable. 

Furthermore, the insured shall, subject to the concurrence of the 
original insurer, be entitled to retransfer the contract to the original 
insurer as from the date of the demand. 

Life Insurance. 

11. 

Contracts of life insurance entered into between an insurer and a 
person who subsequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to 
have been dissolved by the outbreak of war, or by the fact of the 
person becoming an enemy. 

12. 

Any sum which during the war became due upon a contract deemed 
not to have been dissolved under paragraph 11 shall be recoverable 
after the war with the addition of interest at five per cent, per annum 
from the date of its becoming due up to the day of payment, 

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to non- 
payment of premiums, or has become void from breach of the con- 
ditions of the contract, the assured or his representatives or the per- 
sons entitled shall have the right at any time within twelve months 
of the coining into force of the present Treaty to claim from the 
insurer the surrender value of the policy at the date of its lapse or 
avoidance. 

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to non- 
payment of premiums the payment of which has been prevented by 
the enforcement of measures 'of war, the assured or his representa- 
tive or the persons entitled shall have the right to restore the con- 
tract on payment of the premiums with interest at five per cent, per 
annum within three months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty. 



PEACE TREATIES. 123 

13. 

Where contracts of life insurance have been entered into by a local 
branch of an insurance company established in a country which sub- 
sequently became an enemy country, the contract shall, in the absence 
of any stipulation to the contrary in the contract itself, be governed 
by the local law, but the insurer shall be entitled to demand from 
the insured or his representatives the refund of sums paid on claims 
made or enforced under measures taken during the war, if the mak- 
ing or enforcement of such claims was not in accordance with the 
terms of the contract itself or was not consistent with the laws or 
treaties existing at the time when it was entered into. 

14. 

In any case where by the law applicable to the contract the in- 
surer remains bound by the contract notwithstanding the non-pay- 
ment of premiums until notice is given to the insured of the termi- 
nation of the contract, he shall be entitled where the giving of such 
notice was prevented by the war to recover the unpaid premiums 
with interest at five per cent, per annum from the insured. 

15. 

Insurance contracts shall be considered as contracts of life assur- 
ance for the purpose of paragraphs 11 to 14 when they depend on 
the probabilities of human life combined with the rate of interest 
for the calculation of the reciprocal engagements between the two 
parties. 

Marine Insurance. 

16. 

Contracts of marine insurance, including time policies and voyage 
policies, entered into between an insurer and a person who subse- 
quently became an enemy, shall be deemed to have been dissolved 
on his becoming an enemy, except in cases where the risk under- 
taken in the contract had attached before he became an enemy. 

Where the risk had not attached, money paid by way of premium 
or otherwise shall be recoverable from the insurer. 

Where the risk had attached effect shall be given to the contract 
notwithstanding the party becoming an enemy, and sums due under 
the contract either by way of premiums or in respect of losses shall 
be recoverable after the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

In the event of any agreement being come to for the payment of 
interest on sums due before the war to or by the nationals of States 
which have been at war and recovered after the war, such interest 
shall in the case of losses recoverable under contracts of marine in- 
surance run from the expiration of a period of one year from the 
date of the loss. 

17. 

No contract of marine insurance with an insured person who sub- 
sequently became an enemy shall be deemed to cover losses due to 
belligerent action by the Power of which the insurer was a national 
or by the allies or associates of such Power. 



124 PEACE TREATIES. 

18. 

Where it is shown that a person who had before the war entered 
into a contract of marine insurance with an insurer who subse- 
quently became an enemy entered after the outbreak of war into a 
new contract covering the same risk with an insurer who was not 
an enemy, the new contract shall be deemed to be substituted for the 
original contract as from the date when it was entered into, and 
the premiums payable shall be adjusted on the basis of the original 
insurer having remained liable on the contract only up till the time 
when the new contract was entered into. 

Other Insurances. 

19. 

Contracts of insurance entered into before the war between an 
insurer and a person who subsequently became an enemy, other than 
contracts dealt with in paragraphs 9 to 18, shall be treated in all 
respects on the same footing as contracts of fire insurance between 
the same persons would be dealt with under the said paragraphs. 

Re-insurance. 

20. 

All treaties of re-insurance with a person who became an enemy 
shall be regarded as having been abrogated by the person becom- 
ing an enemy, but without prejudice in the case of life or marine 
risks which had attached before the war to the right to recover pay- 
ment after the war for sums due in respect of such risks. 

Nevertheless if, owing to invasion, it has been impossible for the 
re-insured to find another re-insurer, the treaty shall remain in force 
until three months after the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Where a re-insurance treaty becomes void under this paragraph, 
there shall be an adjustment of account between the parties in respect 
both of premiums paid and payable and of liabilities for losses in re- 
spect of life or marine risks which had attached before the war. In 
the case of risks other than those mentioned in paragraphs 11 to 18 
the adjustment of accounts shall be made as at the date of the parties 
becoming enemies without regard to claims for losses which may have 
occurred since that date. 

21. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraph will extend equally to 
re-insurances existing at the date of the parties becoming enemies 
of particular risks undertaken by the insurer in a contract of insur- 
ance against any risks other than life or marine risks. 

22. 

Re-insurance of life risks effected by particular contracts and not 
under any general treaty remain in force. 



PEACE TREATIES. 125 

23. 

In case of a re-insurance effected before the war of a contract of 
marine insurance, the cession of a risk which had been ceded to the 
re-insurer shall, if it had attached before the outbreak of war, remain 
valid and effect be given to the contract notwithstanding the out- 
break of war ; sums due under the contract of re-insurance in respect 
either of premiums or of losses shall be recoverable after the war. 

24. 

The provisions of paragraphs IT and 18 and the last part of para- 
graph 16 shall apply to contracts for the re-insurance of marine 
risks. 

Section VI. — Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. 
Article 188. 

(a) Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between each 
of the Allied and Associated Powers on the one hand and Bulgaria 
on the other hand. Each such Tribunal shall consist of three mem- 
bers. Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint one of these 
members. The President shall be chosen by agreement between the 
two Governments concerned. 

In case of failure to reach agreement, the President of the Tribunal 
and two other persons, either of whom may in case of need take his 
place, shall be chosen by the Council of the League of Nations, or, 
until this is set up, by M. Gustave Ador if he is willing. These 
persons shall be nationals of Powers that have remained neutral 
during the war. 

If. in case there is a vacancy, a Government does not proceed 
within a period of one month to appoint as provided above a member 
of the Tribunal, such member shall be chosen by the other Govern- 
ment from the two persons mentioned above other than the President. 

The decision of the majority of the members of the Tribunal shall 
be the decision of the Tribunal. 

(h) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to para- 
graph (a) shall decide all questions within their competence under 
Sections III. IV. V. VII and VIII. 

In addition, all questions, whatsoever their nature, relating to con- 
tracts concluded before the coming into force of the present Treaty 
between nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and Bul- 
garian nationals shall be decided by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, 
always excepting questions which, under the laws of the Allied, Asso- 
ciated or Neutral Powers, are within the jurisdiction of the National 
Courts of those Powers. Such questions shall be decided by the 
National Courts in question, to the exclusion of the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal. The party who is a national of an Allied or Associated 
Power may nevertheless bring the case before the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal if this is not prohibited by the laws of his country. 

(c) If the number of cases justifies it, additional members shall 
be appointed and each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall sit in divisions. 
Each of these divisions will be constituted as above. 



126 PEACE TKEATIES. 

(d) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal will settle its own procedure, 
except in so far as it is provided in the following Annex, and is 
empowered to award the sums to be paid by the loser in respect 
of the costs and expenses of the proceedings. 

(e) Each Government will pay the remuneration of the member 
of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal' appointed by it and of any agent 
whom it may appoint to represent it before the Tribunal. The re- 
muneration of the President will be determined by special agreement 
between the Governments concerned ; and this remuneration and the 
joint expenses of each Tribunal will be paid by the two Governments 
in equal moieties. 

(/) The High Contracting Parties agree that their courts and 
authorities shall render to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals direct all 
the assistance in their power, particularly as regards transmitting 
notices and collecting evidence. 

(g) The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions 
of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to 
render them binding upon their nationals. 

Annex. 



Should one of the members of the Tribunal either die, retire, or be 
unable for any reason whatever to discharge his functions, the same 
procedure will be followed for filling the vacancy as was followed 
for appointing him. 

2. 

The Tribunal may adopt such rides of procedure as shall be in 
accordance with justice and equity and decide the order and time at 
which each party must conclude its arguments, and may arrange 
all formalities required for dealing with the evidence. 

3. 

The agent and counsel of the parties on each side are authorized 
to present orally and in writing to the Tribunal arguments in sup- 
port or in defence of each case. 



The Tribunal shall keep record of the questions and cases sub- 
mitted and the proceedings thereon, with the dates of such pro- 
ceedings. 

5. 

Each of the Powers concerned may appoint a secretary. These 
secretaries shall act together as joint secretaries of the Tribunal and 
shall be subject to its direction. The Tribunal may appoint and em- 
ploy any other necessary officer or officers to assist in the perform- 
ance of its duties. 



PEACE TREATIES. 127 

6. 

The Tribunal shall decide all questions and matters submitted upon 
such evidence and information as may be furnished by the parties 
concerned. 

7. 

Bulgaria agrees to give the Tribunal all facilities and information 
required by it for carrying out its investigations. 



The language in which the proceedings shall be conducted shall> 
unless otherwise agreed, be English, French, or Italian, as may be 
determined by the Allied or Associated Power concerned. 

9. 

The place and time for the meetings of each Tribunal shall be 
determined by the President of the Tribunal. 

Article 189. 

Whenever a competent court has given or gives a decision in a case 
covered by Sections III, IV, V, VII or VIII, and such decision is 
inconsistent with the provisions of such Sections, the party who is 
prejudiced by the decision shall be entitled to obtain redress, which 
shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. At the request of 
the national of an Allied or Associated Power, the redress may, when- 
ever possible, be effected by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal directing, 
the replacement of the parties in the position occupied by them before 
the judgment was given by the Bulgarian court. 

Section VII. — Industrial Propertt. 

Article 190. 

Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of indus- 
trial, literary and artistic property, as such property is defined by the 
International Conventions of Paris and of Berne, mentioned in Article 
166, shall be re-established or restored, as from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty, in the territories of the High Contracting 
Parties, in favour of the persons entitled to the benefit of them at the 
moment when the state of war commenced, or their legal representa- 
tives. Equally, rights which, except for the war, would have been 
acquired during the war in consequence of an application made for 
the protection of industrial property, or the publication of a literary 
or artistic work, shall be recognised and established in favour of those 
persons who would have been entitled thereto, from the coming into 
force of the present Treaty. 

Nevertheless, all acts done by virtue of the special measures taken 
during the war under legislative, executive or administrative au- 
thority of any Allied or Associated Power in regard to the rights of 



128 PEACE TREATIES. 

Bulgarian nationals in industrial, literary or artistic property shall 
remain in force and shall continue to maintain their full effect. 

No claim shall be made or action brought by Bulgaria or Bulgarian 
nationals in respect of the use during the war by the Government of 
any Allied or Associated Power, or by any persons acting on behalf 
or with the assent of such Government, of any rights in industrial, 
literary or artistic property, nor in respect of the sale, offering for 
sale, or use of any products, articles or apparatus whatsoever to which 
such rights applied. 

Unless the legislation of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers 
in force at the moment of the signature of the present Treaty other- 
wise directs, sums due or paid in virtue of any act or operation result- 
ing from the execution of the special measures mentioned in the 
second paragraph of this Article shall be dealt with in the same way 
as other sums due to Bulgarian nationals are directed to be dealt with 
by the present Treaty ; and sums produced by any special measures 
taken by the Bulgarian Government in respect of rights in industrial, 
literary or artistic property belonging to the nationals of the Allied 
or Associated Powers shall be considered and treated in the same 
way as other debts due from Bulgarian nationals. 

Each of the Allied and Associated Powers reserves to itself the 
right to impose such limitations, conditions or restrictions on rights 
of industrial, literary or artistic property (with the exception of trade 
marks) acquired before or during the war, or which may be subse- 
quently acquired in accordance with its legislation, by Bulgarian 
nationals, whether by granting licences, or by the working, or by pre- 
serving control over their exploitation, or in any other way, as may 
be considered necessary for national defence, or in the public interest, 
or for assuring the fair treatment by Bulgaria of the rights of indus- 
trial, literary and artistic property held in Bulgarian territory by its 
nationals, or for securing the due fulfilment of all the obligations 
undertaken by Bulgaria in the present Treaty. As regards rights of 
industrial, literary and artistic property acquired after the coming 
into force of the present Treaty, the right so reserved by the Allied 
and Associated Powers shall only be exercised in cases where these 
limitations, conditions or restrictions may be considered necessary 
for national defence or in the public interest. 

In the event of the application of the provisions of the preceding 
paragraph by any Allied or Associated Power, there shall be paid 
reasonable indemnities or royalties, which shall be dealt with in the 
same way as other sums due to Bulgarian nationals are directed to be 
dealt with by the present Treaty. 

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers reserves the right to treat 
as void and of no effect any transfer in whole or in part of or other 
dealing with rights of or in respect of industrial, literary or artistic 
property effected after August 1, 1914, or in the future, which would 
have the result of defeating the objects of the provisions of this 
Article. 

The provisions of this Article shall not apply to rights in indus- 
trial, literary or artistic property which have been dealt with in the 
liquidation of businesses or companies under war legislation by the 
Allied or Associated Powers, or which may be so dealt with by virtue 
of Article 177, paragraph (b). 



PEACE TKEATIES. 129 

Article 191. 

A minimum of one year after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty shall be accorded to the nationals of the High Contracting 
Parties, without extension fees or other penalty, in order to enable 
such persons to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, pay any 
fees, and generally satisfy any obligation prescribed by the laws or 
regulations of the respective States relating to the obtaining, pre- 
serving or opposing rights to, or in respect of, industrial property 
either acquired before August 1, 1914, or which, except for the war, 
might have been acquired since that date as a result of an applica- 
tion made before the war or during its continuance ; but nothing in 
this Article shall give any right to reopen interference proceedings 
in the United States of America where a final hearing has taken 
place. 

All rights in, or in respect of, such property which may have 
lapsed by reason of any failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any for- 
mality, or make any payment, shall revive, but subject in the case of 
patents and designs to the imposition of such conditions as each 
Allied or Associated Power may deem reasonably necessary for the 
protection of persons who have manufactured or made use of the 
subject-matter of such property while the rights had lapsed. Fur- 
ther, where rights to patents or designs belonging to Bulgarian 
nationals are revived under this Article, they shall be subject in re- 
spect of the grant of licences to the same provisions as would have 
been applicable to them during the war, as well as to all the pro- 
visions of the present Treaty. 

The period from August 1, 1914, until the coming into force of the 
present Treaty shall be excluded in considering the time within which 
a patent should be worked or a trade mark or design used, and it is 
further agreed that no patent, registered trade mark or design in 
force on August 1, 1914, shall be subject to revocation or cancellation 
by reason only of the failure to work such patent or use such trade 
mark or design for two years after the coming into force of the 
present Treaty. 

Article 192. 

No action shall be brought and no claim made by persons residing 
or carrying on business within the territories of Bulgaria on the one 
part and of the Allied or Associated Powers on the other, or persons 
who are nationals of such Powers respectively, or by any one deriv- 
ing title during the war from such persons, by reason of any action 
which has taken place within the territory of the other party be- 
tween the date of the existence of a state of war and that of the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, which might constitute an 
infringement of the rights of industrial property or rights of 
literary and artistic property, either existing at any time during 
the war or revived under the provisions of Article 191. 

Equally, no action for infringement of industrial, literary or 
artistic property rights by such persons shall at any time be permis- 
sible in respect of the sale or offering for sale for a period of one jea,T 
after the signature of the present Treaty in the territories of" the 
4780S— S. Doc. 7, 07-1 9 



130 PEACE TREATIES. 

Allied or Associated Powers on the one hand or Bulgaria on the 
other, of products or articles manufactured, or of literary or artistic 
works published, during the period between the existence of a state 
of war and the signature of the present Treaty, or against those who 
have acquired and continue to use them. It is understood, neverthe- 
less, that this provision shall not apply when the possessor of the 
rights was domiciled or had an industrial or commercial establish- 
ment in the districts occupied by Bulgaria during the war. 

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of 
America on the one hand and Bulgaria on the other. 

Article 193. 

Licences in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property con- 
cluded before the war between nationals of the Allied or Associated 
Powers or persons residing in their territory or carrying on business 
therein, on the one part, and Bulgarian nationals, on the other part, 
shall be considered as cancelled as from the date of the existence of a 
state of war between Bulgaria and the Allied or Associated Power. 
But, in any case, the former beneficiary of a contract of this kind 
shall have the right, within a period of six months after the coming 
into force of the present Treaty, to demand from the proprietor of 
the rights the grant of a new licence, the conditions of which, in 
default of agreement between the parties, shall be fixed by the duly 
qualified tribunal in the country under whose legislation the rights 
had been acquired, except in the case of licences held in respect of 
rights acquired under Bulgarian law. In such cases the conditions 
shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in Section 
VI of this Part. The tribunal may, if necessary, fix also the amount 
which it may deem just should be paid by reason of the use of the 
rights during the war. 

Xo licence in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property 
granted under the special war legislation of any Allied or Associated 
Power shall be affected by the continued existence of any licence 
entered into before the war, but shall remain valid and of full effect, 
and a licence so granted to the former beneficiary of a licence entered 
into before the war shall be considered as substituted for such licence. 

Where sums have been paid during the war by virtue of a licence 
or agreement concluded before the war in respect of rights of indus- 
trial property or for the reproduction or the representation of literary, 
dramatic or artistic works, these sums shall be dealt with in the 
same manner as other debts or credits of Bulgarian nationals, as 
provided by the present Treaty. 

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of 
America on the one hand and Bulgaria on the other. 

Article 194. 

The inhabitants of territories transferred under the present Treaty 
shall, notwithstanding this transfer and the change of nationality 
consequent thereon, continue to enjoy in Bulgaria all the rights in 
industrial, literary and artistic property to which they were entitled 
under Bulgarian legislation at the time of the transfer. 



PEACE TREATIES. 131 

Rights of industrial, literary and artistic property which are in 
force in the territories transferred under the present Treaty at the 
moment of their transfer from Bulgaria, or which will be re-estab- 
lished or restored in accordance with the provisions of Article 190, 
shall be recognised by the State to which the said territory is trans- 
ferred and shall remain in force in that territory for the same period 
of time given them under the Bulgarian law. 

Article 195. 

A special convention shall determine all questions relative to the 
records, registers and copies in connection with the protection of 
industrial, literary or artistic property, and fix their eventual trans- 
mission or communication by the Bulgarian Offices to the Offices of 
the States to which Bulgarian territory is transferred. 

Section VIII. — Special Provisions Relating to Transferred 

Territory. 

Article 196. 

Of the individuals and juridical persons previously nationals of 
Bulgaria those who acquire ipso facto under the present Treaty the 
nationality of an Allied or Associated Power are designated in the 
provisions which follow by the expression "former Bulgarian na- 
tionals," the remainder being designated by the expression " Bulgar- 
ian nationals." 

Article 197. 

The Bulgarian Government shall without delay restore to former 
Bulgarian nationals their property, rights and interests situated in 
Bulgarian territory. The aid property, rights and interests shall be 
restored free of any charge or tax established or increased since 
September 29, 1918.' 

The amount of taxes and imposts on capital which have been levied 
or increased on the property, rights and interests of former Bul- 
garian nationals since September 29. 1918, or which shall be levied 
or increased until restitution in accordance with the provisions of 
the present Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights and interests 
which have not been subjected to exceptional measures of war, until 
three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, shall 
be returned to the owners. 

The property, rights, and interests restored shall not be subject to 
any tax levied in respect of any other property or any other business 
owned by the same person after such property had been removed 
from Bulgaria, or such business had ceased to be carried on therein. 

If taxes of any kind have been paid in anticipation in respect of 
property, rights and interests removed from Bulgaria, the propor- 
tion of such taxes paid for any period subsequent to the removal of 
the property, rights and interests in question shall be returned to the 
owners. 

Legacies, donations and funds given or established in Bulgaria for 
the benefit of former Bulgarian nationals shall be placed by Bui- 



132 PEACE TREATIES 

garia, so far as the funds in question are in her territory, at the 
disposition of the Allied or Associated Power of which the persons 
in question are now nationals, in the condition in which these funds 
were on September 20, 1915, taking- account of payments properly 
made for the purpose of the Trust. 

Article 198. 

All contracts between former Bulgarian nationals of the one part 
and Bulgaria or Bulgarian nationals of the other part, Avhich were 
made before September 29, 1918, and which were in force at that 
date, shall be maintained. 

Nevertheless, any contract of which the Government of the Allied 
or Associated Power whose nationality the former Bulgarian na- 
tional who is a party to the contract has acquired shall notify the 
cancellation, made in the general interest, to Bulgaria within a 
period of six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, shall be annulled, except in respect of any debt or other 
pecuniary obligation arising out of any act done 1 or money paid 
thereunder. 

The cancellation above referred to shall not be made in any case 
where the Bulgarian national who is a party to the contract shall 
have received permission to reside in the territory transferred to the 
Allied or Associated Power concerned. 

Article 199. 

If the annulment provided for in Article 52 would cause one of 
the parties substantial prejudice, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal pro- 
vided for by Section VI of this Part shall be empowered to grant 
to the prejudiced party compensation calculated solely on the capital 
employed, without taking account of the loss of profits. 

Article 200. 

With regard to prescriptions, limitations and forfeitures in terri- 
tory transferred from Bulgaria, the provisions of Articles 183 and 
184 shall be applied with substitution for the expression " outbreak 
of war " of the expression " date, which shall be fixed by adminis- 
trative decision of each Allied or Associated Power, at which rela- 
tions between the parties became impossible in fact or in law", and 
for the expression " duration of the war " of the expression " period 
between the date above indicated and that of the coming into force of 
the present Treaty." 

Article 201. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognise, so far as she may be concerned, 
any agreement or convention which has been or shall be made be- 
tween the Allied and Associated Powers for the purpose of safe- 
guarding the rights and interests of the nationals of these Powers 
interested in companies or associations constituted according to the 
laws of Bulgaria, which exercise any activities whatever in the trans- 
ferred territories. She undertakes to facilitate all measures of trans- 



PEACE TREATIES. 133 

fer, to restore all documents or securities, to furnish all information, 
and generally to accomplish all acts or formalities appertaining to 
the said agreements or conventions. 

Article 202. 

The settlement of questions relating to debts contracted before 
September 29, 1918, between Bulgaria or Bulgarian nationals resi- 
dent in Bulgaria of the one part and former Bulgarian nationals 
resident in the transferred territories of the other part, shall be 
effected in accordance with the provisions of Article 176 and the 
Annex thereto, the expression " before the war " being replaced by 
the expression " before the date, which shall be fixed by administra- 
tive decision of each Allied or Associated Power, at which relations 
between the parties became impossible in fact or in law." 

Tf the debts were expressed in Bulgarian currency thej^ shall be 
paid in that currency; if the debt was expressed in any currency 
other than Bulgarian, it shall be paid in the currency stipulated. 

Article 203. 

Without prejudice to other provisions of the present Treaty, the 
Bulgarian Government undertakes to hand over to any Power to 
which Bulgarian territory is transferred such portion of the reserves 
accumulated by the Government or the administrations of Bulgaria, 
or by public or private organizations under their control, as is attrib- 
utable to the carrying on of Social or State Insurance in such terri- 
tory. 

The Powers to which these funds are handed over must apply them 
to the performance of the obligations arising from such insurances. 

The conditions of the delivery will be determined by special con- 
ventions to be concluded between the Bulgarian Government and 
the Governments concerned. 

In case these special conventions are not concluded in accordance 
with the above paragraph within three months after the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, the conditions of transfer shall in each 
case be referred to a Commission of five members, one of whom 
shall be appointed by the Bulgarian Government, one by the other 
interested Government and three by the Governing Body of the In- 
ternational Labour Office from the nationals of other States. This 
Commission shall by majority vote within three months after ap- 
pointment adopt recommendations for submission to the Council of 
the League of Nations, and the decisions of the Council shall forth- 
with be accepted as final by Bulgaria and the other States concerned. 

PART X.— AERIAL NAVIGATION. 

Article 204. 

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have full 
liberty of passage and landing over and in the territory and terri- 
torial waters of Bulgaria, and shall enjoy the same privileges as air- 
craft belonging to Bulgaria, particularly in case of distress by land 
or sea. 



134 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 205. 

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall, while in 
transit to any foreign country whatever, enjoy the right of flying 
over the territory and territorial waters of Bulgaria without landing, 
subject always to any regulations which may be made by Bulgaria, 
and which shall be applicable equally to the aircraft of Bulgaria and 
to those of the Allied and Associated countries. 

Article 206. 

All aerodromes in Bulgaria open to national public traffic shall be 
open for the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers, and in any 
such aerodrome such aircraft shall be treated on a footing of equality 
with Bulgarian aircraft as regards charges of every description, in- 
cluding charges for landing and accommodation. 

Article 207. 

Subject to the present provisions, the rights of passage, transit 
and landing provided for in Articles 204, 205 and 206 are subject to 
the observance of such regulations as Bulgaria may consider it neces- 
sary to enact, but such regulations shall be applied without distinc- 
tion to aircraft belonging to Bulgaria and to the aircraft of the 
Allied and Associated countries. 

Article 208. 

Certificates of nationality, airworthiness, or competency and 
licences, issued or recognised as valid by any of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers, shall be recognised in Bulgaria as valid and as equiva- 
lent to the certificates and licences issued by Bulgaria. 

Article 209. 

As regards internal commercial air traffic the aircraft of the Allied 
and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Bulgaria most favoured 
nation treatment. 

Article 210. 

Bulgaria undertakes to enforce the necessary measures to ensure 
that all Bulgarian aircraft flying over her territory shall comply with 
the Bules as to lights and signals, Rules of the Air, and Rules for 
Air Traffic on and in the neighbourhood of aerodromes, which have 
been laid down in the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation 
concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers. 

Article 211. 

The obligations imposed by the provisions of this Part shall 
remain in force until January 1, 1923, unless before that date Bul- 
garia shall have been admitted into the League of Nations or shall 
have been authorised by consent of the Allied and Associated Powers 
to adhere to the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded 
between those Powers. 



PEACE TREATIES. 135 

PAKT XI.— POETS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS'. 

Section 1. — General Provisions. 

Article 212. 

Bulgaria undertakes to grant freedom of transit through her ter- 
ritories on the routes most convenient for international transit, 
either by rail, navigable waterway, or canal, to persons, goods, ves- 
sels, carriages, wagons and mails coming from or going to the terri- 
tories of any of the Allied or Associated Powers (whether contiguous 
or not) ; for this purpose the crossing of territorial waters shall be 
allowed. 

Such persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails" shall not 
be subjected to any transit duty or to any undue delays or restrictions, 
and shall be entitled in Bulgaria to national treatment as regards 
charges, facilities and all other matters. 

Goods in transit shall be exempt from all customs or other similar 
duties. 

All charges imposed on transport in transit shall be reasonable, 
having regard to the conditions of the traffic. No charge, facility or 
restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the ownership or 
on the nationality of any ship or other means of transport on which 
any part of the through journey has been, or is to be, accomplished. 

Article 213. 

Bulgaria undertakes neither to impose nor to maintain any con- 
trol over transmigration traffic through her territories beyond meas- 
ures necessary to ensure that passengers are bond fide in transit ; nor 
to allow any shipping company or any other private body, corpora- 
tion or person interested in the traffic to take any part whatever in, 
or to exercise any direct or indirect influence over, any administra- 
tive service that may be necessary for this purpose. 

Article 214. 

Bulgaria undertakes to make no discrimination or preference, 
direct or indirect, in the duties, charges and prohibitions relating to 
importations into or exportations from her territories, or, subject to 
the special engagements contained in the present Treaty, in the 
charges and conditions of transport of goods or persons entering or 
leaving her territories, based on the frontier crossed ; or on the kind, 
ownership or flag of the means of transport (including aircraft) em- 
ployed; or on the original or immediate place of departure of the 
vessel, wagon or aircraft or other means of transport employed, or 
its ultimate or intermediate destination ; or on the route of or places 
of transhipment on the journey; or on whether any port through 
which the goods are imported or exported is a Bulgarian port or a 
port belonging to any foreign country ; or on whether the goods are 
imported or exported by sea, by land or by air. 

Bulgaria particularly undertakes not to establish against the ports 
and vessels of any of the Allied and Associated Powers any surtax 
or any direct or indirect bounty for export or import by Bulgarian 



136 PEACE TREATIES. 

ports or vessels, or by those of another Power, for example by means 
of combined tariffs. She further undertakes that. persons or goods 
passing through a port or using a vessel of any of the Allied and 
Associated Powers shall not be subjected to any formality or delay 
whatever to which such persons or goods would not be subjected if 
they pass through a Bulgarian port or a port of any other Power, or 
used a Bulgarian vessel or a vessel of any other Power. 

Article 215. 

All necessary administrative and technical measures shall be taken 
to shorten, as much as possible, the transmission of goods across the 
Bulgarian frontiers and to ensure their forwarding and transport 
from such' frontiers, irrespective of whether such goods are coming 
from or going to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers 
or are in transit from or to those territories, under the same material 
conditions in such matters as rapidity of carriage and care en route 
as are enjoyed by other goods of the same kind carried on Bulgarian 
territory under similar conditions of transport. 

In particular, the transport of perishable goods shall be promptly 
and regularly carried out, and the customs formalities shall be effected 
in such a way as to allow the goods to be carried straight through hy 
trains which make connection. 

Article 216. 

The seaports of the Allied and Associated Powers are entitled to 
all favours and to all reduced tariffs granted on Bulgarian railways 
or navigable waterways for the benefit of Bulgarian ports or of any 
port of another Power. 

Bulgaria may not refuse to participate in the tariffs or combinations 
of tariffs intended to secure for ports of any of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers advantages similar to those granted by Bulgaria to her 
own ports or the ports of any other Power. 

Article 217. 

Notwithstanding any contrary provision in existing conventions, 
Bulgaria undertakes to grant, on the lines most convenient for inter- 
national transit, and subject to the tariffs in force, liberty of transit 
to telegraphic messages and telephone communications to or from 
any of the Allied and Associated Powers, whether contiguous or 
not. These messages and communications shall not be submitted to 
any unnecessary delays or restrictions, and shall be entitled in Bul- 
garia to national treatment as regards facilities and rapidity of trans- 
mission. No charge, facility or restriction shall depend either directly 
or indirectly on the nationality of the sender or addressee. 

Section II. — Navigation. 

CHAPTER I.— FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION. 
Article 218. 

The nationals of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, as well 
as their vessels and property, shall enjoy in all Bulgarian ports and 



PEACE TREATIES. 137 

on the inland navigation routes of Bulgaria the same treatment in all 
respects as Bulgarian nationals, vessels and property. 

In particular the vessels of any one of the Allied or Associated 
Powers shall be entitled to transport goods of any description, and 
passengers, to or from any ports or places in Bulgarian territory to 
which Bulgarian vessels may have access, under conditions which 
shall not be more onerous than those applied in the case of national 
vessels; they shall be treated on a footing of equality with national 
vessels as regards port and harbour facilities and charges of every 
description, including facilities for stationing, loading and unload- 
ing, and duties and charges of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, lighthouse, 
quarantine, and all analogous duties and charges of whatsoever 
nature, levied in the name of or for the profit of the Government, 
public functionaries, private individuals, corporations or establish- 
ments of any land. 

In the event of Bulgaria granting a preferential regime to any of 
the Allied or Associated Powers or to any other foreign Power, this 
regime shall be extended immediately and unconditionally to all the 
Allied and Associated Powers. 

There shall be no impediment to the movement of persons or vessels 
other than those arising from prescriptions concerning customs, po- 
lice, sanitation, emigration and immigration, and those relating to 
the import and export of prohibited goods. Such regulations must be 
reasonable and uniform and must not impede traffic unnecessarily. 

CHAPTER 2.— CLAUSES RELATING TO THE DANUBE. 

1. general clauses relating to river systems declared inter- 
national. 

Article 219. 

The following river is declared international : the Danube from 
Ulm; together with all navigable parts of this river system which 
naturally provide more than one State with access to the sea, with 
or without transhipment from one vessel to another : as well as lateral 
canals and channels constructed either to duplicate or to improve 
naturally navigable sections of the specified river system or to con- 
nect two naturally navigable sections of the same river. 

Any part of the above-mentioned river system which is not in- 
cluded in the general definition may be declared international by an 
agreement between the riparian States. 

Article 220. 

On the waterways declared to be international in the preceding 
Article, the nationals, property and flags of all Powers shall be 
treated on a footing of perfect equality, no distinction being made, 
to the detriment of the nationals, property or flag of any Power, 
between them and the nationals, property or flag of the riparian 
State itself or of the most favoured nation. 

Article 221. 

Bulgarian vessels shall not be entitled to carry passengers or goods 
by regular services between the ports of any Allied or Associated 
Power without special authority from such Power. 



138 PEACE TREATIES. 

Bulgaria undertakes to maintain, in favour of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers and of their subjects, all the facilities enjoyed by them 
in Bulgarian ports before the war. 

Article 222. 

Where such charges are not precluded by any existing convention, 
charges varying on different sections of a river may be levied on 
vessels using the navigable channels or their approaches, provided 
that they are intended solely to cover equitablv the cost of maintain- 
ing in a navigable condition, or of improving, the river and its 
approaches, or to meet expenditure incurred in the interests of navi- 
gation. The schedule of such charges shall be calculated on the 
basis of such expenditure and shall be posted up in the ports. These 
charges shall be levied in such a manner as to render any detailed 
examination of cargoes unnecessary, except in cases of suspected 
fraud or contravention. 

Article 223. 

The transit of vessels, passengers and goods on these waterways 
shall be effected in accordance with the general conditions prescribed 
for transit in Section I above. 

When the two banks of an international river are within the same 
State goods in transit may be placed under seal or in the custody of 
customs agents. When the river forms a frontier goods and pas- 
sengers in transit shall be exempt from all customs formalities; the 
loading and unloading of goods, and the embarkation and disem- 
barkation of passengers, shall only take place in the ports specified 
by the riparian State. 

Article 224. 

No dues of any kind other than those provided for in this Part 
shall be levied along the course or at the mouth of these rivers. 

This provision shall not prevent the fixing by the riparian States 
of customs, local octroi or consumption duties, or the creation of rea- 
sonable and uniform charges levied in the ports, in accordance with 
public tariffs, for the use of cranes, elevators, quays, warehouses and 
other similar constructions. 

Article 225. 

In default of any special organisation for carrying out the works 
connected with the upkeep and improvement of the international 
portion of a navigable system, each riparian State shall be bound to 
take suitable measures to remove any obstacle or danger to naviga- 
tion and to ensure the maintenance of good conditions of navigation. 

If a State neglects to comply with this obligation any riparian 
State, or any State represented on the International Commission, 
may appeal to the tribunal instituted for this purpose by the League 
of Nations. 



PEACE TREATIES. 139 

Article 226. 

The same procedure shall be followed in the case of a riparian 
State undertaking; any works of a nature to impede navigation in 
the international section. The tribunal mentioned in the preceding 
Article shall be entitled to enforce the suspension or suppression of 
such works, making due allowance in its decisions for all rights in 
connection with irrigation, water-power, fisheries and other national 
interests, which, with the consent of all the riparian States or of all 
the States represented on the International Commission, shall be 
given priority over the requirements of navigation. 

Appeal to the tribunal of the League of Nations does not require 
the suspension of the works. 

Article 227. 

The regime set out in Articles 220 and 222 to 226 above shall be 
superseded by one to be laid down in a General Convention drawn 
up by the Allied and Associated Powers, and approved by the 
League of Nations, relating to the waterways recognised in such 
Convention as having an international character. This latter Con- 
vention shall apply in particular to the whole or part of the above- 
mentioned river system of the Danube, and such other parts of that 
river system as may be covered by a general definition. 

Bulgaria undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article 
248, to adhere to the said General Convention. 

Article 228. 

Bulgaria shall cede to the Allied and Associated Powers concerned, 
within a maximum period of three months from the date on which 
notification shall be given her, a proportion of the tugs and vessels 
remaining registered in the ports of the river system referred to in 
Article 219 after the deduction of those surrendered by way of resti- 
tution or reparation. Bulgaria shall in the same way cede material 
of all kinds necessary to the Allied or Associated Powers concerned 
for the utilisation of that river system. 

The number of the tugs and vessels, and the amount of the mate- 
rial so ceded, and their distribution, shall be determined by an arbi- 
trator or arbitrators nominated by the United States of America, 
due regard being had to the legitimate needs of the parties con- 
cerned, and particularly to the shipping traffic during the five years 
preceding the war. 

All craft so ceded shall be provided with their fittings and gear, 
shall be in a good state of repair and in condition to carry goods, and 
shall be selected from among those most recently built. 

When the cessions provided for in the present Article necessitate 
the acquisition of property which was privately owned on October 
15,1918, or since that date, the arbitrator or arbitrators shall deter- 
mine the rights of the former owners as thej^ stood on October 15, 
1918, and the amount of the compensation to be paid to them, and 
shall also direct the manner in which such payment is to be effected 
in each case. If the arbitrator or arbitrators find that the whole 



140 PEACE TREATIES. 

or part of this sum will revert directly or indirectly to Powers from 
whom reparation is due, they shall decide the sum to be placed under 
this head to the credit of the said Powers. 

As regards the Danube the arbitrator or arbitrators referred to in 
this Article will also decide all questions as to the permanent alloca- 
tion, and the conditions thereof, of the vessels whose ownership 
or nationality is in dispute between States. 

Pending final allocation the control of these vessels shall be vested 
in a Commission consisting of representatives of the United States 
of America, the British Empire, France and Italy, who will be em- 
powered to make provisional arrangements for the working of these 
vessels in the general interest by any local organisation, or failing 
such arrangements, by themselves, without prejudice to the final 
allocation. 

As far as possible these provisional arrangements will be on a 
commercial basis, the net receipts by the Commission for the hire of 
these vessels being disposed of as directed by the Reparation Com- 
mission. 

2. special clauses relating to the danube. 

Article 229. 

The European Commission of the Danube reassumes the powers it 
possessed before the war. Nevertheless, as a provisional measure,, 
only representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy and Eoumania 
shall constitute this Commission. 

Article 230. 

From the point where the competence of the European Commis- 
sion ceases, the Danube system referred to in Article 219 shall be 
placed under the administration of an International Commission 
composed as follows: 

2 representatives of Germany riparian States; 

1 representative of each other riparian State; 

1 representative of each non-riparian State represented in the 
future on the European Commission of the Danube. 

If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the 
time of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of 
the Commission shall nevertheless be valid. 

Article 231. 

The International Commission provided for in the preceding 
Article shall meet as soon as possible after the coming into force of 
the present Treaty, and shall undertake provisionally the adminis- 
tration of the river in conformity with the provisions of Articles 
220 and 222 to 22G, until such time as a definitive statute regarding 
the Danube is concluded by the Powers nominated by the Allied 
and Associated Powers. 

The decisions of this International Commission shall be taken 
by a majority vote. The salaries of the Commissioners shall be fixed 
and paid by* their respective countries. 



PEACE TREATIES. 141 

As a provisional measure any deficit in the administrative ex- 
penses of this International Commission shall be borne equally by the 
States represented on the Commission. 

In particular this Commission shall regulate the licensing of pilot®, 
charges for pilotage and the administration of the pilot service. 

Article 232. 

Bulgaria agrees to accept the regime which shall be laid down for 
the Danube by the Powers nominated by the Allied and Associated 
Powers, at a Conference which shall meet within one year after the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, and at which Bulgarian 
representatives may be present. 

Article 233. 

The mandate given by Article 57 of the Treaty of Berlin of July 
13, 1878, to Austria-Hungary, and transferred by her to Hungary. 
to carry out works at the Iron Gates, is abrogated. The Commis- 
sion entrusted with the administration of this part of the river shall 
lay down provisions for the settlement of accounts subject to the 
financial provisions of the present Treaty. Charges which may be 
necessary shall in no case be levied by Hungary. 

Article 234. 

Should the Czecho-Slovak State, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or 
Poumania, w 7 ith the authorisation of or under mandate from the 
International Commission, undertake maintenance, improvement, 
weir or other works on a part of the river system which forms a 
frontier, these States shall enjoy on the opposite bank, and also on 
the part of the bed which is outside their territory, all necessary 
facilities for the survey, execution and maintenance of such works. 

Article 235. 

Bulgaria shall be obliged to make to the European Commission of 
the Danube all restitutions, reparations and indemnities for damages 
inflicted on the Commission during the war. 

Section III. — Railways. 

chapter 1.— clauses relating to international transport. 

Article 236. 

Goods coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated 
Powers and going to Bulgaria, or in transit through Bulgaria from 
or to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers, shall enjoy 
on the Bulgarian railways, as regards charges to be collected (rebates 
and drawbacks being taken into account), facilities, and all other 
matters, the most favourable treatment applied to goods of the same 
kind carried on any Bulgarian lines, either in internal traffic, or for 
^export, import or in transit, under similar conditions of transport, 



142 PEACE TREATIES. 

for example as regards length of route. The same rule shall be 
applied, on the request of one or more of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, to goods specially designated by such Power or Powers 
coming from Bulgaria and going to their territories. 

International tariffs established in accordance with the rates re- 
ferred to in the preceding paragraph and involving through way- 
bills shall be established when one of the Allied and Associated 
Powers shall require it from Bulgaria. 

Article 237. 

From the coming into force of the present , Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall renew, in so far as concerns them and under 
the reserves indicated in the second paragraph of this Article, the 
conventions and arrangements signed at Berne on October 14, 1890, 
September 20, 1893, July 16, 1895, June 16, 1898, and September 19, 
1906, regarding the transportation of goods by rail. 

If within five years from the date of the coming into force of the 
present Treaty a new convention for the transportation of passen- 
gers, luggage and goods by rail shall have been concluded to replace 
the Berne Convention of October 14, 1890, and the subsequent addi- 
tions referred to above, this new convention and the supplementary 
provisions for international transport by rail which may be based 
on it shall bind Bulgaria, even if she shall have refused to take part 
in the preparation of the convention or to subscribe to it. Until a 
new convention shall have been concluded, Bulgaria shall conform 
to the provisions of the Berne Convention and the subsequent addi- 
tions referred to above and to the current supplementary provisions. 

Article 238. 

Bulgaria shall be bound to co-operate in the establishment of 
through ticket services (for passengers and their luggage) which 
shall be required by any of the Allied and Associated Powers to 
ensure their communication by rail with each other and with all 
other countries by transit across the territories of Bulgaria; in par- 
ticular Bulgaria shall, for this purpose, accept trains and carriages 
coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers and 
shall forward them with a speed at least equal to that of her best 
long-distance trains on the same lines. The rates applicable to such 
through services shall not in any case be higher than the rates col- 
lected on Bulgarian internal services for the same distance, under the 
same conditions of speed and comfort. 

The tariffs applicable under the same conditions of speed and 
comfort to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from 
ports of the Allied and Associated Powers and using the Bulgarian 
railways shall not be at a higher kilometric rate than the most 
favourable tariffs (drawbacks and rebates being taken into account) 
enjoyed on the said railways by emigrants going to or coming from 
any other ports. 

Article 239. 

Bulgaria shall not apply specially to such through services or to> 
the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports of the 
Allied and Associated Powers any technical, fiscal or administrative' 



PEACE TREATIES. 143 

measures, such as measures of customs examination, general police, 
sanitary police, and control, the result of which would be to impede 
or delay such services. 

Article 240. 

In case of transport partly by rail and partly by internal naviga- 
tion, with or without through way-bill, the preceding Articles shall 
apply to the part of the journey performed by rail. 

CHAPTER 2.— ROLLING-STOCK. 

Article 241. 

Bulgaria undertakes that Bulgarian wagons shall be fitted with 
apDaratus allowing : 

(1) of their inclusion in goods trains on the lines of such of the 
Allied and Associated Powers as are parties to the Berne Convention 
of May 15, 1886, as modified on May 18, 1907, without hampering the 
action of the continuous brake which may be adopted in such coun- 
tries within ten years of the coming into force of the present Treaty, 
and 

(2) of the inclusion of wagons of such countries in all goods trains 
on Bulgarian lines. 

The rolling-stock of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy 
on the Bulgarian lines the same treatment as Bulgarian rolling-stock 
as regards movement, upkeep and repairs. 

CHAPTER 3.— TRANSFERS OF RAILWAY LINES. 

Article 242. 

Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of ports, 
waterways and railways situated in the territory transferred under 
the present Treaty, and to the financial conditions relating to the 
concessionaires and the pensioning of the personnel, the transfer of 
railways will take place under the following conditions : 

(1) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be handed 
over complete and in good condition. 

(2) Commissions of experts designated by the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers, on which Bulgaria shall be represented, shall fix the 
proportion of the stock existing on the system to be handed over. 
These Commissions shall have regard to the amount of the material 
registered on these lines in the last inventory before September 29. 
1918, to the length of track (sidings included), and the nature and 
amount of the traffic. These Commissions shall also specify the 
locomotives, carriages and wagons to be handed over in each case : 
they shall decide upon the conditions of their acceptance, and shall 
make the provisional arrangements necessary to ensure their repair 
in Bulgarian workshops. 

(3) Stocks of stores, fittings and plant shall be handed over under 
the same conditions as the roll ins-stock. 



144 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 243. 

The establishment of all the new frontier stations between Bulgaria 
and the contiguous Allied and Associated States, as well as the work- 
ing of the lines between these stations, shall be settled by agreements 
concluded between the railway administrations concerned. If the 
railway administrations are unable to come to an agreement the ques- 
tion shall be decided by Commissions of experts constituted as above. 

CHAPTER 4.— TRANSITORY PROVISIONS. 

Article 244. 

Bulgaria shall carry out the instructions in regard to transport 
given her by an authorised body acting on behalf on the Allied and 
Associated Powers : 

(1) for the carriage of troops under the provisions of the present 
Treaty, and of material, ammunition and supplies for army use; 

(2) as a temporary measure, for the transportation of supplies for 
certain regions, as well as for the restoration, as rapidly as possible. 
of the normal conditions of transport and for the organisation of 
postal and telegraphic services. 

Section IV. — Disputes and Revision of Permanent Clauses. 

Article 245. 

Disputes which may arise between interested States with regard 
to the interpretation and application of this Part of the present 
Treaty shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations. 

Article 246. 

At any time the League of Nations may recommend the revision of 
such of the above Articles as relates to a permanent administrative 
regime. 

Article 247. 

The stipulations in Articles 212 to 218, 221, 236 and 238 to 240 
shall be subject to revision by the Council of the League of Nations 
at any time after three years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty. 

Failing such revision, no Allied or Associated Power can claim 
after the expiration of the above period of three years the benefit of 
anv of the stipulations in the Articles enumerated above on behalf 
of 'any portion of its territories in which reciprocity is not accorded 
in respect to such stipulations. The period of three years during 
which reciprocity cannot be demanded may be prolonged by the 
Council of the League of Nations. 

Section V. — Special Provision. 

Article 248. 

Without prejudice to the special obligations imposed on her by the 
present Treaty for the benefit of the Allied and Associated Powers. 
Bulgaria undertakes to adhere to any General Conventions regarding 



PEACE TREATIES. 145 

the international regime of transit, waterways, ports or railways 
which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated Powers, with 
the approval of the League of Nations, within five years of the com- 
ing into force of the present Treaty. 

PAET XII.— LABOUR. 

Section I. — Organisation of Labour. 

Whereas the League of Nations has for its object the establishment 
of universal peace, and such a peace can be established only if it is 
based upon social justice; 

And whereas conditions of labour exist involving such injustice, 
hardship and privation to large numbers of people as to produce 
unrest so great that the peace and harmony of the world are im- 
perilled; and an improvement of those conditions is urgently re- 
quired : as, for example, by the regulation of the hours of work, 
including the establishment of a maximum working day and week, 
the regulation of the labour supply, the prevention of unemploy- 
ment, the provision of an adequate living wage, the protection of the 
worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of his em- 
ployment, the protection of children, young persons and women, pro- 
vision for old age and injury, protection of the interests of workers 
when employed in countries other than their own, recognition of the 
principle of freedom of association, the organisation of vocational 
and technical education and other measures ; 

Whereas also the failure of any nation to adopt humane conditions 
of labour is an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to 
improve the conditions in their own countries ; 

The High Contracting Parties, moved by sentiments of justice and 
humanity as well as by the desire to secure the permanent peace of 
the world agree to the following : 

CHAPTEE I.— ORGANISATION. 

Article 249. 

A permanent organisation is hereby established for the promotion 
of the objects set forth in the Preamble. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be the origi- 
nal Members of this organisation, and hereafter membership of the 
League of Nations shall carry with it membership of the said organi- 
sation. 

Article 250. 

The permanent organisation shall consist of: 

(1) a General Conference of Representatives of the Members, and 

(2) an International Labour Office controlled by the Governing 
Body described in Article 255. 

Article 251. 

The meetings of the General Conference of Representatives of the 
Members shall be held from time to time as occasion may require, 
and at least once in every year. It shall be composed of four Rep- 
47S0S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 10 



146 PEACE TREATIES. 

resentatives of each of the Members, of whom two shall be Govern- 
ment Delegates and the two others shall be Delegates representing 
respectively the employers and the workpeople of each of the 
Members. 

Each Delegate may be accompanied by advisers, who shall not 
exceed two in number for each item on the agenda of the meeting. 
When questions specially affecting women are to be considered by 
the Conference, one at least of the advisers should be a woman. 

The Members undertake to nominate non-Government Delegates 
and advisers chosen in agreement with the industrial organisations, 
if such organisations exist, which are most representative of em- 
ployers or workpeople, as the case may be, in their respective coun- 
tries. 

Advisers shall not speak except on a request made by the Delegate 
whom they accompany and by the special authorisation of the Presi- 
dent of the Conference, and may not vote. 

A Delegate may by notice in writing addressed to the President 
appoint one of his advisers to act as his deputy, and the adviser, 
while so acting, shall be allowed to speak and vote. 

The names of the Delegates and their advisers will be communi- 
cated to the International Labour Office by the Government of each 
of the Members. 

The credentials of Delegates and their advisers shall be subject to 
scrutiny by the Conference, which may, by two-thirds of the votes 
cast by the Delegates present, refuse to admit any Delegate or ad- 
viser whom it deems not to have been nominated in accordance with 
this Article. 

Article 252. 

Every Delegate shall be entitled to vote individually on all mat- 
ters which are taken into consideration by the Conference. 

If one of the Members fails to nominate one of the non-Govern- 
ment Delegates whom it is entitled to nominate, the other non- 
Government Delegate shall be allowed to sit and speak at the Con- 
ference, but not to vote. 

If in accordance with Article 251 the Conference refuses admission 
to a Delegate of one of the Members, the provisions of the present 
Article shall apply as if that Delegate had not been nominated. 

Article 253. 

The meetings of the Conference shall be held at the seat of the 
League of Nations, or at such other place as may be decided by the 
Conference at a previous meeting by two-thirds of the votes cast 
by the Delegates present. 

Article 254. 

The International Labour Office shall be established at the seat 
of the League of Nations as part of the organisation of the League. 



PEACE TREATIES. 147' 

Article 255. 

The International Labour Office shall be under the control of a 
Governing Body consisting of twenty-four persons, appointed in 
accordance with the following provisions: 

The Governing Body of the International Labour Office shall be 
constituted as follows : 

Twelve persons representing the Governments ; 

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference represent- 
ing the emplojrers; 

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference represent- 
ing the workers. 

Of the twelve persons representing the Governments eight shall 
be nominated by the Members which are of the chief industrial im- 
portance, and four shall be nominated by the Members selected for 
the purpose by the Government Delegates to the Conference, ex- 
cluding the Delegates of the eight Members mentioned above. 

Any question as to which are the Members of the chief industrial 
importance shall be decided by the Council of the League of Nations. 

The period of office of the Members of the Governing Body will 
be three years. The method of filling vacancies and other similar 
questions may be determined by the Governing Body subject to the 
approval of the Conference. 

The Governing Body shall, from time to time, elect one of its 
Members to act as its Chairman, shall regulate its own procedure 
and shall fix its own times of meeting. A special meeting shall be 
held if a written request to that effect is made by at least ten Mem- 
bers of the Governing Body. 

Article 256. 

There shall be a Director of the International Labour Office, who 
shall be appointed by the Governing Body. and. subject to the 
instructions of the Governing Body, shall be responsible for the 
efficient conduct of the International Labour Office and for such 
other duties as may be assigned to him. 

The Director or his deputy shall attend all meetings of the Gov- 
erning Body. 

Article 257. 

The staff of the International Labour Office shall be appointed by 
the Director, who shall, so far as is possible with due regard to the 
efficiency of the work of the Office, select persons of different na- 
tionalities. A certain number of these persons shall be women. 

Article 258. 

The functions of the International Labour Office shall include the 
collection and distribution of information on all subjects relating to 
the international adjustment of conditions of industrial life and 
labour, and particularly the examination of subjects which it is pro- 
posed to bring before the Conference with a view to the conclusion 



148 PEACE TREATIES. 

of international conventions, and the conduct of such special investi- 
gations as may be ordered by the Conference. 

It will prepare the agenda for the meetings of the Conference. 

It will carry out the duties required of it by the provisions of this 
Part of the present Treaty in connection with international dis- 
putes. 

It will edit and publish in French and English, and in such other 
languages as the Governing Body may think desirable, a periodical 
paper dealing with problems of industry and employment of inter- 
national interest. 

Generally, in addition to the functions set out in this Article, it 
shall have such other powers and duties as may be assigned to it 
by the Conference. 

Article 259. 

The Government Departments of any of the Members which deal 
with questions of industry and employment may communicate di- 
rectly with the Director through the Representative of their Gov- 
ernment on the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, 
or failing any such Representative, through such other qualified 
official as the Government may nominate for the purpose. 

Article 260. 

The International Labour Office shall be entitled to the assistance 
of the Secretary General of the League of Nations in any matter 
in which it can be given. 

Article 261. 

Each of the Members will pay the travelling and subsistence ex- 
penses of its Delegates and their advisers and of its Representatives 
attending the meetings of the Conference or Governing Body, as 
the case may be. 

All the other expenses of the International Labour Office and of the 
meetings of the Conference or Governing Body shall be paid to the 
Director by the Secretary-General of the League of Nations out of 
the general funds of the League. 

The Director shall be responsible to the Secretary-General of the 
League for the proper expenditure of all moneys paid to him in 
pursuance of this Article. 

CHAPTER II.— PROCEDURE. 

Article 262. 

The agenda for all meetings of the Conference will be settled by 
the Governing Body, who shall consider any suggestion as to the 
agenda that may be made by the Government of any of the Members 
or by any representative organisation recognised for the purpose 
of Article 251. 



PEACE TREATIES. 149 

Article 263. 

The Director shall act as the Secretary of the Conference, and 
shall transmit the agenda so as to reach the Members four months 
before the meeting of the Conference, and, through them, the non- 
Government Delegates when appointed. 

Article 264. 

Any of the Governments of the Members may formally object to 
the inclusion of any item or items in the agenda. The grounds for 
such objection shall be set forth in a reasoned statement addressed 
to the Director, who shall circulate it to all the Members of the 
Permanent Organisation. 

Items to which such objection has been made shall not, however, 
be excluded from the agenda, if at the Conference a majority of two- 
thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present is in favour of con- 
sidering them. 

If the Conference decides (otherwise than under the preceding 
paragraph) by two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present 
that any subject shall be considered by the Conference, that subject 
shall be included in the agenda for the following meeting. 

Article 265. 

The Conference shall regulate its own procedure, shall elect its 
own President, and may appoint committees to consider and report 
on any matter. 

Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the present 
Treaty, all matters shall be decided by a simple majority of the votes 
cast by the Delegates present. 

The voting is void unless the total number of votes cast is equal to 
half the number of the Delegates attending the Conference. 

Article 266. 

The Conference may add to any committees which it appoints 
technical experts, who shall be assessors without power to vote. 

Article 267. 

When the Conference has decided on the adoption of proposals 
with regard to an item in the agenda, it will rest with the Conference 
to determine whether these proposals should take the form: (a) of 
a recommendation to be submitted to the Members for consideration 
with a view to effect being given to it by national legislation or other- 
wise, or (b) of a draft international convention for ratification by 
the Members. 

In either case a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by the 
Delegates present shall be necessary on the final vote for the adop- 
tion of the recommendation or draft convention, as the case may be, 
by the Conference. 



150 PEACE TREATIES. 

In framing any recommendation or draft convention of general 
application the Conference shall have due regard to those countries 
in which climatic conditions, the imperfect development of industrial 
organisation or other special circumstances make the industrial con- 
ditions substantially different and shall suggest the modifications, 
if any, which it considers may be required to meet the case of such 
countries. 

A copy of the recommendation or draft convention shall be au- 
thenticated b}^ the signature of the President of the Conference and 
of the Director and shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of 
the League of Nations. The Secretary-General will communicate a 
certified copy of the recommendation or draft convention to each of 
the Members. 

Each of the Members undertakes that it will, within the period of 
one year at most from the closing of the session of the Conference, 
or if it is impossible owing to exceptional circumstances to do so 
within the period of one year, then at the earliest practicable moment 
and in no case later than eighteen months from the closing of the 
session of the Conference, bring the recommendation or draft con- 
vention before the authority or authorities within whose competence 
the matter lies for the enactment of legislation or other action. 

In the case of a recommendation, the Members will inform the 
Secretary-General of the action taken. 

In the case of a draft convention, the Member will, if it obtains 
the consent of the authority or authorities within whose competence 
the matter lies, communicate the formal ratification of the conven- 
tion to the Secretary-General and will take such action as may be 
necessary to make effective the provisions of such convention. 

If on a recommendation no legislative or other action is taken to 
make a recommendation effective, or if the draft convention fails to 
obtain the consent of the authority or authorities within whose com- 
petence the matter lies, no further obligation shall rest upon the 
Member. 

In the case of a federal State, the power of which to enter into 
conventions on labour matters is subject to limitations, it shall be in 
the discretion of that Government to treat a draft convention to 
which such limitations apply as a recommendation only, and the 
provisions of this Article with respect to recommendations shall 
apply in such case. 

The above Article shall be interpreted in accordance with the fol- 
lowing principle : 

In no case shall any Member be asked or required, as a result of the 
adoption of any recommendation or draft convention by the Con- 
ference, to lessen the protection afforded by its existing legislation to 
the workers concerned. 

Article 268. 

Any convention so ratified shall be registered by the Secretary- 
General of the League of Nations, but shall only be binding upon 
the Members which ratify it. 

Article 269. 

If any convention coming before the Conference for final con- 
sideration fails to secure the support of two-thirds of the votes cast 



PEACE TREATIES. 151 

by the Delegates present, it shall nevertheless be within the right of 
any of the Members of the Permanent Organisation to agree to such 
convention among themselves. 

Any convention so agreed to shall be communicated by the Gov- 
ernments concerned to the Secretary-General of the League of 
Nations, who shall register it. 

Article 270. 

Each of the Members agrees to make an annual report to the Inter- 
national Labour Office on the measures which it has taken to give 
effect to the provisions of conventions to which it is a party. These 
reports shall be made in such form and shall contain such particulars 
as the Governing Body may request. The Director shall lay a sum- 
mary of these reports before the next meeting of the Conference. 

Article 271. 

In the event of any representation being made to the Interna- 
tional Labour Office by an industrial association of employers or of 
workers that any of the Members has failed to secure in any respect 
the effective observance within its jurisdiction of any convention to 
which it is a party, the Governing Body may communicate this repre- 
sentation to the Government against which it is made and may invite 
that Government to make such statement on the subject as it may 
think fit. 

Article 272. 

If no statement is received within a reasonable time from the Gov- 
ernment in question, or if the statement when received is not deemed 
to be satisfactory by the Governing Body, the latter shall have the 
right to publish the representation and the statement, if any, made 
in reply to it. 

Article 273. 

Any of the Members shall have the right to file a complaint with 
the International Labour Office if it is not satisfied that any other 
Member is securing the effective observance of any convention which 
both have ratified in accordance with the foregoing Articles. 

The Governing Body may, if it thinks fit, before referring such a 
complaint to a Commission of Enquiry, as hereinafter provided for, 
communicate with the Government in question in the manner de- 
scribed in Article 271. 

If the Governing Body does not think it necessary to communi- 
cate the complaint to the Government in question, or if, when they 
have made such communication, no statement in reply has been re- 
ceived within a reasonable time which the Governing Body considers 
to be satisfactory, the Governing Body may apply for the appoint- 
ment of a Commission of Enquiry to consider the complaint and to 
report thereon. 

The Governing Body may adopt the same procedure either of its 
own motion or on receipt of a complaint from a Delegate to the 
Conference. 



152 PEACE TREATIES. 

When any matter arising out of Articles 272 or 273 is being con- 
sidered by the Governing Body, the Government in question shall, 
if not already represented thereon, be entitled to send a representa- 
tive to take part in the proceedings of the Governing Body while 
the matter is under consideration. Adequate notice of the date on 
which the matter will be considered shall be given to the Govern- 
ment in question. 

Article 274. 

The Commission of Enquiry shall be constituted in accordance 
with the following provisions : 

Each of the Members agrees to nominate within six months of 
the date on which the present Treaty comes into force three persons 
of industrial experience, of whom one shall be a representative of 
employers, one a representative of workers, and one a person of in- 
dependent standing, who shall together form a panel from which 
the Members of the Commission of Enquiry shall be drawn. 

The qualifications of the persons so nominated shall be subject to 
scrutiny by the Governing Body, which may by two-thirds of the 
votes cast by the representatives present refuse to accept the nomi- 
nation of any person whose qualifications do not in its opinion 
comply with the requirements of the present Article. 

Upon the application of the Governing Body, the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the League of Nations shall nominate three persons, one from 
each section of this panel, to constitute the Commission of Enquiry, 
and shall designate one of them as the President of the Commission. 
None of these three persons shall be a person nominated to the panel 
by any Member directly concerned in the complaint. 

Article 275. 

The Members agree that, in the event of the reference of a com- 
plaint to a Commission of Enquiry under Article 273, they will 
each, whether directly concerned in the complaint or not, place at 
the disposal of the Commission all the information in their possession 
which bears upon the subject-matter of the complaint. 

Article 276. 

When the Commission of Enquiry has fully considered the com- 
plaint, it shall prepare a report embodying its findings on all ques- 
tions of fact relevant to determining the issue between the parties 
and containing such recommendations as it may think proper as to 
the steps which should be taken to meet the complaint and the time 
within which they should be taken. 

It shall also indicate in this report the measures, if any, of an 
economic character against a defaulting Government which it con- 
siders to be appropriate, and which it considers other Governments 
would be justified in adopting. 

Article 277. 

The Secretary-General of the League of Nations shall communi- 
cate the report of the Commission of Enquiry to each of the Gov- 
ernments concerned in the complaint, and shall cause it to be pub- 
lished. 



PEACE TREATIES. 153 

Each of these Governments shall within one month inform the 
Secretary-General of the League of Nations whether or not it accepts 
the recommendations contained in the report of the Commission; 
and if not, whether it proposes to refer the complaint to the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice of the League of Nations. 

Article 278. 

In the event of any Member failing to take the action required 
by Article 267, with regard to a recommendation or draft Conven- 
tion, any other Member shall be entitled to refer the matter to the 
Permanent Court of Internation Justice. 

Article 279. 

The decision of the Permanent Court of Internation Justice in 
regard to a complaint or matter which has been referred to it in 
pursuance of Article 277 or Article 278 shall be final. 

Article 280. 

The Permanent Court of International Justice may affirm, vary 
or reverse any of the findings or recommendations of the Commis- 
sion of Enquiry, if any, and shall in its decision indicate the measures, 
if any, of an economic character which it considers to be appropriate, 
and which other Governments would be justified in adopting against 
a defaulting Government. 

Article 281. 

In the event of any Member failing to carry out within the time 
specified the recommendations, if any, contained in the report of the 
Commission of Enquiry, or in the decision of the Permanent Court 
of International Justice, as the case may be, any other Member may 
take against that Member the measures of an economic character in- 
dicated in the report of the Commission or in the decision of the 
Court as appropriate to the case. 

Article 282. 

The defaulting Government may at any time inform the Governing 
Body that it has taken the steps necessary to comply with the recom- 
mendations of the Commission of Enquiry or with those in the de- 
cision of the Permanent Court of International Justice, as the case 
may be, and may request it to apply to the Secretary-General of the 
League to constitute a Commission of Enquiry to verify its conten- 
tion. In this case the provisions of Articles 274, 275, 276, 277, 279 
and 280 shall apply, and if the report of the Commission of Enquiry 
or the decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice is 
in favour of the defaulting Government, the other Governments 
shall forthwith discontinue the measures of an economic character 
that they have taken against the defaulting Government. 



154 PEACE TREATIES. 

CHAPTER III.— GENERAL. 

Article 283. 

The Members engage to apply conventions which they have ratified 
in accordance with the provisions of this Part of the present Treaty 
to their colonies, protectorates and possessions which are not fully 
self-governing : 

(1) Except where owing to the local conditions the convention is 
inapplicable, or 

(2) Subject to such modifications as ma} 7 be necessary to adapt 
the convention to the local conditions. 

And each of the Members shall notify to the International Labour 
Office the action taken in respect of each of its colonies, protectorates 
and possessions which are not fully self-governing. 

Article 284. 

Amendments to this Part of the present Treaty which are adopted 
by the Conference by a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by 
the Delegates present shall take effect when ratified by the States 
whose representatives compose the Council of the League of Nations 
and by three-fourths of the Members. 

Article 285. 

Any question or dispute relating to the interpretation of this Part 
of the present Treaty or of any subsequent convention concluded by 
the Members in pursuance of the provisions of this Part of the 
present Treatj^ shall be referred for decision to the Permanent Court 
of International Justice. 

CHAPTER IV.— TRANSITORY PROVISIONS. 
Article 286. 

The first meeting of the Conference shall take place in October, 
1919. The place and agenda for this meeting shall be as specified in 
the Annex hereto. 

Arrangements for the convening and the organisation of the first 
meeting of the Conference will be made by the Government desig- 
nated for the purpose in the said Annex. That Government shall be 
assisted in the preparation of the documents for submission to the 
Conference by an International Committee constituted as provided 
in the said Annex. 

The expenses of the first meeting and of all subsequent meetings 
held before the League of Nations has been able to establish a gen- 
eral fund, other than the expenses of Delegates and their advisers, 
will be borne by the Members in accordance with the apportionment 
of the expenses of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal 
Union. 



peace treaties. ] 5 5 

Article 287. 

Until the League of Nations has been constituted all communica- 
tions which under the provisions of the foregoing Articles should be 
addressed to the Secretary- General of the League will be preserved 
by the Director of the International Labour Office, who will transmit 
them to the Secretary-General of the League. 

Article 288. 

Pending the creation of a Permanent Court of International Justice. 
disputes which in accordance with this Part of the present Treaty 
would be submitted to it for decision will be referred to a tribunal 
of three persons appointed by the Council of the League of Nations. 

Annex. 

first meeting of annual labour conference, 1919. 

The place of meeting will be Washington. 

The Government of the United States of America is requested to 
convene the Conference. 

The International Organising Committee will consist of seven 
Members, appointed by the United States of America, Great Britain, 
France. Italy. Japan, Belgium, and Switzerland. The Committee 
may, if it thinks necessary, invite other Members to appoint repre- 
sentatives : 

Agenda : 

(1) Application of principle of the 8-hours day or of the 48-hours 

week. 

( 2 ) Question of preventing or providing against unemployment. 

(3) Women's employment : 

(//) Before and after child-birth, including the question of 
maternity benefit; 

(b) During the night : 

(c) In unhealthy processes. 

(4) Employment of children : 

(a) Minimum age of employment ; 

(b) During the night; 

(c) In unhealthy processes. 

(5) Extension and application of the International Conventions 

adopted at Berne in 190G on the prohibition of night work 
for women employed in industry and the prohibition of the 
use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches. 

Section II.- — General Principles. 

Article 289. 

The High Contracting Parties, recognising that the well-being, 
physical, moral and intellectual, of industrial wage earners is of 
supreme international importance, have framed, in order to further 
this great end. the permanent machinery provided for in Section 1 
and associated with that of the League of Nations. 



156 PEACE TREATIES. 

They recognise that differences of climate, habits and customs, of 
economic opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uniform- 
ity in the conditions of labour difficult of immediate attainment. 
But, holding- as they do, that labour should not be regarded merely as 
an article of commerce, they think that there are methods and prin- 
ciples for regulating labour conditions which all industrial commu- 
nities should endeavour to apply, so far as their special circumstances 
will permit. 

Among these methods and principles, the following seem to the 
High Contracting Parties to be of special and urgent importance: 

First. — The guiding principle above enunciated that labour should 
not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce. 

Second. — The right of association for all lawful purposes by the 
employed as well as by the employers. 

Third. — The payment to the employed of a wage adequate to main- 
tain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their time 
and country. 

Fourth.— The adoption of an eight hours day or a forty-eight 
hours week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already 
been attained. 

Fifth. — The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four 
hours, which should include Sunday whenever practicable. 

Sixth.— The abolition of child labour and the imposition of such 
limitations on the labour of young persons as shall permit the con- 
tinuation of their education and assure their proper physical de- 
velopment. 

Seventh. — The principle that men and women should receive equal 
remuneration for work of equal value. 

Eighth. — The standard set by law in each country with respect to 
the conditions of labour should have due regard to the equitable eco- 
nomic treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein. 

Ninth. — Each State should make provision for a system of inspec- 
tion in which women should take part, in order to ensure the enforce- 
ment of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed. 

Without claiming that these methods and principles are either 
complete or final, the High Contracting Parties are of opinion that 
they are well fitted to guide the policy of the League of Nations; and 
that, if adopted by the industrial communities who are members of 
the League, and safeguarded in practice by an adequate system of 
such inspection, they will confer lasting benefits upon the wage-earn- 
ers of the world. 

PART XIIL— MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS. 

Article 290. 

Bulgaria undertakes to recognize and to accept the conventions 
made or to be made by the Allied and Associated Powers or any 
of them with any other Power as to the traffic in arms and in spirituous 
liquors, and also as to the other subjects dealt with in the General 
Acts of Berlin of February 26, 1885, and of Brussels of July 2, 1890, 
and the conventions completing or modifying the same. 



peace treaties. 157 

Article 291. 

The High Contracting Parties, while they recognize the guaran- 
tees stipulated by the Treaties of 1815, and especially by the Act of 
November 20, 1815, in favour of Switzerland, the said guarantees 
constituting international obligations for the maintenance of peace, 
declare nevertheless that the provisions of these treaties, conventions, 
declarations and other supplementary Acts concerning the neutralized 
zone of Savoy, as laid down in paragraph 1 of Article 92 of the 
Final Act of the Congress of Vienna and in paragraph 2 of Article 
3 of the Treaty of Paris of November 20, 1815, are no longer con- 
sistent with present conditions. For this reason the High Contract- 
ing Parties take note of the agreement readied between the French 
Government and the Swiss Government for the abrogation of the 
stipulations relating to this zone which are and remain abrogated. 

The High Contracting Parties also agree that the stipulations of 
the Treaties of 1815 and of the other supplementary Acts concerning 
the free zones of Upper Savoy and the Gex district are no longer 
consistent with present conditions, and that it is for France and 
Switzerland to come to an agreement together with a view to settling 
between themselves the status of these territories under .such condi- 
tion- as shall be considered suitable by both countries. 

Annex. 



The Swiss Federal Council has informed the French Government 
on May 5, 1919. that after examining the provisions of Article 435 
of the Peace conditions presented to Germany by the Allied and 
Associated Powers in a like spirit of sincere friendship it has happily 
reached the conclusion that it was possible to acquiesce in it under 
the following conditions and reservations : 

(1) The neutralized zone of Haute-Savoie : 

(a) It will be understood that as long as the Federal Chambers 
have not ratified the agreement come to between the two Governments 
concerning the abrogation of the stipulations in respect of the neu- 
tralized zone of Savoy, nothing will be definitely settled, on one 
side or the other, in regard to this subject. 

(b) The assent given by the Swiss Government to the abrogation 
of the above mentioned stipulations presupposes, in conformity with 
the text adopted, the recognition of the guarantees formulated in 
favour of Switzerland by the Treaties of 1815 and particularly by 
the Declaration of November 20, 1815. 

(c) The agreement between the Governments of France and Switz- 
erland for the abrogation of the above mentioned stipulations will 
only be considered as valid if the Treaty of Peace contains this Article 
in its present wording. In addition the Parties to the Treaty of Peace 
should endeavour to obtain the assent of the signatory Powers of the 
Treaties of 1815 and of the Declaration of November 20, 1815, which 
are not signatories of the present Treaty of Peace. 

( 2 ) Free zone of Haute-Savoie and the district of Gex : 
(a) The Federal Council makes the most express reservations to 
the interpretation to be given to the statement mentioned in the last 



158 PEACE TREATIES. 

paragraph of the above Article for insertion in the Treaty of Peace, 
which provides that "the stipulations of the Treaties of 1815 and 
other supplementary acts concerning the free zones of Haute-Savoie 
and the Grex district are no longer consistent with present conditions." 
The Federal Council would not wish that its acceptance of the above 
wording should lead to the conclusion that it would agree to the sup- 
pression of a system intended to give neighbouring territory the benefit 
of a special regime which is appropriate to the geographical and 
economical situation and which has been well tested. 

In the opinion of the Federal Council the question is not the modifi- 
cation of the customs system of the zones as set up by the Treaties 
mentioned above, but only the regulation in a manner more appro- 
priate to the economic conditions of the present day of the terms of 
the exchange of goods between the regions in question. The Federal 
Council has been led to make the preceding observations by the perusal 
of the draft Convention concerning the future constitution of the 
zones which was annexed to the note of April 26 from the French 
Government. While making the above reservations the Federal Coun- 
cil declares its readiness to examine in the most friendly spirit any 
proposals which the French Government may deem it convenient to 
make on the subject. 

(/>) It is conceded that the stipulations of the Treaties of 1815 and 
other supplementary acts relative to the free zones will remain in force 
until a new arrangement is come to between France and Switzerland 
to regulate matters in this territory. 

II. 

The French Government have addressed to the Swiss Government, 
on May 18, 1919, the following note in reply to the communication 
set out the preceding paragraph : 

In a note dated May 5 the Swiss Legation in Paris was good enough 
to inform the Government of the French Republic that the Federal 
Government adhered to the proposed Article to be inserted in the 
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Governments and 
German}'. 

The French Government have taken note with much pleasure of the 
agreement thus reached, and. at their request, the proposed Article, 
which had been accepted by the Allied and Associated Governments, 
has been inserted under No. 435 in the Peace conditions presented to 
the German Plenipotentiaries. 

The Swiss Government, in their note of May 5 on this subject, have 
expressed various views and reservations. 

Concerning the observations relating to the free zones of Haute- 
Savoie and the Gex district, the French Government have the honour 
to observe that the provisions of the last paragraph of Article 435 
are so clear that their purport cannot be misapprehended, especially 
where it implies that no other Power but France and Switzerland 
will in future be interested in that question. 

The French Government, on their part, are anxious to protect the 
interests of the French territories concerned, and, with that object, 
having their special situation in view, they bear in mind the desira- 
bility of assuring them a suitable customs regime and determining, 
in a' manner better suited to present conditions, the methods of ex- 



PEACE TREATIES. 159 

changes between these territories and the adjacent Swiss territories, 
while taking into account the reciprocal interests of both regions. 

It is understood that this must in no way prejudice the right of 
France to adjust her customs line in this region in conformity with 
her political frontier, as is done on the other portions of her territorial 
boundaries, and as was done by Switzerland long ago on her own 
boundaries in this region. 

The French Government are pleased to note on this subject in what 
a friendly disposition the Swiss Government take this opportunity 
of declaring their willingness to consider any French proposal deal- 
ing with the system to be substituted for the present regime of the 
said free zones, which the French Government intend to formulate 
in the same friendly spirit. 

Moreover, the French Government have no doubt that the pro- 
visional maintenance of the regime of 1815 as to the free zones re- 
ferred to in the above mentioned paragraph of the note from the 
Swiss Legation of May 5, whose object is to provide for the passage 
from the present regime to the conventional regime, will cause no 
delay whatsoever in the establishment of the new situation which has 
been found necessary by the two Governments. This remark applies 
also to the ratification by the Federal Chambers, dealt with in para- 
graph 1 («), of the Swiss note of May -5, under the heading "Neu- 
tralized zone of Haute-Savoie." 

Article 292. 

The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that 
they have taken note of the Treaty signed by the Government of the 
French Kepublic on July 17, 1918, with F£is Serene Highness the 
Prince of Monaco defining the relations between France and the 
Principality. 

Article 293. 

The High Contracting Parties agree that, in the absence of a sub- 
sequent agreement to the contrary, the Chairman of any Commission 
established by the present Treaty shall in the event of an equality of 
votes be entitled to a second vote. 

Article 294. 

The Allied and Associated Powers agree that where Christian 
religious missions were being maintained by Bulgarian societies or 
persons in territory belonging to them, or of which the government 
is entrusted to them in accordance with the present Treaty, the prop- 
erty which these missions or missionary societies possessed, including 
that of trading societies whose profits were devoted to the support 
of missions, shall continue to be devoted to missionary purposes. 
In order to ensure the due execution of this undertaking the Allied 
and Associated Governments will hand over such property to boards 
of trustees appointed by or approved by the Governments and com- 
posed of persons holding the faith of the Mission whose property is 
involved. 

The Allied and Associated Governments, while continuing to main- 
tain full control as to the individuals by whom the Missions are con- 
ducted, will safeguard the interests of such Missions. 



160 PEACE TREATIES. 

Bulgaria, taking note of the above undertaking, agrees to accept 
all arrangements made or to be made by the Allied or Associated 
Government concerned for carrying on the work of the said missions 
or trading societies and waives all claims on their behalf. 

Article 295. 

Without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty, Bul- 
garia undertakes not to put forward directly or indirectly against 
any Allied or Associated Power, signatory of the present Treaty, any 
pecuniary claim based on events which occurred at any time before the 
coming into force of the present Treaty. 

The present stipulation shall bar completely and finally all claims 
of this nature, which will be thenceforward extinguished, whoever 
may be the parties in interest. 

Article 296. 

Bulgaria accepts and recognises as valid and binding all decrees 
and orders concerning Bulgarian ships and Bulgarian goods and all 
orders relating to the payment of costs made by any Prize Court of 
any of the Allied or Associated Powers, and undertakes not to put 
forward any claim arising out of such decrees or orders on behalf 
of any Bulgarian national.' 

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to examine in 
such manner as they may determine all decisions and orders of Bul- 
garian Prize Courts, whether affecting the property rights of na- 
tionals of those Powers or of neutral Powers. Bulgaria agrees to 
furnish copies of all the documents constituting the record of the 
cases, including the decisions and orders made, and to accept and 
give effect to the recommendations made after such examination of 
the cases. 

With a view to minimizing the losses arising from the sinking of 
ships and cargoes in the course of the war and to facilitating the re- 
covery of ships and cargoes which can be salved and the adjustment 
of the private claims arising with regard thereto, the Bulgarian Gov- 
ernment undertakes to supply all the information in their power 
which may be of assistance to the Governments of the Allied and 
Associated Powers or to their nationals with regard to vessels sunk 
or damaged by the Bulgarian naval forces during the period of 
hostilities. 

The present Treaty, in French, in English, and in Italian, shall be 
ratified. In case of divergence, the French text shall prevail, except 
in Parts I (Covenant of the League of Nations) and XII (Labour), 
where the French and English texts shall be of equal force. 

The deposits of ratifications shall be made at Paris as soon as 
possible. 

Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe will 
be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French Republic 
through their diplomatic representative at Paris that their ratifica- 
tion has been given ; in that case they must transmit the instrument 
of ratification as soon as possible. 

A first proces- verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn 
up as soon as the Treaty has been ratified by Bulgaria on the one 
hand, and by three of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers 
on the other hand. 



PEACE TREATIES. 161 

From the date of this first proces-verbal the Treaty will come into 
force between the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it. 
For the determination of all periods of time provided for in the 
present Treaty this date will be the date of the coming into force 
of the Treaty. 

In all other respects the Treaty will enter into force for each 
Power at the date of the deposit of its ratification. 

The French Government will transmit to all the signatory Powers 
a certified copy of the proces-verbaux of the deposit of ratifications. 
IN FAITH WHEREOF the above-named Plenipotentiaries have 
signed the present Treaty. 

DONE at Neuilly-sur-Seine, the twenty-seventh day of November, 
one thousand nine hundred and nineteen, in a single copy which will 
remain deposited in the archives of the French Republic, and of 
which authenticated copies will be transmitted to each of the Sig- 
natory Powers. 

FRANK L. POLK. 

HENRY WHITE. 

TASKER H. BLISS. 

CECIL HARMSWORTH. 

EYRE A. CROWE. 

GEORGE H. PERLEY. 

xVNDREW FISHER. 

THOMAS MACKENZIE. 

R. A. BLANKENBERG. 

EYRE A. CROWE. 

G. CLEMENCEAU. 

S. PICHON. 

L.-L. KLOTZ. 

ANDRE TARDIEU. 

JULES CAMBON. 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 

G. DE MARTINO. 

K. MATSUI. 

J. VAN DEN HEUVEL. 

ROLIN-JAEQUEMYNS. 

VIKYUIN WELLINGTON KOO. 

RAFAEL MARTINEZ ORTIZ. 

ELEFTHERIOS VENIZELOS. 

N. POLITIS. 

M. RUSTEM HAIDAR, 

AOUNI ABDUL-HADI. 

L. GRAB SKI. 

ST. PATEK. 

AFFONSO COSTA. 

JAYME BATALHA REIS. 

NIK. P. PACHITCH. 

Dr. ANTE TRUMBIC. 

Dr. IVAN ZOLGER, 

CHAROON. 

Dr. EDVARD BENES. 

STEFAN OSUSKY. 

AL STAMBOLIISKI. 

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162 PEACE TREATIES. 

PKOTOCOL. 

With a view to indicating precisely the conditions in which certain 
provisions of the Treaty of even date are to be carried out, it is 
agreed by the High Contracting Parties that : 

(1) The list of persons to be handed over to the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Governments by Bulgaria under the second paragraph of 
Article 118 shall be communicated to the Bulgarian Government 
within a month from the coming into force of the Treaty ; 

(2) Proceedings will be taken against persons who have com- 
mitted punishable offenses in the liquidation of Bulgarian property, 
and the Allied and Associated Powers will welcome any information 
or evidence which the Bulgarian Government can furnish on this 
subject. 

Done in French, in English and in Italian, of which the French 
text shall prevail in case of divergence, at Neuilly-sur-Seine, the 
twenty-seventh day of November, one thousand nine hundred and 
nineteen. 

FRANK L. POLK. 

HENRY WHITE. 

TASKER H. BLISS. 

CECIL HARMSWORTH. 

EYRE A. CROWE. 

GEORGE H. PERLEY. 

ANDREW FISHER. 

THOMAS MACKENZIE. 

R. A. BLANKENBERG. 

EYRE A. CROWE. 

G. CLEMENCEAU. 

S. PICHON. 

L.-L. KLOTZ. 

ANDRE TARDIEU. 

JULES CAMBON. 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI. 

G. DE MARTINO. 

K. MATSUI. 

J. VAN DEN HEUVEL. 

ROLIN-JAEQUEMYNS. 

VIKYUIN WELLINGTON KOO. 

RAFAEL MARTINEZ ORTIZ. 

ELEFTHfiRIOS VENIZELOS. 

N. POLITIS. 

M. RUSTEM HAIDAR. 

AOUNI ABDUL-HADI. 

L. GRABSKI. 

ST. PATEK. 

AFFONSO COSTA. 

JAYME BATALHA REIS. 

NIK. P. PACHTTCH. 

Dr. ANTE TRUMBIC. 

Dr. IVAN ZOLGER. 

CHAROON. 

Dr. EDVARD BENES. 

STEFAN OSUSKY. 

AL. STAMBOLIISKI. 



TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL ALLIED AND ASSO- 
CIATED POWERS AND HUNGARY AND PROTOCOL AND DECLARA- 
TION. 

Signed at Trianon, June 4, 1920. 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BEITISH 
EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, and JAPAN, 

These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers, 

BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PAN- 
AMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB- 
CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHOSLOVAKIA, 

These Powers constituting with the Principal Powers mentioned 
above the Allied and Associated Powers, 
of the one part; 

And HUNGARY, 

of the other part; 

Whereas on the request of the former Imperial and Royal Austro- 
Hungarian Government an Armistice was granted to Austria- 
Hungary on November 3, 1918, by the Principal Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers, and completed as regards Hungary by the Military 
Convention of November 13, 1918, in order that a Treaty of Peace 
might be concluded, and 

Whereas the Allied and Associated Powers are equally desirous 
that the war in which certain among them were successively in- 
volved, directly or indirectly, against Austria-Hungary, and which 
originated in the declaration of war by the former Imperial and 
Royal Austro-Hungarian Government on July 28, 1914, against 
Serbia, and in the hostilities conducted by Germany in alliance with 
Austria-Hungary, should be replaced by a firm, just, and durable 
Peace, and 

Whereas the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has now ceased 
to exist, and has been replaced in Hungary by a national Hungarian 
Government : 

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have 
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries : 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA : 

Mr. Hugh Campbell Wallace, Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary of the United States of America at Paris ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE BRITISH 

DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS, EMPEROR OF INDIA : 

The Right Honourable Edward George Villiers, Earl of Derby, 
k. g., p. c, k. c. v. o., c. b., Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris; 

163 



164 PEACE TREATIES. 

And 
for the DOMINION of CANADA : 

The Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, k. c. m. g., High Com- 
missioner for Canada in the United Kingdom ; 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA: 

The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner for 
Australia in the United Kingdom ; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND : 

The Honourable Sir Thomas Mackenzie, k. c. m. g., High Com- 
missioner for New Zealand in the United Kingdom ; 
for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA : 

Mr. Reginald Andrew B la n ken berg, o. b. e., Acting High Com- 
missioner for the Union of South Africa in the United King- 
dom; 
for INDIA: 

The Right Honourable Edward George Villiers, Earl of Derby, 
k. g., p. c, k. c. v. o., c. b., Ambassador Extraordinary and Pleni- 
potentiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC: 

Mr. Alexandre Millerand, President of the Council, Minister for 

Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Frederic Francois-marsal, Minister of Finance ; 
Mr. Auguste Paul-Louis Isaac, Minister of Commerce and In- 
dustry ; 
Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France ; 

Mr. Georges Maurice Palp^ologue, Ambassador of France. Secre- 
tary-General of the Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY : 

Count Lelio Bonin Longare, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambassa- 
dor Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of 
Italy at Paris; 
Rear- Admiral Mario Grassi; 
HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN: 

Mr. K. Matstti, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of 
H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS : 

Mr. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary, Minister of State ; 
Mr. Rolin Jacquemyns, Member of the Institute of Private Inter- 
national Law, Secretary General of the Belgian Delegation ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC: 
Mr. Vikyuin Wellington Koo ; 
Mr. Sao-Ke Alfred Sze ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CUBAN REPUBLIC : 

Dr. Rafael Martinez Ortiz, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the Cuban Republic at Paris ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES : 

Mr. Athos Romanos, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of H. M. the King of the Hellenes at Paris ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF NICARAGUA: 
Mr. Carlos A. Villanceva, Charge d'Affaires of the Republic of 
Nicaragua at Paris; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF PANAMA: 
Mr. Raoul A. Amador, Charge d'Affaires of the Republic of Pan- 
ama at Paris; 



PEACE TREATIES. 165 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC : 

Prince Eustache Sapieha, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at London; 
Mr. Erasme Piltz, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary of the Polish Republic at Prague; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC: 
Dr. Affonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of Min- 
isters ; 
Mr. Joao Chagas, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of the Portuguese Republic at Paris ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA: 
Dr. Jon Cantactjzino, Minister of State ; 

Mr. Nicolae Titulescu, formerly Minister Secretary of State; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS, 
AND THE SLOVENES : 
Mr. Nicolas P. Pachitcii, formerly President of the Council of 

Ministers ; 
Mr. Ante Trumbig, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 
Mr. Ivan Zolger, Doctor of Law ; 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF'SIAM: 

His Highness Prince Charoon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minis- 
ter Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of Siam at Paris ; 
THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK REPUBLIC : 
Mr. Edward Bexes, Minister for Foreign Affairs : 
Mr. Stephen Osusky, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London; 
HUNGARY:' 

Mr. Gaston de Benard, Minister of Labour and Public Welfare; 
Mr. Alfred Drasche-Lazar de Thorda, Envoy Extraordinary and 

Minister Plenipotentiary; 
WHO, having communicated their full powers found in good and 
due form, HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS : 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war 
will terminate. 

From that moment and subject to the provisions of the present 
Treaty official relations will exist between the Allied and Associated 
Powers and Hungary. 

PART I.— THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The High Contracting Parties, 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve in- 
ternational peace and security 

by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war, 
by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations be- 
tween nations, 
by the firm establishment of the understandings of international 

law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and 
by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all 
treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one 
another. 
Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations. 



1g6 peace treaties. 

Article 1. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of 
the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and 
also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede 
without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be effected 
by a declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two months 
of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof shall be sent 
to all other Members of the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named in 
the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is 
agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided that it shall give 
effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its international 
obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed 
by the League in regard to its military, naval and air forces and 
armaments. 

Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its in- 
tention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all its 
international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant 
shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

Article 2. 

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected 
through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with a 
permanent Secretariat. 

Article 3. 

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of 
the League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time to time 
as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at such other 
place ns may be decided upon. 

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter within the 
sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League shall 
have one vote, and may have not more than three Representatives. 

Article 4. 

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal Allied 
and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four other 
Members of the League. These four Members of the League shall 
be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. Until 
the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members of the 
League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of Belgium, 
Brazil, Spain and Greece shall be members of the Council. 

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council 
may name additional Members of the League whose Representatives 
shall always be members of the Council; the Council with like ap- 
proval may increase the number of Members of the League to be 
selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council. 



PEACE TREATIES. 167 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, 
and at least once a year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other 
place as may be decided upon. 

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the 
sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be 
invited to send a Representative to sit as a member at any meeting 
of the Council during the consideration of matters specially affect- 
ing the interests of that Member of the League. 

At meetings of the Council, each Member of the League repre- 
sented on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more 
than one Representative. 

Article 5. 

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or 
by the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meeting of the 
Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the 
Members of the League represented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the 
Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate 
particular matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the 
Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members of the 
League represented at the meeting. 

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of the 
Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States 
of America. 

Article 6. 

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the 
League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and 
such secretaries and staff as may be required. 

The first Secretary-General shall be the person named in the 
Annex; thereafter the Secretary-General shall be appointed by the 
Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly. 

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the 
Secretary-General with the approval of the Council. 

The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity at all meetings 
of the Assembly and of the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of 
the League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses of 
the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. 

Article 7. 

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League 
shall be established elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connection with the League, including 
the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. 

Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of the 
League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy dip- 
lomatic privileges and immunities. 



168 PEACE TEEATIES. 

The buildings and other property occupied by the League or its 
officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be in- 
violable. 

Article 8. 

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of peace 
requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest point con- 
sistent with national safety and the enforcement by common action of 
international obligations. 

The Council, taking account of the geographical situation and cir- 
cumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction 
for the consideration and action of the several Governments. 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least 
every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Govern- 
ments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded 
without the concurrence of the Council. 

The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private 
enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave ob- 
jections. The Council shall advise how the evil effects attendant 
upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the 
necessities of those Members of the League which are not able to 
manufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for their 
safety. 

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and 
frank information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, 
naval and air programmes and the condition of such of their indus- 
tries as are adaptable to war-like purposes. 

Article 9. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council 
on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on military, 
naval and air questions generally. 

Article 10. 

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as 
against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing 
political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any 
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression, 
the Council shall advise upon' the means by which this obligation 
shall be fulfilled. 

Article 11. 

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the 
Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of con- 
cern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that 
may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. 
In case any such emergency should arise, the Secretary-General shall 
on the request of any Member of the League forthwith summon a 
meeting of the Council. 



PEACE TREATIES. 169 

It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the 
League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council 
any circumstance whatever affecting international relations which 
threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding 
between nations upon which peace depends. 

Article 12. 

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between 
them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will submit the 
matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, and they 
agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award 
by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. 

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be 
made within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall 
be made within six months after the submission of the dispute. 

Article 13. 

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall 
arise between them which they recognise to be suitable for submis- 
sion to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by 
diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration. 

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of 
international law, as to the existence of any fact which if established 
would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to 
the extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any such 
breach, are declared to be among those which are generally suitable 
for submission to arbitration. 

For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration 
to which the case is referred shall be the court agreed on by the par- 
ties to the dispute or stipulated in any convention existing between 
them. 

The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full 
good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not 
resort to war against a Member of the League which complies there- 
with. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award, the 
Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto. 

Article 14. 

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the 
League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent 
Court of International Justice. The Court shall be competent to 
hear and determine any dispute of an international character which 
the parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an advisory 
opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council 
or by the Assembly. 

Article 15. 

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute 
likely to lead to a rupture which is not submitted to arbitration in 
accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that 
they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute 



170 PEACE TREATIES. 

may effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the 
dispute to the Secretary-General, who will make all necessary ar- 
rangements for a full investigation and consideration thereof. 

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to 
the Secretary-General, as promptly as possible, statements of their 
case, with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may 
forthwith direct the publication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, 
and if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public 
giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the 
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council, either unanimously 
or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a 
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which 
are deemed just and proper in regard thereto. 

Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make 
public a statement of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions 
regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the members 
thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties 
to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not go 
to war with any party to the dispute which complies with the recom- 
mendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed 
to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of one or 
more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve 
to themselves the right to take such action as they shall consider 
necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is 
found by the Council to arise out of a matter which by international 
law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the 
Council shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its 
settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute 
to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of 
either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within 
fourteen days after the submission of the dispute to the Council. 

In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of this 
Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the 
Council shall apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, pro- 
vided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in by the 
Representatives of those Members of the League represented on the 
Council and of a majority of the other Members of the League, ex- 
clusive in each case of the Representatives of the parties to the dis- 
pute, shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred 
in by all the Members thereof other than the Representatives of one 
or more of the parties to the dispute. 

Article 16. 

Should any member of the League resort to war in disregard of 
its covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed 
to have committed an act of war against all other Members of the 
League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the sever- 



PEACE TREATIES. 171 

ance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all inter- 
course between their nationals and the nationals of the covenant- 
breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, commercial or 
persona] intercourse between the nationals of the covenant-breaking 
State and the nationals of any other State, whether a Member of the 
League or not. 

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to 
the several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or 
air force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the 
armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the League. 

The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually 
support one another in the financial and economic measures which are 
taken under this Article, in order to minimise the loss and incon- 
venience resulting from the above measures, and that they will mu- 
tually support one another in resisting any special measures aimed 
at one of their number by the covenant-breaking State, and that they 
will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their terri- 
tory to the forces of any of the Members of the League which are 
co-operating to protect the covenants of the League. 

Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the 
League may be declared to be no longer a Member of the League by 
a vote of the Council concurred in by the Representatives of all the 
other Members of the League represented thereon. 

Article IT. 

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a 
State which is not a Member of the League, or between States not 
Members of the League, the State or States not Members of the 
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in the 
League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as the 
Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the provisions 
of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such modifica- 
tions as may be deemed necessary by the Council. 

Upon such invitation being given, the Council shall immediately 
institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recom- 
mend such action as may seem best and most effectual in the circum- 
stances. 

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of mem- 
bership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall 
resort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions of 
Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such action. 

If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the 
obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such 
dispute, the Council may take such measures and make such recom- 
mendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settle- 
ment of the dispute. 

Article 18. 

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter 
by any Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the 
Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No such 
treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so regis- 
tered. 



172 peace treaties. 

Article 19. 

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration 
by Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable 
and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance 
might endanger the peace of the world. 

Article 20. 

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant 
is accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se 
which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly under- 
take that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements incon- 
sistent with the terms thereof. 

In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member 
of the League, have undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the 
terms of this Govenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to take 
immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations. 

Article 21. 

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of 
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional 
understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the main- 
tenance of peace. 

Article 22. 

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late 
war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which 
formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet 
able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the 
modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well- 
being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civili- 
sation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be 
embodied in this Covenant. 

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that 
the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations 
who, by reason of their resources, their experience or their geograph- 
ical position, can best undertake this responsibility and who are will- 
ing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them 
as Mandatories on behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage 
of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the 
territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. 

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire 
have reached a stage of development where their existence as inde- 
pendent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the render- 
ing of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until 
such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these com- 
munities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the 
Mandatory. 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a 
stage that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administra- 



PEACE TREATIES. 173 

tion of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom 
of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public 
order and morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, 
the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the estab- 
lishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military 
training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence 
of territory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade 
and commerce of other Members of the League. 

There are territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the 
South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their popu- 
lation, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of 
civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the 
Mandatory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under 
the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, sub- 
ject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indig- 
enous population. 

In every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Coun- 
cil an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its 
charge. 

The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised 
by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Mem- 
bers of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and ex- 
amine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Coun- 
cil on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates. 

Article 23. 

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international 
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of 
the League: 

(a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane con- 

ditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in 
their own countries and in all countries to which their 
commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that 
purpose will establish and maintain the necessary inter- 
national organisations ; 

(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants 

of territories under their control ; 

(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over 

the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in 
women and children, and the traffic in opium and other 
dangerous drugs; 

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the 

trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which 
the control of this traffic is necessary in the common 
interest ; 

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of com- 

munications and of transit and equitable treatment for the 
commerce of all Members of the League. In this connec- 
tion, the special necessities of the regions devastated dur- 
ing the war of 1914—1918 shall be borne in mind ; 
(/) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international con- 
cern for the prevention and control of disease. 



174: PEACE TKEATIES. 

Article 24. 

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all inter- 
national bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties 
to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all com- 
missions for the regulation of matters of international interest here- 
after constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League. 

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by 
general conventions but which are not placed under the control of 
international bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League 
shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the 
parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall 
render any other assistance which may be necessary or desirable. 

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat 
the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the 
direction of the League. 

Article 25. 

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the 
establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary national 
Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of 
health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering 
throughout the world. 

Article 2G. 

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the 
Members of the League whose Representatives compose the Council 
and by a majority of the Members of the League whose Representa- 
tives compose the Assembly. 

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which 
signifies its dissent therefrom, but iii that case it shall cease to be a 
Member of the League. 

Annex. 

i. original members of the league of nations. 

United States of America. Haiti. 

Belgium. Hedjaz. 

Bolivia. Honduras. 

Brazil. Italy. 

British Empire. Japan. 

Canada. Liberia. 

Australia. Nicaragua. 

South Africa. Panama. 

New Zealand. Peru. 

India. Poland. 

China. Portugal. 

Cuba. Roumania. 

Ecuador. Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

France. Siam. 

Greece. Czecho-Slovakia. 

Guatemala. Uruguay. 



PEACE TKEATIES. 175 

states invited to accede to the covenant.- 

Argentine Republic. Persia. 

Chili. Salvador. 

Colombia. Spain. 

Denmark. Sweden. 

Netherlands. Switzerland. 

Norway. Venezuela. 
Paraguay. 

ij. first secretary-general of the league of nations. 

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K. C. M. G., C. B. 

PAET II.— FRONTIERS OF HUNGARY. 

Article 27. 

The frontiers of Hungary shall be fixed as follows (see annexed 
Map) : 

1. With Austria: 

From the point common to the three frontiers of Austria, Hun- 
gary and Czecho-Slovakia, this point to be selected on the ground 
about 1 kilometre west of Antonienhof (east of Kittsee), southwards 
to point 115 situated about 8 kilometres south-west of St. Johann, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, leaving entirely in Hungarian 
territory the Karlburg-Csorna railway and passing west of Kr. 
Jahrndorf and Wust-Sommerein, and east of Kittsee, D. Jahrndorf, 
Nickelsdorf and Andau ; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected on the southern shore 
of Neusiedler See between Holling and Hidegseg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Pamhagen, leaving 
in Hungarian territory the entire Einser canal as well as the branch 
railway running north-westwards from the station of Mexiko, and 
then crossing Neusiedler See keeping to the south of the island con- 
taining point 117; 

thence southwards to point 265 (Kamenje) about 2 kilometres 
south-east of Nikitsch, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Zinkendorf and 
Nikitsch and west of Nemet Pereszteg and Kovesd; 

thence south-westwards to point 883 (Trott Ko) about 9 kilo- 
metres south-west of Koszeg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south-east of Locsmand. 
Olmod and Liebing, and north-west of Koszeg and the road from 
Koszeg to Salamonfa; 

thence southwards to point 234 about 7 kilometres north-north- 
east of Pinkamindszent, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Rohoncz and Natrv- 
narda and west of Butsching and Dozmat, then through points 273, 
260 and 241; 

thence in a general south-westerly direction to point 353 about 6 
kilometres north-north-east of Szt Gotthard, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing between NagTsaroslak -ir 
Pinkamindszent, then south of Karacsfa, Nemetbiikkos and Zs: 
mand and through point 323 (Hochkogel) ; 



176 PEACE TREATIES. 



thence south-westwards to a point to be selected on the watershed 
between the basins of the Raba (Raab) and the Mur about 2 kilo- 
metres east of Toka, this point being the point common to the three 
frontiers of Austria, Hungary and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Rabakeresztur, 
Nemetlak and Nagyfalva, west of the Radkersburg-Szt Gotthard 
road and through point 353 (Janke B.). 

2. With the Serb -Croat-Slovene State: 

From the point defined above in an easterly direction to point 
313 about 10 kilometres south of Szt Gotthard, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following general^ the watershed 
between the basins of the Raba on the north and of the Mur on the 
south ; 

thence in a southerly direction to point 295 about 16 kilometres 
north-east of Muraszombat, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Nagydolany, 
Orihodos with its railway station, Kapornak, Domonkosfa and Kiss- 
zerdahelv, and west of Kotormany and Szomorocz, and through 
points 3i9 and 291; 

thence in a south-easterly direction to point 209 about 3 kilometres 
west of Nemesnep, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following generally the watershed 
between the Nemesnepi on the north and the Kebele on the south ; 

thence in a south-south-easterly direction to a point to be chosen 
on the Lendva south of point 265, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing to the east of Kebeles- 
zentmarton, Zsitkocz, Gonterhaza, Hidveg, Csente, Pincze and to 
the west of Lendva- jakabf a, Bodehaza, Gaborjanhaza, Dedes, Lendva- 
Ujfalu; 

thence in a south-easterly direction, 

the course of the Lendva downstream; 

then the course of the Mur downstream ; 

then to its junction with the old boundary between Hungary and 
Croatia- Slavonia, about 1^ kilometres above the Gyekenyes-Kop- 
roncza railway bridge, 

the course of the Drau (Drave) downstream; 

thence south-eastwards to a point to be chosen about 9 kilometers 
east of Miholjacdolnji, 

the old administrative boundary between Hungary and Croatia- 
Slavonia, modified, however, so as to leave the Gyekenyes-Barcs 
railway, together with the station of Gola, entirely in Hungarian 
territory ; 

thence in an easterly direction to point 93 about 3 kilometres 
south-west of Baranyavar, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Torjancz, Locs 
and Benge and south of Kassad, Beremend with its railway station 
and Illocska; 

thence in a north-easterly direction to a point to be chosen in the 
course of the Danube about 8 kilometres north of point 169 (Kis- 
koszeg) , 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing to the west of Baranyavar, 
Foherczeglak (leaving to the Serb-Croat-Slovene State the railway 
joining these two places at the junction immediately to the north of 



PEACE TREATIES. 177 

Baranyavar) and Dalyok, and to the east of Ivan-Darda, Sarok, 
Udvar and Izabellafold (with its railway) ; 

thence east-north-eastwards to a point in the course of the Kigyos 
about 3 kilometres east-south-east of Bacsmadaras Station, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing between Herczegszanto 
and Bereg, and then approximately following the course of the Kig- 
yos, but curving to the north of Rigyicza ; 

thence east-north-eastwards to a point to be selected on the back- 
water of the Tisza (Theiss) about 5^ kilometres east-north-east of 
Horgos Station, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Kun-Baja, cut- 
ting the Szabadka-Bacsalmas railway about 1^ kilometres east of 
Csikeria Station, cutting the Szabadka-Kiskunhalas railway about 
3 kilometres south of Kelebia Station, and passing north of Horgos 
and its station, and south of Roszkeszentmihalytelek ; 
thence in a south-easterly direction to the Tisza, 
the median line of the backwater; 

thence to a point to be selected about 5 kilometres upstream, 
the course of the Tisza ; 

thence in a general easterly direction to a point to be selected on 
the ground about 4 kilometres south-west of Kiszombor Station, 
approximately east-south-east of point 84 and south-south-west of 
point 83, this point being the point common to the three frontiers 
of Roumania, Hungary, and the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing between Gyala and Oszen- 
tivan and between Obeb and Kiibekhaza. 
3. With Roumania : 

From the point defined above east-north-eastwards to a point to 
be selected on the Maros about 3^ kilometres upstream from the 
railway bridge between Mako and Szeged, 
a line to be fixed on the ground; 

thence south-eastwards, and then north-eastwards to a point to 
be selected about 1 kilometre south of Nagylak station, 
the course of the river Maros upstream ; 

thence north-eastwards to the salient of the administrative boun- 
dary between the comitats of Csanad and Arad north-north-west of 
Nemetpereg, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing between Nagylak and the 
railway station ; 

thence east-north-eastwards to a point to be selected on the ground 
between Battonya and Tornya, 

this administrative boundary, passing north of Nemetpereg and 
Kispereg ; 

thence to point 123 (about 1.2 kilometres east of Magosliget), the 
point common to the three frontiers of Hungary. Roumania and 
Czecho-Slovakia (Ruthenian territory), 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Nagyvarjas, Kis- 
varjas and Nagyiratos, east of Dombegyhaz, Kevermes and Elek, 
west of Ottlaka, Nagy-Pel, Gyula-Varsand, Ant and Hlye, east of 
Gyula, Gyula-Vari and Kotegyan, cutting the Nagyszalonta-Gyula 
railway about 12 kilometres south-west of Nagyszalonta and between 
the two bifurcations formed by the crossing of this line and the 
Szeghalom-Erdogyarak railway; passing east of Mehkerek, west of 

47808— S. Doc. 7, G7-1 12 



178 PEACE TREATIES. 

Nagyszalonta and Marczihaza, east of Geszt, west of Atyas, Olah- 
Szt-Miklos and Rojt, east of Ugra and Harsany, west of Korosszeg 
and Koros-Tarjan, east of Szakal and Berek-Boszormeny, west of 
Bors, east of Artand, west of Nagy-Szanto, east of Nagy-Kereki, 
west of Pelbarthida and Bihardioszeg, east of Kis-Marja, west of 
Csokaly, east of Nagyleta and Almosd, west of Er-Selind, east of 
Bagamer, west of Er-Kenez and Ermihalyfalva, east of Szt-Gyorgy- 
Abrany and Peneszlek, west of Szaniszlo, Bere-Csomakoz, Feny, 
Csanalos, Borvely and Domahida, east of Vallaj, west of Csenger- 
Bagos and Ovari, east of Csenger-TJjfalu, west of Dara, east of 
Csenger and Komlod-Totfalu, west of Pete, east of Nagy-Gecz, west 
of Szaraz-Berek, east of Mehtelek, Garbolcz and Nagy-Hodos, west 
of Fertos-Almas, east of Kis-Hodos, west of Nagy-Palad, east of Kis- 
Palad and Magosliget. 

4. With Czechoslovakia: 

From point 123 described above north-westwards to a point to be 
selected on the course of the Batar about 1 kilometre east of Mago- 
sliget, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence the course of the Batar downstream ; 

then to a point to be selected on it below Badalo and near this 
village, 

the course of the Tisza downstream ; 

thence north-north-westwards to a point to be selected on the 
ground north-east of Darocz, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving in the Ruthenian territory 
of Czecho-Slovakia Badalo, Csoma, Macsola, Asztely and Deda, and 
in Hungarian territory Bereg-Surany and Darocz; 

thence north-westwards to the confluence of the Fekete-Viz and 
the Csaronda, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 179, leaving 
in Ruthenian territory Mezo Kaszony, Lonyay Tn., Degenfeld Tn., 
Hetyen, Horvathi Tn., Komjathy Tn., and in Hungarian territory 
Kerek Gorond Tn., Berki Tn. and Barabas; 

thence to a point to be selected in its course above the administra- 
tive boundary between the comitats of Szabolcs and Bereg, 

the course of the Csaronda downstream ; 

thence westwards to the point where the above-mentioned boun- 
dary coming from the right bank cuts the course of the Tisza, 

aline to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence to a point to be selected on the ground east-south-east of 
Tarkany, 

the course of the Tisza downstream ; 

thence approximately westwards to a point in the Ronyva about 
3.7 kilometres north of the bridge between the town and the station 
of Satoralja-Ujhely, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving to Czecho-Slovakia Tar- 
kany, Perbenyik, Oros, Kis-Kovesd, Bodrog-Szerdahelv, Bodrog- 
Szog, and Borsi, and to Hungary Damoc, Laca, Rozvagv, Pacin, 
Karos, Felso-Berecki, crossing the Bodrog and cutting the railway 
triangle south-east of Satoralja-Ujhely. passing east of this town so 
as to leave the Kassa-Csap railway entirely in Czecho-Slovak terri- 
tory ; 



PEACE TREATIES. 179 

thence to a point near point 125 about H kilometres south of Also- 
mihalyi, 

the course of the Ronyva upstream ; 

thence north-westwards to a point on the Hernad opposite point 
167 on the right bank south-west of Abaujnadasd, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following approximately the water- 
shed between the basins of the Ronyva on the east and the Bozsva on 
the west, but passing about 2 kilometres east of Pusztafalu, turning 
south-westwards at point 896, cutting at point 424 the Kassa-Sato- 
ralja road and passing south of Abaujnadasd; 

thence to a point to be selected on the ground about 1| kilometres 
south-west of Abaujvar, 

the course of the Hernad downstream ; 

thence westwards to point 330 about H kilometres south-south-west 
of Pereny, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving to Czecho- Slovakia the 
villages of Miglecznemeti and Pereny, and to Hungary the village of 
Tornyosnemeti ; 

thence westwards to point 291 about 3| kilometres south-east of 
Janok, 

the watershed between the basins of the Bodva on the north and 
the Rakacza on the south, but leaving in Hungarian territory the 
road on the crest south-east of Buzita ; 

thence west-north-westwards to point 431 about 3 kilometres south- 
west of Torna, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving to Czecho-Slovakia Janok, 
Tornahorvati and Bodvavendegi, and to Hungary Tornaszentjakab 
and Hidvegardo ; 

thence south-westwards to point 365 about 12 kilometres south- 
south-east of Pelsocz, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through points 601, 381 
(on the Rozsnyo-Edeleny road), 557 and 502; 

thence south-south-westwards to point 305 about 7 kilometres 
north-west of Putnok, 

the watershed between the basins of the Sajo on the west and the 
Szuha and Kelemeri on the east ; 

thence south-south-westwards to point 278 south of the confluence 
of the Sajo and the Rima, 

a line to be fixed on the ground, leaving Banreve station to Hun- 
gary while permitting, if required, the construction in Czecho- Slovak 
territory of a connection between the Pelsocz and Losoncz railway 
lines ; 

thence south-westwards to point 485 about 10 kilometres east- 
north-east of Salgo tar j an, 

a line to be fixed on the ground following approximately the 
watershed between the basins of the Rima to the north and the Han- 
gony and Tarna rivers to the south ; 

thence west-north-westwards to point 727, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving to Hungary the villages 
and mines of Zagyva-Rona and Salgo, and passing south of Somos- 
Ujfalu station; 

thence north-westwards to point 391 about 7 kilometres east of 
Litke, 



180 PEACE TREATIES. 

a line following approximately the crest bounding on the north- 
east the basin of the Dobroda and passing through point 446 ; 

thence north-westwards to a point to be selected on the course of 
the Eipel (Ipoly) about 14 kilometres north-east of Tarnocz, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through point 312 and 
between Tarnocz and Kalonda ; 

thence south-westwards to a point to be selected in the bend of 
the Eipel about 1 kilometre south of Tesmag, 

the course of the Eipel downstream ; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected on the course of the' 
Eipel about 1 kilometre west of Tesa, 

a line to be fixed on the ground so as to pass south of the station 
of Ipolysag and to leave entirely in Czecho-Slovak territory the 
railway from Ipolysag to Csata together with the branch line t©> 
Korpona (Karpfen), but leaving Bernecze and Tesa to Hungary; 

thence southwards to its confluence with the Danube, 

the course of the Eipel downstream ; 

thence to a point to be selected about 2 kilometres east of Antonieni- 
hof (east of Kittsee). 

the principal channel of navigation of the Danube upstream ; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected on the ground about 1 
kilometre west of Antonienhof (east of Kittsee), this point being the 
point common to the three frontiers of Austria, Hungary and Czechov 
Slovakia, 
a line to be fixed on the ground. 

Article 28. 

The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced, for such 
parts as are defined, on the one in a million map attached to the pres- 
ent Treaty. In case of differences between the text and the map, the 
text will prevail. 

Article 29. 

Boundary Commissions, whose composition is or will be fixed in the 
present Treaty or in any other Treaty between the Principal. Allied 
and Associated Powers and the, or any, interested States, will have to 
trace these frontiers on the ground. 

They shall have the power, not only of fixing those portions which 
are defined as " a line to be fixed on the ground," but also, where a 
request to that effect is made by one of the States concerned, and the 
(\>mmission is satisfied that it' is desirable to do so, of revising por- 
tions defined by administrative boundaries; this shall not however 
apply in the case of international frontiers existing in August, 1914, 
where the task of the Commission will confine itself to the re-estab- 
lisliment of sign-posts and boundary -marks. They shall endeavour 
in both cases to follow as nearly as possible the descriptions given in 
the Treaties, taking into account as far as possible administrative 
boundaries and local economic interests. 

The decisions of the Commissions will be taken by a majority, and 
shall be binding on the parties concerned. 

The expenses of the Boundary Commissions will be borne in equal 
shares by the two States concerned. 



PEACE TREATIES. 181 

Article 30. 

In so far as frontiers defined by a waterway are- concerned, the 
phrases " course " or " channel " used in the descriptions of the pres- 
ent Treaty signify, as regards non-navigable rivers, the median line 
of the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as regards navigable 
rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. It will 
rest with the Boundary Commissions provided for by the present 
Treaty to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any changes 
of the course or channel which may take place, or whether it shall be 
definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time 
when the present Treaty comes into force. 

Article 31. 

The various States interested undertake to furnish to the Commis- 
sions all documents necessary for their tasks, especially authentic 
copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale 
maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, 
and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. 

They also undertake to instruct the local authorities to communicate 
to the Commissions all documents, especially plans, cadastral and land 
books, and to furnish on demand all details regarding property, exist- 
ing economic conditions, and other necessary information. 

Article 32. 

The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to 
the Boundary Commissions, whether directly or through local authori- 
ties, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, labour, 
material (sign-posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the accom- 
plishment of their mission. 

Article 33. 

The various States interested undertake to safeguard the trigo- 
nometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by the 
Commission. 

Article 34. 

The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible ; they will be num- 
bered, and their position and their number will be noted on a carto- 
graphic document. 

Article 35. ' 

The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents 
attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies 
will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe States and 
the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will de- 
liver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty. 



182 PEACE TREATIES. 

PART III.— POLITICAL CLAUSES FOR EUROPE. 

Section I. — Italy. 

Article 36. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of Italy 
all rights and title which she could claim over the territories of the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy recognized as forming part of 
Italy in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 36 of the 
Treaty of Peace concluded on September 10, 1919, between the Allied 
and Associated Powers and Austria. 

Article 37. 

No sum shall be due by Italy on the ground of her entry into pos- 
session of the Palazzo Venezia at Rome. 

Article 38. 

Hungary shall restore to Italy within a period of three months all 
the wagons belonging to the Italian railways which before the out- 
break of war had passed into Austria and are now in Hungary. 

Article 39. 

Notwithstanding the Provisions of Article 252, Part X (Economic 
Clauses), persons having their usual residence in the territories of the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy transferred to Italy in accord- 
ance with the first paragraph of Article 36 of the Treaty of Peace 
with Austria who, during the war, have been outside the territories 
of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy or have been imprisoned, 
interned or evacuated, shall enjoy the full benefit of the provisions 
of Articles 235 and 236, Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present 
Treaty. 

Article 40. 

Judgments rendered since August 4, 1914, by the courts in the ter- 
ritory transferred to Italy in accordance with the first paragraph of 
Article 36 of the Treaty of Peace with Austria, in civil and com- 
mercial cases between the inhabitants of such territory and other 
nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, shall not be carried 
into effect until after endorsement by the corresponding new court 
in such territory. 

All decisions rendered for political crimes or offences since August 
4, 1914, by the judicial authorities of the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy against Italian nationals, or against persons who acquire 
Italian nationality in accordance with the Treaty of Peace with 
Austria, shall be annulled. 



PEACE TREATIES. 183 

section II. — Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 41. 

Hungary, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied 
and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of the 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 42. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of the 
Serb-Croat-Slovene State all rights and title over the territories of 
the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the fron- 
tiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of 
Hungary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties 
concluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as 
forming part of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State. 

Article 43. 

A Commission consisting of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by the Serb-Croat- 
Slovene State, and one by Hungary, shall be constituted within fifteen 
days from the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the 
spot the frontier line described in Article 27 (2), Part II (Frontiers 
of Hungary). 

Article 44. 

The Serb-Croat-Slovene State recognises and confirms in relation 
to Hungary its obligation to accept the embodiment in a Treaty with 
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers such provisions as may 
be deemed necessary by these Powers to protect the interests of inhab- 
itants of that State who differ from the majority of the population in 
race, language or religion, as well as to protect freedom of transit 
and equitable treatment of the commerce of other nations. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary 
which the Serb-Croat-Slovene State will have to assume on account of 
the territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in ac- 
cordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the pres- 
ent Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not de- 
cided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of 
the cession of the said territory. 

Section III. — Roumania. 

Article 45. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of Rou- 
mania all rights and title over the territories of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers of Hungary as 
laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hungary) and recog- 



184 PEACE TREATIES. 

nised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties concluded for the pur- 
pose of completing the present settlement, as forming part of Rou- 
mania. 

Article 46. 

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by rioumania, and one 
by Hungary, will be appointed within fifteen days from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line 
provided for in Article 27 (3), Part II (Frontiers of Hungary). 

Article 47. 

Roumania recognises and confirms in relation to Hungary her obli- 
gation to accept the embodiment in a Treaty with the Principal Allied 
and Associated Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by 
these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who 
differ from the majority of the population in race, language or relig 
ion, as well as to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment 
for the commerce of other nations. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary 
which Roumania will have to assume on account of the territory 
placed under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with 
Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not de- 
cided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of the 
cession of the said territory. 

Section IV. — Czecho- Slovak State. 

Article 48. 

Hungary, in conformity with the action already taken by the Allied 
and Associated Powers, recognises the complete independence of the 
Czecho-Slovak State, which will include the autonomous territory of 
the Ruthenians to the south of the Carpathians. 

Article 49. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of the 
Czecho-Slovak State all rights and title over the territories of the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated outside the frontiers 
of Hungary as laid down in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hun- 
gary) and recognised by the present Treaty, or by any Treaties con- 
cluded for the purpose of completing the present settlement, as 
forming part of the Czecho-Slovak State. 

Article 50. 

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by the Czecho-Slovak 
State, and one by Hungary, will be appointed within fifteen days from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the 
frontier line provided for in Article 27 (4), Part II (Frontiers of 
Hungary). 



PEACE TREATIES. 185 

Article 51. 

The Czecho- Slovak State undertakes not to erect any military 
works in that portion of its territory which lies on the right bank of 
the Danube to the south of Bratislava (Pressburg) . 

Article 52. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Hungary 
which the Czecho- Slovak State will have to assume on account of 
the territory placed under its sovereignty will be determined in ac- 
cordance with Article 186, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present 
Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not de- 
cided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence of 
the cession of the said territory. 

Section V. — Fiume. 

Article 53. 

Hungary renounces all rights and title over Fiume and the adjoin- 
ing territories which belonged to the former Kingdom of Hungary 
and which lie within the boundaries which may subsequently be fixed. 

Hungary undertakes to accept the dispositions made in regard to 
these territories, particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of 
the inhabitants, in the Treaties concluded for the purpose of complet- 
ing the present settlement. 

Section VI. — Protection or Minorities. 

Article 54. 

Hungary undertakes that the stipulations contained in this Section 
shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no law, regulation 
or official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, 
nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them. 

Article 55. 

Hungary undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life 
and liberty to all inhabitants of Hungary without distinction of 
birth, nationality, language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants of Hungary shall be entitled to the free exercise, 
whether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief whose prac- 
tices are not inconsistent with public order or public morals. 

Article 56. 

Hungary admits and declares to be Hungarian nationals ipso facto 
and without the requirement of any formality all persons possessing 
at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty rights of 
citizenship (pertinenza) within Hungarian territory who are not 
nationals of any other State. 



186 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 57. 

All persons born in Hungarian territory who are not born nation- 
als of another State shall Ipso facto become Hungarian nationals. 

Article 58. 

All Hungarian nationals shall be equal before the law and shall 
enjoy the same civil and political rights without distinction as to 
race, language or religion. 

Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any 
Hungarian national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or 
political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, 
functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries. 

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Hungarian 
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, in re- 
ligion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public 
meetings. 

Notwithstanding any establishment by the Hungarian Government 
of an official language, adequate facilities shall be given to Hun- 
garian nationals of non-Magyar speech for the use of their language, 
either orally or in writing before the Courts. 

Hungarian nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and 
in fact as the other Hungarian nationals. In particular they shall 
have an equal right to establish, manage and control at their own 
expense charitable, religious and social institutions, schools and other 
educational establishments, with the right to use their own language 
and to exercise their religion freely therein. 

Article 59. 

Hungary will provide in the public educational system in towns 
and districts in which a considerable proportion of Hungarian 
nationals of other than Magyar speech are resident adequate facili- 
ties for ensuring that in the primary schools the instruction shall be 
given to the children of such Hungarian nationals through the me- 
dium of their own language. This provision shall not prevent the 
Hungarian Government from making the teaching of the Magyar 
language obligatory in the said schools. 

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of 
Hungarian nationals belonging to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in 
the enjoyment and application of sums which may be provided out 
of public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets, for 
educational, religious or charitable purposes. 

Article 60. 

Hungary agrees that the stipulations in the foregoing Articles of 
this Section, so far as they affect persons belonging to racial, relig- 
ious or linguistic minorities, constitute obligations of international 
concern and shall be placed under the guarantee of the League of 
Nations. They shall not. be modified without the assent of a majority 



PEACE TREATIES. 187 

of the Council of the League of Nations. The Allied and Associ- 
ated Powers represented on the Council severally agree not to with- 
hold their assent from any modification in these Articles which is 
in due form assented to by a majority of the Council of the League 
of Nations. 

Hungary agrees that any Member of the Council of the League of 
Nations shall have the right to bring to the attention of the Council 
any infraction, or any danger of infraction, of any of these obliga- 
tions, and that the Council may thereupon take such action and give 
such direction as it may deem proper and effective in the circum- 
stances. 

Hungary further agrees that any difference of opinion as to ques- 
tions of law or fact arising out of these Articles between the Hun- 
garian Government and any one of the Allied and Associated Powers 
or any other Power, a Member of the Council of the League of 
Nations, shall be held to be a dispute of an international character 
under Article 14 of the Covenant of the League of Nations. The 
Hungarian Government hereby consents that any such dispute shall, 
if the other party thereto demands, be referred to the Permanent 
Court of International Justice. The decision of the Permanent Court 
shall be final and shall have the same force and effect as an award 
under Article 13 of the Covenant. 

Section VII. — Clauses Relating to Nationality. 

Article 61. 

Every person possessing rights of citizenship (pertinenza) in ter- 
ritory which formed part of the territories of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy shall obtain ipso facto to the exclusion of 
Hungarian nationality the nationality of the State exercising sover- 
eignty over such territory. 

Article 62. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 61, persons who ac- 
quired rights of citizenship after January 1, 1910, in territory trans- 
ferred under the present Treaty to the Serb-Croat- Slovene State, or 
to the Czecho-Slovak State, will not acquire Serb-Croat-Slovene or 
Czecho- Slovak nationality without a permit from the Serb- Croat- 
Slovene State or the Czecho-Slovak State respectively. 

If the permit referred to in the preceding paragraph is not applied 
for, or is refused, the persons concerned will obtain ipso facto the 
nationality of the State exercising sovereignty over the territory in 
which they previously possessed rights of citizenship. 

Article 63. 

Persons over 18 years of age losing their Hungarian nationality 
and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 61 shall be 
entitled within a period of one year from the coming into forceof 
the present Treaty to opt for the nationality of the State in which 
they possessed rights of citizenship before acquiring such rights in 
the territory transferred. 



J 88 PEACE TREATIES. 

Option by a husband will cover his wife and option by parents will 
cover their children under 18 years of age. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must within the 
succeeding twelve months transfer their place of residence to the 
State for which they have opted. 

They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the 
territory of the other State where they had their place of residence 
before exercising their right to opt. 

They may carry with them their movable property of every de- 
scription. No export or import duties may be imposed upon them 
in connection with the removal of such property. 

Article 64. 

Persons possessing rights of citizenship in territory forming part 
of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and differing in race 
and language from the majority of the population of such territory, 
shall within six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty severally be entitled to opt for Austria, Hungary, Italy, Po- 
land. Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State, or the Czecho-Slovak 
State, if the majority of the population of the State selected is of 
the same race and language as the person exercising the right to opt. 
The provisions of Article 63 as to the exercise of the right of option 
shall apply to the right of option given by this Article. 

Article 65. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to put no hindrance in 
the way of the exercise of the right which the persons concerned have 
under the present Treaty, or under treaties concluded by the Allied 
and Associated Powers with Germany, Austria or Russia, or between 
any of the Allied and Associated Powers themselves, to choose any 
other nationality which may be open to them. 

Article 66. 

For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a 
married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the 
status of children under 18 years of age by that of their parents. 

Section VIII. — Political Clauses Relating to Certain European 

States. 

1. Belgium. 

Article 67. 

Hungary, recognizing that the Treaties of April 19, 1839, which 
established the status of Belgium before the war, no longer conform 
to the requirements of the situation, consents so far as she is concerned 
to the abrogation of the said treaties and undertakes immediately to 
recognize and to observe whatever conventions may be entered into 
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, or by any of them, 



PEACE TREATIES. 189 

in concert with the Governments of Belgium and of the Netherlands, 
to replace the said Treaties of 1829. If her formal adhesion should 
be required to such conventions or to any of their stipulations, Hun- 
gary undertakes immediately to give it. 

2. Luxemburg. 

Article 68. 

Hungary agrees, so far as she is concerned, to the termination of 
the regime of neutrality of the Grand-Duchy of Luxemburg, and 
accepts in advance all international arrangements which may be con- 
cluded by the Allied and Associated Powers relating to the Grand- 
Duchy. 

3. Schleswig. 

Article 69. 

Hungary hereby accepts so far as she is concerned all arrange- 
ments made by the Allied and Associated Powers with Germany 
concerning the territories whose abandonment was imposed upon 
Denmark by the Treaty of October 30, 1864. 

4. Turkey and Bulgaria. 

Article TO. 

Hungary undertakes to recognize and accept so far as she is con- 
cerned all arrangements which the Allied and Associated Powers 
may make or have made with Turkey and Bulgaria with reference 
to any rights, interests and privileges whatever which might be 
claimed by Hungary or her nationals in Turkey or Bulgaria and 
which are not dealt with in the provisions of the present Treaty. 

5. Austria. 

Article 71. 

Hungary renounces in favour of Austria all rights and title over 
the territories of the former Kingdom of Hungary situated outside 
the frontiers of Hungary as laid down in Article 27 (1), Part II 
(Frontiers of Hungary). 

A Commission composed of seven members, five nominated by the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, one by Hungary and one 
by Austria, shall be constituted within fifteen days from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier line 
referred to above. 

The nationality of the inhabitants of the territories referred to in 
the present Article shall be regulated in conformity with the disposi- 
tions of Articles 61 and 63 to 66. 



190 PEACE TREATIES. 

6. Russia and Russian States. 
Article 72. 

(1) Hungary acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and 
inalienable the independence of all the territories which were part 
of the former Russian Empire on August 1, 1914. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 193, Part IX (Finan- 
cial Clauses) and Article 227, Part X (Economic Clauses) of the 
present Treaty, Hungary definitely accepts so far as she is concerned 
the abrogation of the Treaties of Brest-Litovsk and of all other 
treaties, conventions and agreements entered into by the former 
Austro-Hungarian Government with the Maximalist Government in 
Russia. 

The Allied and Associated Powers formally reserve the rights of 
Russia to obtain from Hungary restitution and reparation based on 
the principles of the present Treaty. 

(2) Hungary undertakes to recognize the full force of all treaties 
or agreements which may be entered into by the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers with States now existing or coming into existence in 
future in the whole or part of the former Empire of Russia as it 
existed on August 1, 1914, and to recognize the frontiers of any such 
States as determined therein. 

Section IX. — General Provisions. 
Article 73. 

The independence of Hungary is inalienable otherwise than with 
the consent of the Council of the League of Nations. Consequently, 
Hungary undertakes in the absence of the consent of the said Council 
to abstain from any act which might directly or indirectly or by any 
means whatever compromise her independence, particularly, and 
until her admission to membership of the League of Nations, by 
participation in the affairs of another Power. 

Article 74. 

Hungary hereby recognizes and accepts the frontiers of Austria, 
Bulgaria, Greece, Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State 
and the Czecho- Slovak State as these frontiers may be determined 
by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Hungary undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of 
Peace and additional conventions which have been or may be con- 
cluded by the Allied and Associated Powers with the Powers who 
fought on the side of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and 
to recognise whatever dispositions have been or may be made con- 
cerning the territories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of 
the Kingdom of Bulgaria and of the Ottoman Empire, and to recog- 
nize the new States within their frontiers as there laid down. 

Article 75. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned in favour of the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers all rights and title over the 
territories which previously belonged to the former Austro-Hun- 



PEACE TREATIES. 191 

garian Monarchy and which, being situated outside the new frontiers 
of Hungary as described in Article 27, Part II (Frontiers of Hun- 
gary), have not at present been otherwise disposed of. 

Hungaiy undertakes to accept the settlement made by the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers in regard to these territories, 
particularly in so far as concerns the nationality of the inhabitants. 

Article 76. 

No inhabitant of the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy shall be disturbed or molested on account either of his 
political attitude between July 28, 1914, and the definitive settlement 
of the sovereignty over these territories, or of the determination of 
his nationality effected by the present Treaty. 

Article 77. 

Hungary will hand over without delay to the Allied and Associated 
Governments concerned archives, registers, plans, title-deeds and 
documents of every kind belonging to the civil, military, financial, 
judicial or other forms of administration in the ceded territories. 
If any one of these documents, archives, registers, title-deeds or plans 
is missing, it shall be restored by Hungary upon the demand of the 
Allied or Associated Government concerned. 

In case the archives, registers, plans, title-deeds or documents 
referred to in the preceding paragraph, exclusive of those of a mili- 
tary character, concern equally the administration in Hungary, and 
cannot therefore be handed over without inconvenience to such ad- 
ministrations, Hungary undertakes, subject to reciprocity, to give 
access thereto to the Allied and Associated Governments concerned. 

Article 78. 

Separate conventions between Hungary and each of the States to 
which territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary is transferred, 
and each of the States arising from the dismemberment of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, will provide for the interests of the 
inhabitants, especially in connection with their civil rights, their com- 
merce and the exercise of their professions. 

PART IV.— HUNGARIAN INTERESTS OUTSIDE EUROPE. 

Article 79. 

In territory outside her frontiers as fixed by the present Treaty 
Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned all rights, titles and 
privileges in or over territory outside Europe which belonged to the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, or to its allies, and all rights, 
titles and privileges whatever their origin which it held as against 
the Allied and Associated Powers. 

Hungary undertakes immediately to recognize and to conform to 
the measures which may be taken now or in the future by the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers, in agreement where necessary 
with third Powers, in order to carry the above stipulation into effect. 



192 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section I. — Morocco. 
Article 80. 

Hungary renounces so far as she is concerned all rights, titles and 
privileges conferred on her by the General Act of Algeciras of April 
7, 1906, and by the Franco-German Agreements of February 9, 1909, 
and November 4, 1911. All treaties, agreements, arrangements and 
contracts concluded by the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with 
the Sherifian Empire are regarded as abrogated as from August 
12, 1914. 

In no case can Hungary avail herself of these acts and she under- 
takes not to intervene in any way in negotiations relating to Mo- 
rocco which may take place between France and the other Powers. 

Article 81. 

Hungary hereby accepts all the consequences of the establishment 
of the French Protectorate in Morocco, which had been recognized 
by the Government of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and 
she renounces so far as she is concerned the regime of the capitula- 
tions in Morocco. 

This renunciation shall take effect as from August 12, 1914. 

Article 82. 

The Sherifian Government shall have complete liberty of action 
in regulating the status of Hungarian nationals in Morocco and the 
conditions in which they can establish themselves there. 

Hungarian-protected persons, semsars and " associes agricoles" 
shall be considered to have ceased, as from August 12, 1914, to enjoy 
the privileges attached to their status, and shall be subject to the 
ordinary law. 

Article 83. 

All movable and immovable property in the Sherifian Empire be- 
longing to the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy passes ipso facto 
to the Maghzen without compensation. 

For this purpose, the property and possessions of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall be deemed to include all the 
property of the Crown, and the private property of members of 
the former Royal Family of Austria-Hungary. 

All movable and immovable property in the Sherifian Empire be- 
longing to Hungarian nationals shall be dealt with in accordance 
with Sections III and IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the 
present Treatv. 

Mining rights which may be recognised as belonging to Hungarian 
nationals by the Court of Arbitration set up under the Moroccan 
Mining Regulations shall be treated in the same way as property in 
Morocco belonging to Hungarian nationals. 

Article 84. 

The Hungarian Government shall ensure the transfer to the per- 
son nominated by the French Government of the shares representing 
Hungary's portion of the capital of the State Bank of Morocco. 



PEACE TREATIES. 193 

This person will repay to the persons entitled thereto the value of 
these shares, which shall be indicated by the State Bank. 

This transfer will take place without prejudice to the repayment 
of debts which Hungarian nationals may have contracted towards the 
State Bank of Morocco. 

Article 85. 

Moroccan goods entering Hungary shall enjoy the treatment ac- 
corded to French goods. 

Section II. — Egypt. 

Article 86. 

Hungary declares that she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed 
over Egypt by Great Britain on December 18, 1914, and that she 
renounces so far as she is concerned the regime of the capitulations 
in Egypt. 

This renunciation shall take effect as from August 12, 1911. 

Article 87. 

All treaties, agreements, arrangements and contracts concluded by 
the Government of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with 
Egypt are regarded as abrogated as from August 12, 1911. 

In no case can Hungary avail herself of these instruments, and 
she undertakes not to intervene in any way in negotiations relating 
to Egypt which may take place between Great Britain and the other 
Powers. 

Article 88. 

Until an Egyptian law of judicial organization establishing courts 
with universal jurisdiction comes into force, provision shall be made. 
by means of decrees isued by His Highness the Sultan, for the exer- 
cise of jurisdiction over Hungarian nationals and property by the 
British Consular Tribunals. 

Article 89. 

The Egyptian Government shall have complete liberty of action in 
regulating the status of Hungarian nationals and the conditions 
under which they may establish themselves in Egypt. 

Article 90. 

Hungary consents, so far as she is concerned, to the abrogation of 
the decree 'issued by His Highness the Khedive on November 28, 1904, 
relating to the Commission of the Egyptian Public Debt, or to such 
changes as the Egyptian Government may think it desirable to make 
therein. 

Article 91. 

Hungary consents, so far as site is concerned, to the transfer to 
His Britannic Majesty's Government of the powers conferred on His 
Imperial Majesty the' Sultan by the Convention signed at Constanti- 

47S0S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 13 



194 PEACE TREATIES. 

nople on October 29, 1888, relating to the free navigation of the 
Suez Canal. 

She renounces all participation in the Sanitary, Maritime and 
Quarantine Board of Egypt and consents, so far as she is concerned, 
to the transfer to the Egyptian Authorities of the powers of that 
Board. 

Article 92. 

All property and possessions in Egypt of the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy pass to the Egyptian Government without pay- 
ment. 

For this purpose, the property and possessions of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall be deemed to include all the 
property of the Crown, and the private property of members of the 
former Royal Family of Austria-Hungary. 

All movable and immovable property in Egypt belonging to Hun- 
garian nationals shall be dealt with in accordance with Sections 
III and IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Article 93. 

Egyptian goods entering Hungary shall enjoy the treatment ac- 
corded to British goods. 

Section III. — Siam. 

Article 94. 

Hungary recognises, so far as she is concerned, that all treaties, 
conventions and agreements between the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy and Siam, and all rights, title and privileges derived there- 
from, including; all rights of extra-terriorial jurisdiction, terminated 
as from July 22, 1917. 

Article 95. 

Hungary, so far as she is concerned, cedes to Siam all her rights 
over the goods and property in Siam which belonged to the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, with the exception of premises used as 
diplomatic or consular residences or offices as well as the effects and 
furniture which they contain. These goods and property pass ipso 
facto and without compensation to the Siamese Government. 

The goods, property and private rights of Hungarian nationals in 
Siam shall be dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Part X 
(Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Article 96. 

Hungary waives all claims against the Siamese Government on 
behalf of herself or her nationals arising out of the liquidation of 
Hungarian property or the internment of Hungarian nationals in 
Siam. This provision shall not affect the rights of the parties in- 
terested in the proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be gov- 
erned by the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the pres- 
ent Treaty. 



PEACE TREATIES. 195 

Section IV. — China. 

Article 97. 

Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, in favour of China 
all benefits and privileges resulting from the provisions of the final 
Protocol signed at Peking on September 7, 1901, and from all an- 
nexes, notes and documents supplementary thereto. She likewise 
renounces in favour of China any claim to indemnities accruing 
thereunder subsequent to August 14, 1917. 

Article 98. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them respectively: 

(1) the Arrangement of August 29, 1902, regarding the new Chi- 
nese customs tariff; 

(2) the Arrangement of September 27, 1905, regarding Whang- 
Poo, and the provisional supplementary Arrangement of April 4, 
1912. 

China, however, will not be bound to grant to Hungary the ad- 
vantages or privileges which she allowed to the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy under these Arrangements. 

Article 99. 

Hungary, so far as she is concerned, cedes to China all her rights 
over the buildings, wharves and pontoons, barracks, forts, arms and 
munitions of war. vessels of all kinds, wireless telegraphy installa- 
tions and other public property which belonged to the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and which are situated or may be in 
the Austro-Hungarian Concession at Tientsin or elsewhere in Chi- 
nese territory. 

It is understood, however, that premises used as diplomatic or 
consular residences or offices, as well as the effects and furniture con- 
tained therein, are not included in the above, cession, and, further- 
more, that no steps shall be taken by the Chinese Government to 
dispose of the public and private property belonging to the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy situated within the so-called Legation 
Quarter at Peking without the consent of the Diplomatic Representa- 
tives of the Powers which, on the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, remain parties to the Final Protocol of September 7, 1901. 

Article 100. 

Hungary agrees, so far as she is concerned, to the abrogation of 
the leases from the Chinese Government under which the Austro- 
Hungarian Concession at Tientsin is now held. 

China, restored to the full exercise of her sovereign rights in the 
above area, declares her intention of opening it to international resi- 
dence and trade. She further declares that the abrogation of the 
leases under which the said concession is now held shall not affect 
the property rights of nationals of Allied and Associated Powers 
who are holders of lots in this concession. 



196 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 101. 

Hungary waives all claims against the Chinese Government or 
against any Allied or Associated Government arising out of the in- 
ternment of Hungarian nationals in China and their repatriation. 
She equally renounces, so far as she is concerned, all claims arising 
out 01 the capture and condemnation of Austro-Hungarian ships in 
China, or the liquidation, sequestration or control of Hungarian 
properties, rights and interests in that country since August 14, 1917. 
This provision, however, shall not affect the rights of the parties 
interested in the proceeds of any such liquidation, which shall be 
governed by the provisions of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the 
present Treaty. 

PART V.— MILITARY, NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES. 

In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation 
of the armaments of all nations, Hungary undertakes strictly to 
observe the military, naval and air clauses which follow. 

Section I.— Military Clauses. 

CHAPTER I.— GENERAL. 

Article 102. 

Within three months of the coining into force of the present 
Treaty, the military forces of Hungary shall be demobilised to the 
extent prescribed hereinafter. 

Article 103. 

Universal compulsory military service shall be abolished in Hun- 
gary. The Hungarian Army shall in future only be constituted and 
recruited by means of voluntary enlistment. 

CHAPTER II.— EFFECTIVES AND CADRES OF THE HUNGARIAN ARMY. 

Article 101. 

T ho total number of military forces in the Hungarian Army shall 
not exceed 35,000 men, including officers and depot troops. 

Subject to the following limitations, the formations composing 
the Hungarian Army shall be fixed in accordance with the wishes of 
Hungary : — 

(1) The effectives of units must be fixed between the maximum 
and minimum figures shown in Table IV annexed to this Section. 

(2) The proportion of officers, including the personnel of staffs 
and special services, shall not exceed one-twentieth of the total 
effectives with the Colours, and that of non-commissioned officers 
shall not exceed one-fifteenth of the total effectives with the Colours. 

(3) The number of machine guns, guns and howitzers shall not 
exceed per thousand men of the total effectives with the Colours 
those fixed in Table V annexed to this Section. 



PEACE TREATIES. 197 

The Hungarian Army shall be devoted exclusively to the main- 
tenance of order within "the territory of Hungary, and to the control 
of her frontiers. 

Article 105. 

The maximum strength of the Staffs and of all formations which 
Hungary may be permitted to raise are given in the Tables annexed 
to this Section ; these figures need not be exactly followed, but must 
not be exceeded. 

All other organisations for the command of troops or for prepara- 
tion for war are forbidden. 

Article 106. 

All measures of mobilisation, or appertaining to mobilisation, are 
forbidden. 

In no case must formations, administrative services or staffs in- 
clude supplementary cadres. 

The carrying out of any preparatory measures with a view to 
requisitioning animals or other means of military transport is for- 
bidden. 

Article 107. 

The number of gendarmes, customs officers, foresters, members of 
the local or municipal police or other like officials may not exceed 
the number of men employed in a similar capacity in 1913 within the 
boundaries of Hungary as fixed by the present Treaty. The Princi- 
pal Allied and Associated Powers may. however, increase this num- 
ber should the Commission of Control referred to in Article 137, 
after examination on the spot, consider it to be insufficient. 

The number of these officials shall not be increased in the future 
except as may be necessary to maintain the same proportion between 
the number of officials and the total population in the localities or 
municipalities which employ them. 

These officials, as well as officials employed in the railway service, 
must not be assembled for the purpose of taking part in any military 
exercises. 

Article 10S. 

Every formation of troops not included in the Tables annexed to 
this Section is forbidden. Such other formations as may exist in 
excess of the 35,000 effectives authorised shall be suppressed within 
the period laid down by Article 102. 

CHAPTER III.— RECRUITING AND MILITARY TRAINING. 

Article 109. 

All officers must be regulars (officers de ca/wiere). Officers now 
serving who are retained in the Army must undertake the obligation 
to serve it up to the age of 40 years at least. Officers now serving 
Avho do not join the new army will be released from all military 
obligations; they must not take part in any military exercises, 
whether theoretical or practical. 



198 PEACE TREATIES. 

Officers newly appointed must undertake to serve on the active list 
for 20 consecutive years at least. 

The number of officers discharged for any reason before the expi- 
ration of their term of service must not exceed in any year one- 
twentieth of the total of officers provided for in Article 104. If 
this proportion is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting shortage must 
not be made good by fresh appointments. 

Article 11!). 

The period of enlistment for non-commissioned officers and privates 
must be for a total period of not less than 12 consecutive years, 
including at least G years with the Colours. 

The proportion of men discharged before the expiration of the 
period of their enlistment for reasons of health or as a result of dis- 
ciplinary measures or for any other reasons must not in any year ex- 
ceed one-twentieth of the total strength fixed by Article 104. If this 
proportion is unavoidably exceeded, the resulting shortage must not 
be made good by fresh enlistments. 

CHAPTEE IV. — SCHOOLS, EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS, MILI- 
TARY CLUBS AND SOCIETIES. 

Article 111. 

The number of students admitted to attend the courses in military 
schools shall be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled 
in the cadres of officers. The students and the cadres shall be included 
in the effectives fixed by Article 101. 

Consequently all military schools not required for this purpose 
shall be abolished. 

Article 112. 

Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 
111, as well as all sporting and other clubs, must not occupy them- 
selves with any military matters. 

CHAPTER V.— ARMAMENT, MUNITIONS AND MATERIAL. 

Article 113. 

On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, the armament of the Hungarian Army shall not 
exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table V annexed to this 
Section. 

Any excess in relation to effectives shall only be used for such 
replacements as may eventually be necessary. 

Article 111. 

The stock of munitions at the disposal of the Hungarian Army 
shall not exceed the amounts fixed in Table V annexed to this Section. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the Hungarian Government shall deposit any existing surplus 
of armament and munitions in such places as shall be notified to it by 
the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Xo other stock, depot or reserve of munitions shall be formed. 



peace treaties. 199 

Article 1 15. 

The manufacture of arms, munitions and war material shall only 
be carried on in one single factory, which shall be controlled by and 
belong to the State, and whose output shall be strictly limited to the 
manufacture of such arms, munitions and war material as is neces- 
sary for the military forces and armaments referred to in Articles 
104, 107, 113 and 114. The Principal Allied and Associated Powers 
may, however, authorise such manufacture, for such a period as they 
may think fit, in one or more other factories to be approved by the 
Commission of Control referred to in Article 137. 

The manufacture of sporting weapons is not forbidden, provided 
that sporting weapons manufactured in Hungary taking ball car- 
tridge are not of the same calibre as that of military weapons used in 
any European army. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, 
storage or design of arms, munitions or any other war material shall 
be closed down or converted to purely commercial uses. 

Within the same length of time, all arsenals shall also be closed 
down, except those to be used as depots for the authorised stocks of 
munitions, and their staffs discharged. 

Article 116. 

The plant of any establishments or arsenals in excess of the 
amount required for the manufacture authorised shall be rendered 
useless or converted to purely commercial purposes in accordance 
with the decisions of the Military Inter- Allied Commission of Con- 
trol referred to in Article 137. 

Article 117. 

Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty all arms, munitions and war material, including any kind of 
anti-aircraft material, of whatever origin, existing in Hungary in 
excess of the quantity authorised shall be handed over to the Prin- 
cipal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Delivery shall take place at such points in Hungarian territory 
as may be appointed by the said Powers, who shall also decide on 
the disposal of such material. 

Article 118. 

The importation into Hungary of arms, munitions and war mate- 
rial of all kinds is strictly forbidden. 

The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of 
arms, munitions and war material shall also be forbidden. 

Article 119. 

The use of flame throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, 
and all similar liquids, materials or devices being prohibited, their 
manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Hungary. 



200 



PEACE TREATIES. 



Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage or use 
of the said products or devices is equally forbidden. 

The manufacture and importation into Hungary of armoured cars, 
tanks or any similar machines suitable for use in war are equally 
forbidden. 

Table I. — Composition and Maximum Effectives of an Infantry Division. 



Maximum Effectives 
of each unit- 



Units. 



Headquarters of an Infantry Division 

Headquarters of Divisional Infantry 

Headquarters of Divisional Artillery 

3 Regiments of Infantry (on the basis of 65 officers and 2,000 men per regiment ) 

1 Squadron 

1 Battalion of Trench Artillery (3 Companies) 

1 Battalion of Pioneers ! 

Regiment Field Artillery s 

1 Battalion Cyclists (comprising 3 Companies) 

1 Signal Detachment 4 

Divisional medical corps 

Divisional parks and trains 

Total for an Infantry Division 




10, 780 



1 Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry. Each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infantry 
and 1 Machine gun Company. 

2 Each Battalion comprises 1 Headquarters, 2 Pioneer Companies, 1 Bridging Section, 1 Searchlight 
Section. 

3 Each Regiment comprises 1 Headquarters, 3 Groups of Field or Mountain Artillery, comprising 8 
Batteries: each Battery comprising 4 guns or howitzers (field or mountain). 

1 This Detachment comprises 1 Telegraph and Telephone detachment, 1 Listening Section, 1 Carrier 
Pigeon Section. 

Table II. — Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Cavalry Division. 



Units. 



Headquarters of a Cavalry Division 

Regiment of Cavalry ' 

Group of Field Artillery (3 Batteries) 

Group of motor machine guns and armoured cars -. 
Miscellaneous services 



Maxi- 
mum 
number 
author- 
ised. 



Total for a Cavalry Division . 



Maximum Effec- 
tives of each 
unit. 



Officers. 



Men. 



50 
720 
430 

80 

500 



5,380 



1 Each Regiment comprises 4 Squadrons. 

- Each group comprises 9 fighting cars, each carrying I gun, 1 machine gun, and 1 spare machine gun, 4 
communication cars, 2 small lorries for stores, 7 lorries, including 1 repair lorry, 4 motor cycles. 

Note. — The large Cavalry Units may include a variable number of regiments and be divided into inde- 
pendent brigades within the limit of the effectives laid down above. 



PEACE TREATIES. 201 

Table III. — Composition and Maximum Effectives for a Mixed Brigade. 



Units. 



Maximum Effec- 
tives of each unit. 



Officers. 


Men. 


10 


50 


130 


4,000 


18 


450 


5 


100 


20 


400 





150 


10 


200 



Headquarters of a Brigade 

2 Regiments of Infantry ' 

1 Cyclist Battalion (3 Companies) 

1 Cavalry Squadron 

1 Group Field or Mountain Artillery (3 Batteries) 

1 Trench Mortar Company 

Miscellaneous services 

Total for Mixed Brigade 



5,350 



1 Each Regiment comprises 3 Battalions of Infantry. Each Battalion comprises 3 Companies of Infantry 
and 1 Machine gun Company. 

Table IV. — Minimum Effectives of Units whatever organisation is adopted in 

the Army. 

[Divisions, Mixed Brigades, etc.] 



Units. 



Infantry Division 

Cavalry Division 

Mixed Brigade 

Regiment of Infantry 

Battalion of Infantry 

Company of Infantry or Machine Guns 

Cyclist Group 

Regiment of Cavalry 

Squadron of Cavalry 

Regiment of Artillery 

Battery of Field Artillery 

Company of Trench Mortars 

Battalion of Fioneers 

Battery of Mountain Artillery 



Maximum Effec- 
tives (for reference) 



Officers. 



414 
259 
19S 
65 
16 
3 

18 
30 
6 
80 
4 
3 
14 
5 



Men. 



10, 780 

5,380 

5,350 

2,000 

650 

160 

450 

720 

160 

1,200 

150 

150 

500 

320 



Minimum Effec- 
tives. 



Officers. 



300 
180 
140 
52 
12 
2 
12 
20 
3 

60 
2 
2 
8 
3 



Men. 



8,000 

3,650 

4,250 

1,600 

500 

120 

300 

450 

100 

1,000 

120 

100 

300 

200 



Table V. — Maximum Authorised Armaments and Munition Supplies. 



Material. 



Quantity 

for 
1,000 men. 




Amount of 
Munitions per 

arm (rifles, 
gun-- . i 



Rifles or Carbines i 

Machine guns, heavy or light 

Trench Mortars, light 

Trench Mortars, medium 

Guns or howitzers (field or mountain) 



500 rounds. 

10,000 rounds. 

1,000 rounds. 

500 rounds. 

1,000 rounds. 



1 Automatic rifles or carbines are counted as light machine guns. 

N. B. — No heavy gun, i. c, of a calibre greater than 105 mm., is authorised. 



202 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section II. — Naval Clauses. 
Article 120. 

From the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all 
Austro-Hungarian warships, submarines included, are declared to 
be finally surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

All the monitors, torpedo boats and armed vessels of the Danube 
Flotilla will be surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers. 

Hungary will, however, have the right to maintain on the Danube 
for the use of the river police three patrol boats to be selected by 
the Commission referred to in Article 138 of the present Treaty. 
The Principal Allied and Associated Powers may increase this num- 
ber should the said Commission, after examination on the spot, 
consider it to be insufficient. 

Article 121. 

The Austro-Hungarian auxiliary cruisers and fleet auxiliaries enu- 
merated below will be disarmed and treated as merchant ships : 

Bosnia. Gastein. 

Gablonz. — Helouan. 

Carolina. Graf Wurmbrand. 

Lussin. Pelikan. 

Teodo. Herkuli s. 

Nixe. Polo. 

Gigante. Najade. 

Africa. Baron Bruck. 

Tirol. Elizabet. 

Argentina. Metcavich. 

Pluto. Baron Call. 

President Wilson {ex Kaiser (rata. 

Franz Joseph). ' yclop. 

Trieste. Vesta. 

Dalmat. Nyniphe. 

Persia. Buffet. 
Prince Hohenlohe. 

Article 122. 

All warships, including submarines, now under construction in 
Hungarian ports, or in ports which previously belonged to the 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, shall be broken up. 

The work of breaking up these vessels will be commenced as soon 
as possible after the coming into force of the present treaty. 

The mine-layer tenders under construction at Porto-re may. how- 
ever, lie preserved if the Naval Inter- Allied Commission of Control 
and the Reparation Commission consider that for economic reasons 
their emplo}anent for commercial purposes is desirable. In that 
event the vessels will be handed over to the Reparation Commission, 
which will assess their value, and will credit such value, in whole or 
in part, to Hungary, or as the ease may require to Austria, on the 
reparation account. 



PEACE TREATIES. 203 

Article 123. 

Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking up of 
Austro-Hungarian warships of all kinds, whether surface vessels or 
submarines, may not be used except for purely industrial or com- 
mercial purposes. 

They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries. 

Article 124. 

The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for com- 
mercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Hungary. 

Article 125. 

All arms, ammunition and other naval war material, including 
mines and torpedoes, which belonged to Austria-Hungary at the date 
of the signature of the Armistice of November 3, 1918, are declared 
to be finally surrendered to the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers. 

Article 126. 

Hungary is held responsible for the delivery (Articles 120 and 
125), the disarmament (Article 121). the demolition (Article 122), 
as well as the disposal (Article 121) and the use (Article 123) of the 
objects mentioned in the preceding Articles only so far as these re- 
main in her own territory. 

Article 127. 

During the three months following the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, the Hungarian high-power wireless telegraphy sta- 
tion at Budapest shall not be used for the transmission of messages 
concerning naval, military or political questions of interest to Hun- 
gary, or any State which has been allied to Austria-Hungary in the 
war, without the assent of the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers. This station may be used for commercial purposes, but 
only under the supervision of the said Powers, who will decide the 
wave-length to be used. 

During the same period Hungary shall not build any more high- 
power wireless telegraphy stations in her own territory or that of 
Austria. Germany, Bulgaria or Turkey. 

Section III. — Air Clauses. 

Article 128. 

The armed forces of Hungary must not include any military or 
naval air forces. 

Xo dirigible shall be kept. 

Article 129. 

Within two months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, the personnel of the air forces on the rolls of the Hungarian 
land and sea forces shall be demobilised. 



204 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 130. 

Until the complete evacuation of Hungarian territory by the 
Allied and Associated troops the aircraft of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers shall enjoy in Hungary freedom of passage through 
the air, freedom of transit and of landing. 

[F. A. Memo. 8.] 
Article 131. 

During the six months following the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, the manufacture, importation and exportation of 
aircraft, parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft, and parts of engines 
for aircraft shall be forbidden in all Hungarian territory. 

Article 132. 

On the coming into force of the present Treaty, all military and 
naval aeronautical material must be delivered by Hungary and at 
her expense to the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Delivery must be effected at such places as the Governments of the 
said Powers may select, and must be completed within three months. 

In particular, this material will include all items under the fol- 
lowing heads which are or have been in use or were designed for 
warlike purposes : 

Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manu- 
factured, repaired or assembled. 

Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or 
assembled. 

Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen. 

Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft. 

Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Hungary, 
be maintained inflated with hydrogen ; the plant for the manufac- 
ture of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles, may, at the 
discretion of the said Powers, be left to Hungary until the time when 
the dirigibles are handed over. 

Engines for aircraft. 

Xacelles and fuselages. 

Armament (guns, machine guns, light machine guns, bomb-drop- 
ping apparatus, torpedo apparatus, synchronisation apparatus, aim- 
ing apparatus). 

Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks of 
explosives or of material for their manufacture). 

Instruments for use on aircraft. 

Wireless apparatus and photographic or cinematograph apparatus 
for use on aircraft. 

Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads. 

The material referred to above shall not be removed without 
special permission from (lie said Governments. 

Section IV. — Inter- Allied Com missions of Control. 

Article 133. 

All the Military. Naval and Air Clauses contained in the present 
Treaty for the execution of which a time limit is prescribed shall be 
executed by Hungary under the control of Inter-Allied Commissions 



PEACE TREATIES. 205 

specially appointed for this purpose by the Principal Allied and 
Associated Powers. 

The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers in dealing with the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment in all matters concerning the execution of the Military, 
Naval and Air Clauses. They will communicate to the Hungarian 
authorities the decisions which the Principal Allied and Associated 
Powers have reserved the right to take or which the execution of 
the said Clauses may necessitate. 

Article 134. 

The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control may establish their or- 
ganisations at Budapest and shall be entitled, as often as they think 
desirable, to proceed to any point whatever in Hungarian territory, 
or to send a sub-commission, or to authorise one or more of their 
members to go, to any such point. 

Article 135. 

The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Inter-Allied Com- 
missions of Control all such information and documents as the latter 
may deem necessary to ensure the execution of their mission, and 
all means (both in personnel and in material) which the above- 
mentioned Commissions may need to ensure the complete execution 
of the Military, Naval or Air Clauses. 

The Hungarian Government must attach a qualified representative, 
to each Inter- Allied Commission of Control with the duty of receiv- 
ing from the latter any communications which it may have to ad- 
dress to the Hungarian Government, and furnishing it with, or 
procuring, all information or documents demanded. 

Article 136. 

The upkeep and cost of the Commissions of Control and the ex- 
pense involved by their work shall be borne by Hungary. 

Article 137. 

It will be the special duty of the Military Inter-Allied Commission 
of Control to receive from the Hungarian Government the notifica- 
tions relating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, 
and the location of the works or factories for the production of 
arms, munitions and war material and their operations. 

It will take delivery of the arms, munitions, war material and 
plant intended for war construction, will select the points where 
such delivery is to be effected, and will supervise the works of de- 
struction, and rendering things useless, or of transformation of 
material, which are to be carried out in accordance with the present 
Treaty. 

Article 138. 

It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter-Allied Commission 
of Control to proceed to the building yards and to supervise the 
breaking-up of the ships which are under construction there, to take 



206 PEACE TREATIES. 

delivery of arms, munitions and naval war material, and to super- 
vise the destruction and breaking-up provided for. 

The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Naval Inter- 
Allied Commission of Control all such information and documents 
as the Commission may deem necessary to ensure the complete exe- 
cution of the Naval Clauses, in particular the designs of the war- 
ships, the composition of their armaments, the details and models 
of the guns, munitions, torpedoes, mines, explosives, wireless tele- 
graphic apparatus, and in general everything relating to naval Avar 
material, as well as all legislative or administrative documents or 
regulations. 

Article 139. 

It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter- Allied Com- 
mission of Control to make an inventory of the aeronautical material 
which is actually in the possession of the Hungarian Government, to 
inspect aeroplane, balloon and motor manufactories, and factories 
producing arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by 
aircraft, to visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks and 
depots which are now in Hungarian territory, and to authorise where 
necessary a removal of material and to take delivery of such ma- 
terial. 

The Hungarian Government must furnish to the Aeronautical 
Inter- Allied Commission of Control all such information and legis- 
lative, administrative or other documents which the Commission may 
consider necessary to ensure the complete execution of the Air 
Clauses, and. in particular, a list of the personnel belonging to all 
the air services of Hungary and of the existing material, as well as 
of that in process of manufacture or on order, and a list of all es- 
tablishments working for aviation, of their positions, and of all 
sheds and landing grounds. 

Section V. — General Articles. 

Article 140. 

After the expiration of a period of three months from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty, the Hungarian laAvs must have been 
modified and shall be maintained by the Hungarian Government in 
conformity with this Part of the present Treaty. 

Within the same period all the administrative or other measures 
relating to the execution of this Part must have been taken by the 
Hungarian Government. 

Article 141. 

The following portions of the Armistice of November 3, 1918 : 
paragraphs 2 and 3 of Chapter I (Military Clauses), paragraphs 2, 
3, 6 of Chapter I of the annexed Protocal (Military Clauses), 
remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent Avith the above 
stipulations. 



peace treaties. 207 

Article 142. 

Hungary undertakes, from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, not to accredit nor to send to any foreign country any mili- 
tary, naval or air mission, nor to allow any such mission to leave her 
territory ; Hungary further agrees to take the necessary measures to 
prevent Hungarian nationals from leaving her territory to enlist in 
the Army, Navy or Air service of any foreign Power, or to be at- 
tached to such Army, Navy or Air service for the purposes of as- 
sisting in the military, naval or air training thereof, or generally for 
the purpose of giving military, naval or air instruction in any for- 
eign country. 

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake, so far as they are 
concerned, that from the coming into force of the present Treaty 
they will not enrol in nor attach to their armies or naval or air forces 
any Hungarian national for the purpose of assisting in the military 
training of such armies or naval or air forces, or otherwise employ 
any such Hungarian national as military, naval or aeronautic in- 
structor. 

The present provision does not, however, affect the right of France 
to recruit for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French military 
laws and regulations. 

Article 143. 

So long as the present Treaty remains in force, Hungary under- 
takes to submit to any investigation which the Council of the League 
of Nations, acting if need be by a majority vote, may consider neces- 
sary. 

PAPvT VI.— PRISONERS OF WAR AND GRAVES. 

Section I. — Prisoners of War. 

Article 144. 

The repatriation of Hungarian prisoners of war and interned 
civilians shall take place as soon as possible after the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, and shall be carried out with the greatest 
rapidity. 

Article 145. 

The repatriation of Hungarian prisoners of war and interned 
civilians shall, in accordance with Article 144, be carried out by a 
Commission composed of representatives of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers on the one part and of the Hungarian Government on 
the other part. 

For each of the Allied and Associated Powers a Sub-Commission 
composed exclusively of representatives of the interested Power and 
of delegates of the Hungarian Government shall regulate the details 
of carrying into effect the repatriation of prisoners of war. 



208 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 146. 

From the time of their delivery into the hands of the Hungarian 
authorities, the prisoners of war and interned civilians are to be 
returned without delay to their homes by the said authorities. 

Those among them who before the war were habitually resident in 
territory occupied by the troops of the Allied and Associated Powers 
are likewise to be sent to their homes, subject to the consent and con- 
trol of the military authorities of the Allied and Associated armies 
of occupation. 

Article 147. 

The whole cost of repatriation from the moment of starting shall 
be borne by the Hungarian Government, who shall also provide 
means of transport and working personnel as considered necessary 
by the Commission referred to in Article 145. 

Article 14S. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or under- 
going sentence for offences against discipline shall be repatriated 
irrespective of the completion of their sentence or of the proceedings 
pending against them. 

This stipulation shall not apply to prisoners of war and interned 
civilians punished for offences committed subsequent to January 1, 
1920. 

During the period pending their repatriation, all prisoners of war 
and interned civilians shall remain subject to the existing regulations, 
more especially as regards work and discipline. 

Article 149. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting trial or 
undergoing sentence for offences other than those against discipline 
may be detained. 

Article 150. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes to admit to its territory 
without distinction all persons liable to repatriation. 

Prisoners of war or other Hungarian nationals who do not desire 
to be repatriated may be excluded from repatriation ; but the Allied 
and Associated Governments reserve to themselves the right either 
to repatriate them or to take them to a neutral country or to allow 
them to reside in their own territories. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes not to institute any ex- 
ceptional proceedings against these persons or their families nor to 
take any repressive or vexatious measures of any kind whatsoever 
against them on this account. 

Article 151. 

The Allied and Associated Governments reserve the right to make 
the repatriation of Hungarian prisoners of war or Hungarian na- 
tionals in their hands conditional upon the immediate notification 



PEACE TREATIES. 209 

and release by the Hungarian Government of any prisoners of war 
and other nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers who are 
still held in Hungary against their will. 

Article 152. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes : 

(1) to give every facility to Commissions to enquire into the cases 
of those who cannot be traced ; to furnish such Commissions with all 
necessary means of transport ; to allow them access to camps, prisons, 
hospitals and all other places ; and to place at their disposal all docu- 
ments whether public or private which would facilitate their en- 
quiries; 

(2) to impose penalties upon any Hungarian officials or private 
persons who have concealed the presence of any nationals of any of 
the Allied or Associated Powers, or who have neglected to reveal the 
presence of any such after it had come to their knowledge. 

Article 153. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes to restore without delay 
from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all 
articles, money, securities and documents which have belonged to 
nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and which have been 
retained by the Hungarian authorities. 

Article 151. 

The High Contracting Parties waive reciprocally all repayment of 
sums due for the maintenance of prisoners of war in their respective 
territories. 

Section II. — Graves. 

Article 155. 

The Allied and Associated Governments and the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment will cause to be respected and maintained the graves of the 
soldiers and sailors buried in their respective territories. 

They agree to recognise any Commission appointed by the several 
Governments for the purpose of identifying, registering, caring for 
or erecting suitable memorials over the said graves, and to facilitate 
the discharge of its duties. 

Furthermore, they agree to afford, so far as the provisions of their 
laws and the requirements of public health allow, every facility for 
giving effect to requests that the bodies of their soldiers and sailors 
may be transferred to their own country. 

Article 156. 

The graves of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are 
nationals of the different belligerent States and have died in captivity 
shall be properly maintained in accordance with Article 155 of the 
present Treaty. 

47S0S— S. Doc. 7, G7-1 14 



210 PEACE TREATIES. 

The Allied and Associated Governments on the one part and the 
Hungarian Government on the other part reciprocally undertake 
also to furnish to each other : 

(1) a complete list of those who have died, together with all in- 
formation useful for identification ; 

(2) all information as to the number and positions of the graves 
of all those who have been buried without identification. 

PART VII.— PENALTIES. 

Article 157. 

The Hungarian Government recognises the right of the Allied 
and Associated Powers to bring before military tribunals persons 
accused of having committed acts in violation of the laws and cus- 
toms of war. Such persons shall, if found guilty, be sentenced to 
punishments laid down by law. This provision will apply notwith- 
standing any proceedings or prosecutions before a tribunal in Hun- 
gary or in the territory of her allies. 

The Hungarian Government shall hand over to the Allied and 
Associated Powers, or to such one of them as shall so request, all per- 
sons accused of having committed an act in violation of the laws 
and customs of war, who are specified either by name or by the 
rank, office or employment which they held under the Hungarian 
authorities. 

Article 158. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of the 
Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before the military 
tribunals of that Power. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than 
one of the Allied and Associated Powers will be brought before mili- 
tary tribunals composed of members of the military tribunals of the 
Powers concerned. 

In every case the accused will be entitled to name his own counsel. 

Article 159. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes to furnish all documents 
and information of every kind the production of which may be con- 
sidered necessary to ensure the full knowledge of the incriminating 
acts, the disco verv of offenders and the just appreciation of responsi- 
bility. 

Article 160. 

The provisions of Articles 157 to 159 apply similarly to the Gov- 
ernments of the States to which territory belonging to the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy has been assigned, in so far as con- 
cerns persons accused of having committed acts contrary to the laws 
and customs of war who are in the territory or at the disposal of 
the said States. 

If the persons in question have acquired the nationality of one of 
the said States, the Government of such State undertakes to take, 



PEACE TREATIES. 211 

at the request of the Power concerned and in agreement with it, all 
the measures necessary to ensure the prosecution and punishment of 
such persons. 

PART VIII.— REPARATION. 

Section I. — General Provisions. 

Article 161. 

The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Hungary ac- 
cepts the responsibility of Hungary and her allies for causing the 
loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments 
and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war 
imposed upon them by the aggression of Austria-Hungary and her 
allies. 

Article 162. 

The Allied and Associated Governments recognise that the re- 
sources of Hungary are not adequate, after taking into account the 
permanent diminutions of such resources which will result from 
other provisions of the present Treaty, to make complete reparation 
for such loss and damage. 

The Allied and Associated Governments, however, require, and 
Hungary undertakes, that she will make compensation as herein- 
after determined for damage done to the civilian population of the 
Allied and Associated Powers and to their property during the 
period of the belligerency of each as an Allied and Associated Power 
against Hungary by the said aggression by land, by sea and from the 
air, and in general all damages as defined in Annex I hereto. 

Article 163. 

The amount of such damage for which compensation is to be made 
by Hungary shall be determined by an Inter-Allied Commission to 
be called the Reparation Commission and constituted in the form 
and with the powers set forth in the present Treaty, particularly in 
Annexes II- V inclusive hereto. The Commission is the same as that 
provided for under Article 233 of the Treaty with Germany, subject 
to any modifications resulting from the present Treaty. The Com- 
mission shall constitute a Section to consider the special questions 
raised by the application of the present Treaty; this Section shall 
have consultative power only, except in cases in which the Commis- 
sion shall delegate to it such powers as may be deemed convenient. 

The Reparation Commission shall consider the claims and give to 
the Hungarian Government a just opportunity to be heard. 

The Commission shall concurrently draw up a schedule of pay- 
ments prescribing the time and manner for securing and discharg- 
ing by Hungary, within thirty years dating from May 1, 1921, that 
part of the debt which shall have been assigned to her after the Com- 
mission has decided whether Germany is in a position to pay the 
balance of the total amount of claims presented against Germany 
and her allies and approved by the Commission. If, however, with- 



212 PEACE TREATIES. 

in the period mentioned, Hungary fails to discharge her obligations, 
any balance remaining unpaid may, within the discretion of the 
Commission, be postponed for settlement in subsequent years or may 
be handled otherwise in such manner as the Allied and Associated 
Governments acting in accordance with the procedure laid down in 
this Part of the present Treaty shall determine. 

Article 164. 

The Reparation Commission shall, after May 1, 1921, from time to 
time consider the resources and capacity of Hungary, and, after giv- 
ing her representatives a just opportunity to be heard, shall have 
discretion to extend the date and to modify the form of payments 
such as are to be provided for in accordance with Article 163, but 
not to cancel any part except with the specific authority of the sev- 
eral Governments represented on the Commission. 

Article 165. 

Hungary shall pay in the course of the year 1020 and the first 
four months of 1921, in such instalments and in such manner 
(whether in gold, commodities, ships, securities or otherwise) as the 
Reparation Commission may lay down, a reasonable sum which shall 
be determined by the Commission. Out of this sum the expenses of 
the armies of occupation subsequent to the Armistice of November •">, 
1918. provided for by Article 181, shall first be met. and such sup- 
plies of food and raw materials as may be judged by the Govern- 
ments of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers essential to 
enable Hungary to meet her obligations for reparation may also, 
w T ith the approval of the said Governments, be paid for out of the 
above sum. The balance shall be reckoned towards the liquidation 
of the amount due for reparation. Hungary shall further deposit 
bonds as prescribed in paragraph 12 (c) of Annex II hereto. 

Article 166. 

Hungary further agrees to the direct application of her economic 
resources to reparation as specified in Annexes III, IV and V relat- 
ing respectively to merchant shipping, to physical restoration and 
to raw material; provided always that the value of the property 
transferred and any services rendered by her under these Annexes, 
assessed in the manner therein prescribed, shall be credited to her 
towards the liquidation of her obligations under the above Articles. 

Arttcle 167. 

The successive instalments, including the above sum. paid over by 
Hungary in satisfaction of the above claims will be divided by the 
Allied and Associated Governments in proportions which have been 
determined upon by them in advance on a basis of general equity and 
the rights of each. 

For the purposes of this division the value of the credits referred 
to in Article 173 and in Annexes III, IV and V shall be reckoned in 
the same manner as cash payments made in the same year. 



PEACE TREATIES. 213 

Article 168. 

In addition to the payments mentioned above, Hungary shall effect, 
in accordance with the procedure laid down by the Reparation Com- 
mission, restitution in cash of cash taken away, seized or sequestrated, 
and also restitution of animals, objects of every nature and securities 
taken away, seized or sequestrated in the cases in which it proves 
possible to identify them on territory belonging to, or during the 
execution of the present Treaty in the possession of, Hungary or her 
allies. 

Article 169. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes to make forthwith the res- 
titution contemplated in Article 168 and to make the payments and 
deliveries contemplated in Articles 163, 164, 165 and 166. 

Article 170. 

The Hungarian Government recognises the Commission provided' 
for by Article 163 as the same may be constituted by the Allied and 
Associated Governments in accordance with Annex II, and agrees 
irrevocably to the possession and exercise by such Commission of the 
power and authority given to it under the present Treaty. 

The Hungarian Government will supply to the Commission all the 
information which the Commission may require relative to the finan- 
cial situation and operations and to the property, productive capacity 
and stocks, and current production of raw materials and manufac- 
tured articles of Hungary and her nationals, and, further, any in- 
formation relative to the military operations of the war of 1914—1919 
which, in the judgment of the Commission, mav be necessary. 

The Hungarian Government shall accord to the members of the 
Commission and its authorised agents the same rights and immunities 
as are enjoyed in Hungary by duly accredited diplomatic agents of 
friendly Powers. 

Hungary further agrees to provide for the salaries and the expenses 
of the Commission and of such staff as it may employ. 

Article 171. 

Hungary undertakes to pass, issue and maintain in force any legis- 
lation, orders and decrees that may be necessary to give complete 
effect to these provisions. 

Article 172. 

The provisions in this Part of the present Treaty shall not affect 
in any respect the provisions of Sections III and IV of Part X (Eco- 
nomic Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Article 173. 

The following shall be reckoned as credits to Hungary in respect 
of her reparation obligations: 

(a) any final balance in favour of Hungary under Sections III 
and IV of Part X (Economic Clauses) of the present Treaty; 



214 PEACE TREATIES. 

(b) amounts due to Hungary in respect of transfers provided for 
in Part IX (Financial Clauses') and in Part XII (Ports, Waterways 
and Railways) ; 

(c) all amounts which, in the judgment of the Reparation Commis- 
sion, should be credited to Hungary on account of any other transfers 
under the present Treaty of property, rights, concessions or other 
interests. 

In no case, however, shall credit be given for property restored in 
accordance with Article 168. 

Article 174. 

The transfer of the Hungarian submarine cables, in the absence of 
any special provision in the present Treaty, is regulated by Annex VI 
hereto. 

Annex I. 

Compensation may be claimed from Hungary in accordance with 
Article 162 above in respect of the total damage under the following 
categories : 

(1) Damage to injured persons and to surviving dependants by 
personal injury to or death of civilians caused by acts of war, includ- 
ing bombardment or other attacks on land, on sea or from the air, and 
of the direct consequences thereof and of all operations of war by the 
two groups of belligerents wherever arising. 

(2) Damage cause: 1 by Hungary or her allies to civilian victims of 
acts of cruelty, violence or maltreatment (including injuries to life 
or health as a consequence of imprisonment, deportation, intern- 
ment or evacuation, of exposure at sea, or of being forced to labour) 
wherever arising, and to the surviving dependants of such victims. 

(3) Damage caused by Hungary or her allies in their own territory 
or in occupied or invaded territory to civilian victims of all acts in- 
jurious to health or capacity to work or to honour, as well as to the 
surviving dependants of such victims. 

(4) Damage caused by any kind of maltreatment of prisoners of 
war. 

(5) As damage caused to the peoples of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, all pensions or compensations in the way of pensions to naval 
and military victims of war, including members of the air force, 
whether mutilated, wounded, sick or invalided, and to the dependants 
of such victims, the amount due to the Allied and Associated Govern- 
ments being calculated for each of them as being the capitalised cost 
of such pensions and compensations at the date of the coining into 
force of the present Treaty on the basis of the scales in force in 
France on May 1, 1919. 

(6) The cost of assistance by the Governments of the Allied and 
Associated Powers to prisoners of war, to their families and de- 
pendants. 

(7) Allowances by the Governments of the Allied and Associated 
Powers to the families and dependants of mobilised persons or per- 
sons serving with the forces, the amount due to them for each calen- 
dar year in which hostilities occurred being calculated for each Gov- 
ernment on the basis of the average scale for such payments in force in 
France during that year. 



PEACE TREATIES. 215 

(8) Damage caused to civilians by being forced by Hungary or her 
allies to labour without just remuneration. 

(9) Damage in respect of all property, wherever situated, belong- 
ing to any of the Allied or Associated States or their nationals, with 
the exception of naval or military works or materials, which has been 
carried off, seized, injured or destroyed by the acts of Hungary or 
her allies on land, on sea or from the air, or damage directly in con- 
sequence of hostilities or of any operations of war. 

(10) Damage in the form of levies, fines and other similar exactions 
imposed by Hungary or her allies upon the civilian population. 

Annex II. 

1. 

The Commission referred to in Article 163 shall be called the " Rep- 
aration Commission" and is hereafter referred to as "the Commis- 
sion." 



The Delegates to this Commission shall be appointed by the United 
States of America, Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, Belgium, 
Greece, Poland, lioumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and Czecho- 
slovakia. The United States of America, Great Britain, France, 
Italy, Japan and Belgium shall each appoint a Delegate. The other 
five Powers shall appoint a Delegate to represent them all under the 
conditions indicated in the second sub-paragraph of paragraph 3 here- 
after. At the time when each Delegate is appointed there shall also 
be appointed an Assistant Delegate, who will take his place in case 
of illness or necessary absence, but at other times will only have the 
right to be present at the proceedings without taking any part therein. 

On no occasion shall Delegates of more than five of the above 
Powers have the right to take part in the proceedings of the Commis- 
sion and to record their votes. The Delegates of the United States, 
Great Britain, France and Italy shall have this right on all occasions. 
The Delegate of Belgium shall have this right on all occasions other 
than those referred to below. The Delegate of Japan will have this 
right when questions relating to damage at sea are under considera- 
tion. The Delegate representing the five remaining Powers mentioned 
above shall have this right when questions relating to Austria, Hun- 
gary or Bulgaria are under consideration. 

Each of the Governments represented on the Commission shall 
have the right to withdraw after giving twelve months' notice to the 
Commission and confirming it six months after the date of the origi- 
nal notification. 



Such of the Allied and Associated Powers as may be interested 
shall have the right to name a Delegate to be present and act as 
assessor only while their respective claims and interests are under 
examination or discussion, but without the right to vote. 

The Section to be established by the Commission under Article 
163 shall include representatives of the following Powers : The 



216 PEACE TREATIES. 

United States of America, Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, 
Poland, Roumania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State and Czecho- 
slovakia. This composition of the Section shall in no way prejudge 
the admissibility of any claims. In voting the representatives of 
the United States of America, Great Britain, France and Italy shall 
each have two votes. 

The representatives of the five remaining Powers mentioned above 
shall appoint a Delegate to represent them all, who shall sit on the 
Reparation Commission in the circumstances described in paragraph 
2 of the present Annex. This Delegate, who shall be appointed for 
one year, shall be chosen successively from the nationals of each of 
the said five Powers. 

4. 

In case of death, resignation or recall of any Delegate, Assistant 
Delegate or Assessor, a successor to him shall be nominated as soon 
as possible. 

5. 

The Commission shall have its principal permanent bureau in 
Paris, and shall hold its first meeting in Paris as soon as practicable 
after the coming into force of the present Treaty, and thereafter will 
meet in such place or places and at such time as may be deemed con- 
venient and as may be necessary for the most expeditious discharge 
of its duties. 

G. 

At its first meeting the Commission shall elect from among the 
Delegates referred to above a Chairman and a Vice-Chairman, who 
shall hold office for a year and shall be eligible for re-election. If a 
vacancy in the chairmanship or vice-chairmanship should occur dur- 
ing the annual period, the Commission shall proceed to a new elec- 
tion for the remainder of the said period. 

7. 

The Commission is authorised to appoint all necessary officers, 
agents and employees who may be required for the execution of its 
functions, and to fix their remuneration; to constitute the Sections 
or Committees, whose members need not necessarily be members of 
the Commission, and to take all executive steps necessary for the pur- 
pose of discharging its duties; and to delegate authority and dis- 
cretion to officers, agents, Sections and Committees. 



All the proceedings of the Commission shall be private unless on 
particular occasions the Commission shall otherwise determine for 
special reasons. 

9. 

The Commission shall be required, if the Hungarian Government 
so desire, to hear within a period wdiich it will fix from time to time 
evidence and arguments on the part of Hungary on any questions 
connected with her capacity to pay. 



PEACE TREATIES. . 217 

10. 

The Commission shall consider the claims and give to the Hun- 
garian Government a just opportunity to be heard, but not to take 
any part whatever in the decisions of the Commission. The Com- 
mission shall afford a similar opportunity to the allies of Hungary 
when it shall consider that their interests are in question. 

11. 

The Commission shall not be bound by any particular code or rules 
of law or by any particular rule of evidence or of procedure, but shall 
be guided by justice, equity and good faith. Its decisions must follow 
the same principles and rules in all cases where they are applicable. 
It will establish rules relating to methods of proof of claims. It may 
act on any trustworthy modes of computation. 

12. 

The Commission shall have all the powers conferred upon it and 
shall exercise all the functions assigned to it by the present Treaty. 

The Commission shall, in general, have wide latitude as to its con- 
trol and handling of the whole reparation problem as dealt with in 
this Part, and shall have authority to interpret its provisions. Sub- 
ject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the Commission is con- 
stituted by the several Allied and Associated Governments referred 
to in paragraphs 2 and 3 above as the exclusive agency of the said 
Governments respectively for receiving, selling, holding and dis- 
tributing the reparation payments to be made by Hungary under this 
Part of the present Treaty. The Commission must comply with the 
following conditions and provisions : 

(a) Whatever part of the full amount of the proved claims is not 
paid in gold or in ships, securities, commodities or otherwise, Hun- 
gary shall be required, under such conditions as the Commission may 
determine, to cover by way of guarantee by an equivalent i^sue of 
bonds, obligations or otherwise, in order to constitute an acknowl- 
edgment of the said part of the debt. 

(b) In periodically estimating Hungary's capacity to pay, the 
Commission shall examine the Hungarian system of taxation, first, 
to the end that the sums for reparation which Hungary is required 
to pay shall become a charge upon all her revenues prior to that for 
the service or discharge of any domestic loan, and, secondly, so as to 
satisfy itself that in general the Hungarian scheme of taxation is 
fully as heavy proportionately as that of any of the Powers repre- 
sented on the Commission. 

The Reparation Commission shall receive instructions to take ac- 
count of: (1) the actual economic and financial position of Hun- 
garian territory as delimited by the present Treaty, and (2) the 
diminution of its resources and of its capacity for payment resulting 
from the clauses of the present Treaty. As long as the position of 
Hungary is not modified the Commission shall take account of these 
considerations in fixing the final amount of the obligations to be im- 
posed on Hungary, the payments by which these are to be discharged, 



218 PEACE TREATIES. 

and any postponement of payment of interest which may be asked 
for by Hungary. 

(c) The Commission shall, as provided in Article 165, take from 
Hungary, by way of security for and acknowledgment of her debt, 
gold bearer bonds free of all taxes or charges of every description 
established or to be established by the Hungarian Government or bj 
any authorities subject to it. These bonds will be delivered at any 
time that may be judged expedient by the Commission, and in three 
portions, of which the respective amounts will be also fixed by the 
Commission (the crowns gold being payable in conformity with 
Article 197, Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty) : 

(1) A first issue in bearer bonds payable not later than May 1, 
1921, without interest. There shall be specially applied to the amor- 
tisation of these bonds the payments which Hungary is pledged to 
make in conformity with Article 165, after deduction of the sums 
used for the reimbursement of the expenses of the armies of occu- 
pation and other payments for foodstuffs and raw materials. Such 
bonds as may not have been redeemed by May 1, 1921, shall then be 
exchanged for new bonds of the same type as those provided for 
below (paragraph 12, (c) 2). 

(2) A second issue in bearer bonds bearing interest at 2^ per cent, 
between 1921 and 1926, and thereafter at 5 per cent, with an addi- 
tional 1 per cent, for amortisation beginning in 1926 on the whole 
amount of the issue. 

(3) An undertaking in writing to issue, when, but not until, the 
Commission is satisfied that Hungary can meet the interest and sink- 
ing fund obligations, a further instalment of bearer bonds bearing 
interest at 5 per cent., the time and mode of payment of principal 
and interest to be determined by the Commission. 

The dates for the payment of interest, the manner of employing 
the amortisation fund and all other questions relating to the issue, 
management and regulation of the bond issue shall be determined by 
the Commission from time to time. 

Further issues by way of acknowledgment and security may be 
required as the Commission subsequently determines from time to 
time. 

In case the Reparation Commission should proceed to fix definitely 
and no longer provisionally the sum of the common charges to be 
borne by Hungary as a result of the claims of the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers, the Commission shall immediately annul all bonds 
which may have been issued in excess of this sum. 

(d) In the event of bonds, obligations or other evidence of in- 
debtedness issued by Hungary by way of security for or acknowledg- 
ment of her reparation debt being disposed of outright, not by way 
of pledge, to persons other than the several Governments in whose 
favour Hungary's original indebtedness was created, an amount of 
such reparation indebtedness shall be deemed to be extinguished 
corresponding to the nominal value of the bonds, etc., so disposed of 
outright, and the obligation of Hungary in respect of such bonds 
shall be confined to her liabilities to the holders of the bonds, as 
expressed upon their face. 

(e) The damage for repairing, reconstructing and rebuilding 
property situated in. the invaded and devastated districts, including 



PEACE TREATIES. 219 

re-installation of furniture, machinery and other equipment, will be 
calculated according to the cost at the date when the work is done. 

(/) Decisions of the Commission relating to the total or partial 
cancellation of the capital or interest of any of the verified debt of 
Hungary must be accompanied by a statement of its reasons. 

13. 

As to voting, the Commission will observe the following rules : 
When a decision of the Commission is taken, the votes of all the 
Delegates entitled to vote, or, in the absence of any of them, of their 
assistant Delegates, shall be recorded. Abstention from voting is to 
be treated as a vote against the proposal under discussion. Assessors 
shall have no vote. 

On the following questions unanimity is necessary : 

(a) Questions involving the sovereignty of any of the Allied and 
Associated Powers, or the cancellation of the whole or any part of 
the debt or obligations of Hungary ; 

(b) Questions of determining the amount and conditions of bonds 
or other obligations to be issued by the Hungarian Government and 
of fixing the time and manner for selling, negotiating or distributing 
such bonds ; 

(c) Any postponement, total or partial, beyond the end of 1930, 
of the payment of instalments falling due between May 1, 1921, and 
the end of 1926 inclusive ; 

(d) Any postponement, total or partial, of any instalments falling- 
due after 1926 for a period exceeding three years ; 

(e) Questions of applying in any particular case a method of 
measuring damages different from that which has been previously 
applied in a similar case ; 

(/) Questions of the interpretation of the provisions of this Part 
of the present Treaty. 

All other questions shall be decided by the vote of the majority. 

In the case of any difference of opinion among the Delegates, 
which cannot be solved by reference to their Governments, upon the 
question whether a given case is one which requires a unanimous 
vote for its decision or not, such difference shall be referred to the 
immediate arbitration of some impartial person to be agreed upon 
by their Governments, whose award the Allied and Associated Gov- 
ernments agree to accept. 

14. 

Decisions of the Commission, in accordance with the powers con- 
ferred upon it, shall forthwith become binding and may be put into 
immediate execution without further proceedings. 

15. 

The Commission shall issue to each of the interested Powers in 
such form as the Commission shall fix : 

(1) a certificate stating that it holds for the account of the said 
Power bonds of the issues mentioned above, the said certificate on 
the demand of the Power concerned being divisible into a number of 
parts not exceeding five ; 



220 PEACE TREATIES. 

(2) from time to time certificates stating the goods delivered by- 
Hungary on account of her reparation debt which it holds for the 
account of the said Power. 

Such certificates shall be registered and, upon notice to the Com- 
mission, may be transferred by endorsement. 

When bonds are issued for sale or negotiation, and when goods 
are delivered by the Commission, certificates to an equivalent value 
must be withdrawn. 

16. 

Interest shall be debited to Hungary as from May 1, 1921, in respect 
of her debt as determined by the Commission, after allowing for 
sums already covered by cash payments or their equivalent by bonds 
issued to the Commission or under Article 173. 

The rate of interest shall be 5 per cent, unless the Commission shall 
determine at some future time that circumstances justify a variation 
of this rate. 

The Commission, in fixing on May 1, 1021, the total amount of the 
debt of Hungary, may take account of interest due on sums arising 
out of reparation and of material damage as from November 11, 1918, 
or airy later date that may be fixed by the Commission, up to May 1* 
1921/ 

17. 

In case of default by Hungary in the performance of any obliga- 
tion under this Part of the present Treaty, the Commission will forth- 
with give notice of such default to each of the interested Powers and 
may make such recommendations as to the action to be taken in conse- 
quence of such default as it may think necessary. 

18. 

The measures which the Allied and Associated Powers shall have 
the right to take, in the case of voluntary default by Hungary, and 
which Hungary agrees not to regard as acts of war, may include 
economic and financial prohibitions and reprisals, and in general 
such other measures as the respective Governments may determine to 
be necessary in the circumstances. 

19. 

Payments required to be made in gold or its equivalent on account 
of the proved claims of the Allied and Associated Powers may at 
any time be accepted by the Commission in the form of chattels, 
properties, commodities, businesses, rights, concessions within or 
without Hungarian territory, ships, bonds, shares or securities of any 
kind or currencies of Hungary or other States, the value of such 
substitutes for gold being fixed at a fair and just amount by the 
Commission itself. 

20. 

The Commission in fixing or accepting payment in specified prop- 
erties or rights shall have due regard for any legal or equitable in- 



PEACE TREATIES. 221 

terests of the Allied and Associated Powers or of neutral Powers or 
of their nationals therein. 

21. 

No member of the Commission shall be responsible, except to the 
Government appointing him, for any action or omission as such 
member. No one of the Allied and Associated Governments assumes 
any responsibility in respect of any other Government. 

22. 

Subject to the provisions of the present Treaty this Annex may be 
amended by the unanimous decision of the Governments represented 
from time to time upon the Commission. 

23. 

When all the amounts due from Hungary and her allies under the 
present Treaty or the decisions of the Commission have been dis- 
charged, and all sums received, or their equivalents, have been dis- 
tributed to the Powers interested, the Commission shall be dissolved. 

Annex III. 



Hungary recognises the right of the Allied and Associated Powers 
to the replacement ton for ton (gross tonnage) and class for class of 
all merchant ships and fishing boats lost or damaged owing to the war. 

Nevertheless and in spite of the fact that the tonnage of Hun- 
garian shipping at present in existence is much less than that lost by 
the Allied and Associated Powers in consequence of the aggression of 
Austria-Hungary and her allies, the right thus recognised will be 
enforced on the Hungarian ships and boats under the following 
conditions : 

The Hungarian Government on behalf of themselves, and so as to 
bind all. other persons interested, cede to the Allied and Associated 
Governments the property in all merchant ships and fishing boats 
belonging to nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungarv. 



The Hungarian Government will, within two months of the com- 
ing into force of the present Treaty, deliver to the Eeparation Com- 
mission all the ships and boats mentioned in paragraph 1. 

3. ' 

The ships and boats in paragraph 1 include all ships and boats 
which (a) fly or may be entitled to fly the Austro-Hungarian mer- 
chant flag and are registered in a port of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary, or (b) are owned by any national, company or corpora- 
tion of the former Kingdom of Hungary, or by any company or 



222 PEACE TREATIES. 

corporation belonging to a country other than an Allied or Associated 
country and under the control or direction of nationals of the former 
Kingdom of Hungary, or (c) are now under construction (1) in the 
former Kingdom of Hungary, (2) in other than Allied or Asso- 
ciated countries for the account of any national, company or cor- 
poration of the former Kingdom of Hungary. 

4. 

For the purpose of providing documents of title for the ships and 
boats to be handed over as above mentioned, the Hungarian Govern- 
ment will : 

(a) deliver to the Reparation Commission in respect of each vessel 
a bill of sale or other document of title evidencing the transfer to the 
Commission of the entire property in the vessel, fiee from all encum- 
brances, charges and liens of all kinds, as the Commission may re- 
quire ; 

(b) take all measures that may be indicated by the Reparation 
Commission for ensuring that the ships themselves shall be placed 
at its disposal. 

5. 

Hungary undertakes to restore in kind and in normal condition 
of upkeep to the Alliejd and Associated Powers within two months 
of the coming into force of the present Treaty in accordance with 
procedure to be laid down by the Reparation Commission any boats 
and other movable appliances belonging to inland navigation which. 
since July 28, 1914, have by any means whatever come into her pos- 
session or into the possession of her nationals and which can be iden- 
tified. 

With a view to make good the loss in inland navigation tonnage 
from whatever cause arising which has been incurred during the war 
by the Allied and Associated Powers, and which cannot be made 
good by means of the restitution prescribed above, Hungary agrees 
to cede to the Reparation Commission a portion of the Hungarian 
river fleet up to the amount of the loss mentioned above, provided 
that such cession shall not exceed 20 per cent, of the river fleet as it 
existed on November 3, 1918. 

The conditions of this cession shall be settled by the arbitrators 
referred to in Article 284, Part XII (Ports, Waterways and Rail- 
ways) of the present Treaty, who are charged with the settlement of 
difficulties relating to the apportionment of river tonnage resulting 
from the new international regime applicable to ceitain river systems 
or from the territorial changes affecting those systems. 

6. 

Hungary agrees to take any measures that may be indicated to 
her by the Reparation Commission for obtaining a full title to the 
property in all ships which have, during the war, been transferred 
or are in process of transfer to neutral flags without the consent 
of the Allied and Associated Governments. 



PEACE TEEATIES. 223 

7. 

Hungary waives all claims of any description against the Allied 
and Associated Governments and their nationals in respect of the 
detention, employment, loss or damage of any Hungarian ships or 
boats. 



Hungary renounces all claims to vessels or cargoes sunk by or in 
consequence of naval action and subsequently salved in which any 
of the Allied or Associated Governements or their nationals may 
have any interest either as owners, charterers, insurers or otherwise, 
notwithstanding any decree of condemnation which may have been 
made by a Prize Court of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 
or of its allies. 

Annex IV. 



The Allied and Associated Powers require and Hungary under- 
takes that in part satisfaction of her obligations expressed in this 
Part she will, as hereinafter provided, devote her economic resources 
directly to the physical restoration of the invaded areas of the Allied 
and Associated Powers to the extent that these Powers may deter- 
mine. 

2. 

The Allied and Associated Governments may file with the Repara- 
tion Commission lists showing: 

(a) animals, machinery, rolling-stock, equipment, tools and like 
articles of a commercial character which have been seized, consumed 
or destroyed by Hungary, or destroyed in direct consequence of mili- 
tary operations, and which such Governments, for the purpose of 
meeting immediate and urgent needs, desire to have replaced by ani- 
mals and articles of the same nature which are in being in Hungarian 
territory at the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty; 

(h) reconstruction materials (such as stones, bricks, refractory 
bricks, tiles, wood, window glass, steel, lime, cement), machinery, 
heating apparatus, furniture and like articles of a commercial char- 
acter, which the said Governments desire to have produced and manu- 
factured in Hungary and delivered to them to permit of the restora- 
tion of the invaded areas. 



The lists relating to the articles mentioned in paragraph 2 (u) 
above shall be filed within three months after the coming into force 
of the present Treaty. 

The lists shall contain all such details as are customary in com- 
mercial contracts dealing with the subject-matter, including specifi- 
cations, dates of delivery (but not extending over more than four 
years) and places of delivery, but not prices or value, which shall be 
fixed as hereinafter provided by the Commission. 



224 PEACE TREATIES. 



Immediately upon the filing of such lists with the Commission, the 
Commission shall consider the amount and number of the materials 
and animals mentioned in the lists provided for above which are to 
be required of Hungary. 

In reaching a decision on this matter the Commission shall take 
into account such domestic requirements of Hungary as it deems 
essential for the maintenance of Hungarian social and economic life, 
the prices and dates at which similar articles can be obtained in the 
Allied and Associated countries as compared with those to be fixed 
for Hungarian articles, and the general interest of the Allied and 
Associated Governments that the industrial life of Hungary be not 
so disorganised as to affect adversely the ability of Hungary to per- 
form the other acts of reparation stipulated for. 

Machinery, rolling-stock, equipment, tools and like articles of a 
commercial character in actual industrial use are not, however, to be 
demanded of Hungary unless there is no free stock of such articles 
respective^ which is not in use and is available, and then not in 
excess of 30 per cent, of the quantity of such articles in use in any 
one estauiishment or undertaking. 

The Commission shall give representatives of the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment an opportunity and a time to be heard as to their capacity 
to furnish the said materials, articles and animals. 

The decision of the Commission shall thereupon and at the earliest 
possible moment be communicated to the Hungarian Government 
and to the several interested Allied and Associated Governments. 

The Hungarian Government undertakes to deliver the materials, 
articles and animals as specified in the said communication, and the 
interested Allied and Associated Governments severally agree to 
accept the same, providing they conform to the specification given or 
are not, in the judgment of the Commission, unfit to be utilised in 
the work of reparation. 

5. 

The Commission shall determine the value to be attached to the 
materials, articles and animals to be delivered in accordance with 
the foregoing, and the Allied or Associated Power receiving the -same 
agrees to be charged with such value, and the amount thereof shall 
be treated as a payment by Hungarjr to be divided in accordance 
with Article 167 of the present Treaty. 

In cases where the right to require physical restoration as above 
provided is exercised, the Commission shall ensure that the amount 
to be credited against the reparation obligation of Hungary shall be 
fair value for work done or material supplied by Hungary, and that 
the claim made by the interested Power in respect of the damage so 
repaired by physical restoration shall be discharged to the extent of 
the proportion which the damage thus repaired bears to the whole of 
the damage thus claimed for. 

6. 

In order to meet the immediate needs of the countries whose live- 
stock has been seized, consumed or destroyed, the Allied and Asso- 



PEACE TREATIES. 225 

ciated Powers may present to the Reparation Commission imme- 
diately after the coming into force of the present Treaty lists of the 
livestock which they desire to have delivered to them within three 
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, as an imme- 
diate advance on account of the animals referred to in paragraph 2 
above. 

The Reparation Commission shall decide in what numbers such 
livestock shall be delivered within the above period of three months, 
and Hungary agrees to make such deliveries in accordance with the 
decisions of the Commission. 

The Commission will distribute the livestock so delivered between 
the Powers concerned, taking into account the immediate needs of 
each of these Powers and the extent to which these needs have been 
met by the Treaties concluded between the Allied and Associated 
Powers on the one hand and Austria and Bulgaria on the other hand. 

The animals delivered shall be of average health and condition. 

If the animals so delivered cannot be identified as animals taken 
away or seized, the value of such animals shall be credited against the 
reparation obligations of Hungary in accordance with paragraph 5 
of this Annex. 

Annex V. 



Hungary shall give, as partial reparation, to the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Governments severally an option during the five years follow- 
ing the coming into force of the present Treaty for the annual de- 
livery of the raw materials hereinafter enumerated, the amounts de- 
livered to bear the same relation to their annual importations of these 
materials before the war from Austria-Hungary as the resources of 
Hungary as now delimited by the present Treaty bear to the resources 
before the war of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy : 

Timber and timber manufactures: 

Iron and iron alloys. 

Hungary shall also give, as partial reparation, to the Allied and 
Associated Powers an option for the annual delivery during the five 
years following the coming into force of the present Treaty of a quan- 
tity of steam coal from the Pecs mine. This quantity will be periodi- 
cally determined by the Reparation Commission, which will dispose 
of it for the benefit of the Serb-Croat-Slovene State in conditions 
fixed by the Commission. 

2. 

The price paid for the products referred to in the preceding para- 
graph shall be the same as the price paid by Hungarian nationals 
under the same conditions of shipment to the Hungarian frontier and 
shall be subject to any advantages which may be accorded similar 
products furnished to Hungarian nationals. 



The foregoing options shall be exercised through the intervention 
of the Reparation Commission, which, subject to the specific pro- 
visions hereof, shall have power to determine all questions relative to 
47S0S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 15 



226 PEACE TREATIES. 

procedure and qualities and quantities of products and the times and 
modes of delivery and payment. In giving notice to the Hungarian 
Government of the foregoing options, the Commission shall give at 
least 120 days notice of deliveries to be made after July 1, 1920, and 
at least 30 days notice of deliveries to be made between the coming 
into force of the present Treaty and July 1, 1920. If the Commis- 
sion shall determine that the full exercise of the foregoing options 
would interfere unduly with the industrial requirements of Hungary, 
the Commission is authorised to postpone or to cancel deliveries and 
in so doing to settle all questions of priority. 

Annex VI. 

Hungary renounces on her own behalf and on behalf of her na- 
tionals in favour of Italy all rights, titles or privileges of whatever 
nature in any submarine cables or portions of cables connecting 
Italian territory, including any territories which may be assigned to 
Italv in accordance with the present Treaty. 

Hungary also renounces on her own behalf and on behalf of her 
nationals in favour of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers all 
rights, titles and privileges of whatever nature in the submarine 
cables, or portions thereof, connecting the territories ceded by Hun- 
gary under the terms of the present Treaty to the various Allied and 
Associated Powers. 

The States concerned shall provide for the upkeep of the installa- 
tions and the proper working of the said cables. 

As regards the cable from Trieste to Corfu, the Italian Government 
shall enjoy in its relations with the company owning this cable the 
same position as that held by the Austro-Hungarian Government. 

The value of the cables or portions of cables referred to in the first 
two paragraphs of the present Annex, calculated on the basis of the 
original cost, less a suitable allowance for depreciation, shall be cred- 
ited to Hungary in the reparation account. 

Section II. — Special Provisions. 

Article 175. 

In carrying out the provisions of Article 168, Hungary undertakes 
to surrender to each of the Allied and Associated Powers respectively 
all records, documents, objects of antiquity and of art, and all scien- 
tific and bibliographical material taken away from the invaded terri- 
tories, whether they belong to the State or to provincial, communal, 
charitable or ecclesiastical administrations or other public or private 
institutions. 

Article 176. 

Hungary shall in the same manner restore objects of the same 
nature as those referred to in Article 175 which may have been taken 
away since June 1, 1914, from the ceded territories, with the excep- 
tion of objects bought from private owners. 

The Reparation Commission will apply to these objects the pro- 
visions of Article 191, Part IX (Financial Clauses), of the present 
Treaty, if these are appropriate. 



PEACE TREATIES. 227 

Article 177. 

Hungary will give up to each of the Allied and Associated Govern- 
ments respectively all the records, documents and historical material 
possessed by public institutions which may have a direct bearing on 
the history of the ceded territories and which have been removed since 
January 1, 1868. This last-mentioned period, as far as concerns Italy, 
shall be extended to the date of the proclamation of the Kingdom 
(1861). 

With regard to all objects or documents of an artistic, archaeologi- 
cal, scientific or historic character forming part of collections which 
formerly belonged to the Government or the Crown of the Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy and are not otherwise provided for in the pres- 
ent Treaty, Hungary undertakes : 

(a) to negotiate, when required, with the States concerned for an 
amicable arrangement whereby any portion thereof or any objects or 
documents belonging thereto which ought to form part of the intel- 
lectual patrimony of the said States may be returned to their country 
of origin on terms of reciprocity, and 

(&) for twenty years, unless a special arrangement is previously ar- 
rived at, not to alienate or disperse any of the said collections or to dis- 
pose of any of the above objects, but at all times to ensure their safety 
and good condition and to make them available, together with inven- 
tories, catalogues and administrative documents relating to the said 
collections, at all reasonable times to students who are nationals of 
any of the Allied and Associated Powers. 

Reciprocally, Hungary will be entitled to apply to the said States,. 
particularly to Austria, in order to negotiate, in the conditions men- 
tioned above, the necessary arrangements for the return to Hungary 
of the collections, documents and objects referred to above, to which 
the guarantees referred to in paragraph (b) will apply. 

Article 178. 

The new States arising out of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy and the States which receive parti of the territory of that 
Monarchy undertake to give up to the Hungarian Government the 
records, documents and material dating from a period not exceeding 
twenty years which have a direct bearing on the history or adminis- 
tration of the territory of Hungary and which may be found in the' 
territories transferred. 

Article 179. 

Hungary acknowledges that she remains bound, as regards Italy, 
to execute in full the obligations] referred to in Article 15 of the 
Treaty of Zurich of November 10, 1859, in Article 18 of the Treaty 
of Vienna of October 3, 1866, and in the Convention of Florence of 
July 14, 1868, concluded between Italy and Austria-Hungary, in so 
far as the Articles referred to have not in fact been executed in their 
entirety, and in so far as the documents and objects in question are 
situated in the territory of Hungary or her allies. 



228 PEACE TREATIES. 

PART IX.— FINANCIAL CLAUSES. 

Article 180. 

Subject to such exceptions as the Reparation Commission may 
make, the first charge upon all the assets and revenues of Hungary 
shall be the cost of reparation and all other costs arising under the 
present Treaty or any treaties or agreements supplementary thereto, 
or under arrangements concluded between Hungary and the Allied 
and Associated Powers during the Armistice signed on November 3, 
1918. 

Up to May 1, 1921, the Hungarian Government shall not export 
or dispose of, and shall forbid the export or disposal of, gold without 
the previous approval of the Allied and Associated Powers acting 
through the Reparation Commission. 

Article 181. 

There shall be paid by Hungary, subject to the fifth paragraph of 
this Article, the total cost of all armies of the Allied and Associated 
Governments occupying territory within the boundaries of Hungary 
as defined by the present Treaty from the date of the signature of the 
Armistice of November 3. 1918, including the keep of men and beasts, 
lodging and billeting, pay and allowances, salaries and wages, bed- 
ding, heating, lighting, clothing, equipment, harness and saddlery, 
armament and ' rolling-stock, air service, treatment of sick and 
wounded, veterinary and remount services, transport services of all 
sorts (such as by rail, sea, or river, motor-lorries), communications 
and correspondence, and. in general, the cost of all administrative 
or technical services the working of which is necessary for the train- 
ing of troops and for keeping their numbers up to strength and pre- 
serving their military efficiency. 

The cost of such liabilities under the above heads, so far as they re- 
late to purchases or requisitions by the Allied and Associated Gov- 
ernments in the occupied territory, shall be paid by the Hungarian 
Government to the Allied and Associated Governments in crowns or 
any legal currency of Hungary which may be substituted for crowns. 

In cases where an Allied Government,- in order to make such pur- 
chases or requisitions in the occupied territory, has incurred expecli- 
ture in a currency other than crowns, such expenditure shall be reim- 
bursed in any legal Hungarian currency at the rate of exchange cur- 
rent at the date of reimbursement, or at an agreed rate. 

All other of the above costs shall be paid in the currency of the 
country to which the payment is due. 

The above stipulations will apply to military operations carried 
out after November 3, 1918, to such extent as the Reparation Com- 
mission shall consider necessary, and the Reparation Commission 
shall have, so far as these operations are concerned, full power to de- 
cide all questions, especially those relating to : 

(a) the costs of the armies engaged in such operations, particuarly 
the determination of their nature and amount, the portion of such 
costs to be charged to Hungary, the manner and currency in which 
such portion is to be paid, and any possible arrangements as regards 
preference or priority in connection with such payment ; 



PEACE TREATIES. 229 

(h) the requisitioning in the course of the operations of property 
and securities of every description, particularly the possible classi- 
fication of any portion of such property or securities as war booty, 
the valuation of such property or securities, the extent to which resti- 
tution should be made, debiting on the reparation account of the sum 
representing the property or securities not restored against the Power 
in possession thereof, the method of payment (in cash or as a set-off 
on the reparation account) of the sums so debited, and the dates on 
which such payment or set-off is to be made. 

Article 182. 

Hungary confirms the surrender of all material handed over or to 
be handed over to the Allied and Associated Powers in accordance 
with the Armistice of November 3, 1918, or any supplementary agree- 
ments, and recognises the title of the Allied and Associated Powers 
to such material. 

There shall be credited to Hungary, against the sums due from her 
to the Allied and Associated Powers for reparation, the value, as 
assessed by the Reparation Commission, of such of the above material 
for which, as having non-military value, credit should, in the judg- 
ment of the Reparation Commission, be allowed to Hungary. 

Property belonging to the Allied and Associated Governments or 
their nationals restored or surrendered under the Armistice Agree- 
ments in specie shall not be credited to Hungary. 

Article 183. 

The priority of the charges established by Article 180 shall, sub- 
ject to the qualifications made below, be as follows: — 

(a) the cost of the armies of occupation, as defined under Article 
181, during the Armistice; 

(h) the cost of any armies of occupation, as defined under Article 
181, after the coming into force of the present Treaty : 

(<?) the cost of reparation arising out of the present Treat}^ or any 
treaties or conventions supplementary thereto ; 

(d) the cost of all other obligations incumbent on Hungary under 
the Armistice Agreements or under the present Treaty or any treaties 
or conventions supplementary thereto. 

The payment for such supplies of food and raw material for Hun- 
gary and such other payments as may be judged by the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers to be essential to enable Hungary to 
meet her obligations in respect of reparation shall have priority to 
the extent and upon the conditions which have been or may be de- 
termined by the Governments of the said Powers. 

The payment of the costs of the armies employed in the operations 
effected after November 3, 1918, shall have priority to the extent and 
upon the conditions fixed by the Reparation Commission in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article 181. 

Article 184. 

The right of each of the Allied and Associated Powers to dispose 
of enemy assets and property within its jurisdiction at the date of 
the coming into force of the present Treaty is not affected by the fore- 
going provisions. 



230 peace treaties. 

Article 185. 

Nothing in the foregoing provisions shall prejudice in any manner 
charges or mortgages lawfully effected in favour of the Allied and 
Associated Powers or their nationals respectively before the date at 
which a state of war existed between Austria-Hungary and the Allied 
or Associated Power concerned by the former Hungarian Govern- 
ment or by nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary on assets 
in their ownership at that date, except in so far as variations of such 
charges or mortgages are specifically provided for under the terms 
of the present Treaty or any treaties or conventions supplementary 
thereto. 

Article 186. 

1. Each of the States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, and each of the States arising 
from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Hungary, 
shall, in so far as territory is assigned to it in accordance with the 
present Treaty, assume responsibility for a portion of the debt of the 
former Hungarian Government which is specifically secured on rail- 
ways or other property, and which was in existence on July 28, 1914. 
The portion to be so assumed by each State shall be such portion as 
in the opinion of the Reparation Commission represents the secured 
debt in respect of the railways and other properties transferred to 
that State under the terms of the present Treaty or any treaties or 
agreements supplementary thereto. 

The amount of the liability in respect of secured debt so assumed 
by each State other than Hungary shall be valued by the Reparation 
Commission, on such basis as the Commission may consider equit- 
able, and the value so ascertained shall be deducted from the amount 
payable by the State in question to Hungary in respect to property 
of the former or existing Hungarian Government which the State 
acquires with the territory. Each State shall be solely responsible 
in respect of that portion of the secured debt for which it assumes 
responsibility under the terms of this Article, and holders of the 
debt for which responsibility is assumed by States other than Hun- 
gary shall have no recourse against the Government of any other 
State. 

Any property which was specifically pledged to secure any debt 
referred to in this Article shall remain specifically pledged to secure 
the new debt. But in case the property so pledged is situated as 
the result of the present Treaty in more than one State, that portion 
of the property which is situated in a particular State shall consti- 
tute the security only for that part of the debt which is apportioned 
to that State, and not for any other part of the debt. 

For the purposes of the present Article there shall be regarded 
as secured debt payments due by the former Hungarian Government 
•in connection with the purchase of railways or similar property: 
the distribution of the liability for such payments will be determined 
by the Reparation Commission in the same manner as in the case 
of secured debt. 

Debts for which the responsibility is transferred under the terms 
of this Article shall be expressed in terms of the currency of the 



PEACE TREATIES. 231 

State assuming the responsibility, if the original debt was expressed 
in terms of Austro-Hungarian paper currency. For the purposes 
of this conversion the currency of the assuming State shall be valued 
in terms of Austro-Hungarian paper kronen at the rate at which 
those kronen were exchanged into the currency of the assuming 
State by that State when it first substituted its own currency for 
Austro-Hungarian kronen. The basis of this conversion of the 
currency unit in which the bonds are expressed shall be subject to 
the approval of the Reparation Commission, which shall, if it thinks 
fit, require the State effecting the conversion to modify the terms 
thereof. Such modification shall only be required if, in the opinion 
of the Commission, the foreign exchange value of the currency unit 
or units substituted for the currency unit in which the old bonds 
are expressed is substantially less at the date of the conversion than 
the foreign exchange value of the original currency unit. 

If the original Hungarian debt was expressed in terms of a foreign 
currency or foreign currencies, the new debt shall be expressed in 
terms of the same currency or currencies. 

If the original Hungarian debt was expressed in terms of Austro- 
Hungarian gold coin, the new debt shall be expressed in terms of 
equivalent amounts of pounds sterling and gold dollars of the United 
States of America, the equivalents being calculated on the basis of 
the weight and the fineness of gold of the three coins as enacted by 
law on January 1, 1914. 

Any foreign exchange options, whether at fixed rates or other- 
wise, embodied explicitly or implicitly in the old bonds shall be em- 
bodied in the new bonds also. 

2. Each of the States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, and each of the States arising 
from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Hungary, 
shall assume responsibility for a portion of the unsecured bonded 
debt of the former Hungarian Government as it stood on July 28, 
1914. calculated on the basis of the ratio between the average for 
the three financial years 1911, 1912, 1913, of such revenues of the 
territory distributed in accordance with the present Treaty and the 
average for the same years of such revenues of the whole of the 
former Hungarian territories as in the judgment of the Reparation 
Commission are best calculated to represent the financial capacity 
of the respective territories. In making the above calculation, the 
revenues of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall not be included. Never- 
theless, when there existed before July 28, 1914, financial agreements 
relating to the unsecured bonded debt of the former Hungarian Gov- 
ernment, the Reparation Commission may take such agreements into 
consideration when effecting the division of this debt between the 
States mentioned above. 

The responsibilities in respect of bonded debt to be assumed under 
the terms of this Article shall be discharged in the manner laid down 
in the Annex hereto. 

The Hungarian Government shall be solely responsible for all 
the liabilities of the former Hungarian Government incurred by it 
prior to July 28, 1914, other than those evidenced by the bonds, bills, 
securities, and currency notes which are specifically provided for 
under the terms of the present Treaty. 



232 PEACE TREATIES. 

Neither the provisions of this Article nor the provisions of the 
Annex hereto shall apply to securities of the former Hungarian Gov- 
ernment deposited with the Austro-Hungarian Bank as security for 
the currency notes issued by that bank. 

Annex. 

The amount of the former unsecured Hungarian Government 
bonded debt, the responsibility for which is to be distributed under 
the provisions of Article 186. shall be the amount of that debt as it 
stood on July 28, 1914. 

Each State assuming responsibility for the former unsecured Hun- 
garian Government bonded debt shall, within three months of the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, if it has not already done 
so, stamp with the stamp of its own Government all the bonds of 
that debt existing in its own territory. The distinguishing numbers 
of the bonds so stamped shall be recorded and shall be furnished, 
together with the other records of the stamping, to the Reparation 
Commission. 

Holders of bonds within the territory of a State which is required 
to stamp old Hungarian bonds under the terms of this Annex shall, 
from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty, be 
creditors in respect to these bonds of that State only, and they shall 
have no recourse against the Government of any other State. 

Each State which, under the terms of Article 186, is required to 
assume responsibility for a portion of the old unsecured Hungarian 
Government debt, and which has ascertained by means of stamping 
the old Hungarian bonds that the bonds of any particular issue of 
such old Hungarian bonds held within its territory were smaller in 
amount than the amount of that issue for which, in accordance with 
the assessment of the Reparation Commission, it is held responsible, 
shall deliver to the Reparation Commission new bonds equal in 
amount to the difference between the amount of the issue for which 
it is responsible and the amount of the same issue recorded as held 
within its own territory. Such new bonds shall be of such denomi- 
nations as the Reparation Commission may require. They shall 
carry the same rights as regards interest and amortisation as the old 
bonds for which they are substituted, and in all other respects the 
conditions of the new bonds shall be fixed subject to the approval 
of the Reparation Commission. 

If the original bond was expressed in terms of Austro-Hungarian 
paper currency, the new bond by which it is replaced shall be ex- 
pressed in terms of the currency of the State issuing the new bond 
and for the purpose of this currency conversion, the currency of the 
new State shall be valued in terms of Austro-Hungarian paper 
kronen at the rate at which those kronen were exchanged for the 
currency of the new State by that State when it first substituted its 
own currency for Austro-Hungarian paper kronen. The basis of 
this conversion of the currency unit in which the bonds are expressed 
shall be subject to the approval of the Reparation Commission, which 
shall, if it thinks fit, require the State effecting the conversion to 
modify the terms thereof. Such modification shall only be required 
if, in the opinion of the Commission, the foreign exchange value 
of the currency unit or units substituted for the currency unit in 



PEACE TREATIES. 233 

which the old bonds are expressed is substantially less at the date 
of the conversion than the foreign exchange value of the original 
currency unit. 

If the original bond was expressed in terms of a foreign currency 
or foreign currencies, the new bond shall be expressed in terms of 
the same currency or currencies. If the original bond was ex- 
pressed in terms of Austro-Hungarian gold coin, the new bond shall 
be expressed in terms of equivalent amounts of pounds sterling and 
gold dollars of the United States of America, the equivalents being 
calculated on the basis of the weight and fineness of gold of the 
three coins as enacted by law on January 1, 1914. 

Any foreign exchange options, whether at fixed rates or otherwise, 
embodied explicitly or implicitly in the old bonds shall be embodied 
in the new bonds also. 

Each State which under the terms of Article 186 is required to 
assume responsibility for a portion of the old unsecured Hungarian 
Government debt, which has ascertained by means of stamping the 
old Hungarian bonds that the bonds of any particular issue of such old 
Hungarian bonds held within its territory were larger in amount than 
the amount of that issue for which it is held responsible in accordance 
with the assessment of the Separation Commission, shall receive from 
the Reparation Commission its due proportionate share of each of the 
new issues of bonds issued in accordance with the provisions of this 
Annex. 

Holders of unsecured bonds of the old Hungarian < Government debt 
held outside the boundaries of the States to which territory of the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, or States arising 
out of the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Hungary, 
shall deliver through the agency of their respective Governments 
to the Reparation Commission the bonds which they hold, and in ex- 
change therefor the Reparation Commission shall deliver to them 
certificates entitling them to their due proportionate share of each 
of the new issues of bonds corresponding to and issued in exchange 
for their surrendered bonds under the provisions of this Annex. 

The share of each State or private holder entitled to a share in any 
new issue of bonds issued in accordance with the provisions of this 
Annex shall bear such proportion to the total amount of bonds of 
that new issue as the holding of the State or private owner in ques- 
tion of the old issue of bonds bears to the total amount of the old 
issue presented to the Reparation Commission for exchange into new 
bonds in accordance with the provisions of this Annex. 

The Reparation Commission shall, if it think fit, arrange with the 
holders of the new bonds provided for by this Annex a consolidation 
loan of each debtor State, the bonds of which loan shall be substituted 
for the various different issues of new bonds on such terms as may 
be agreed upon by the Commission and the bondholders. 

The State assuming liability for any bond of the former Hun- 
garian Government shall assume any liability attaching to the bond 
in respect of unpaid coupons or sinking fund instalments accrued 
since the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

In addition to the former unsecured Hungarian Government 
bonded debt to be divided as above, there shall also be divided among 
the several States, in the same proportion, the amount of the former 



234 PEACE TREATIES. 

unsecured Austrian Government bonded debt which represents the 
liability of the former Hungarian Government for that debt, as pro- 
vided by the additional Convention relating to the contribution of 
the countries of the Sacred Hungarian Crown to the charges of the 
general debt of the Austro-Hungarian State approved by the Austro- 
Hungarian Law of December 30, 1907, B. L. I., No. 278. 

Each State which, in virtue of the present Treaty, assumes re- 
sponsibility for a part of this Austrian debt shall deliver to the 
Reparation Commission new securities for an amount equal to the 
part of the above-mentioned Austrian debt which is attributed to it. 

The terms of these securities shall be fixed by the Reparation Com- 
mission. They shall be such as to represent as exactly as possible 
the terms of the former Austrian securities for which these securities 
are to be substituted. The new securities will be delivered to the 
States or holders of Austrian securities, who will have the right to 
a portion of each of the new issues made in accordance with the 
provisions of the Annex to Article 203 of the Treaty with Austria. 

Article 187. 

1. In case the new boundaries of any States, as laid down by 
the present Treaty, shall divide any local area which was a single 
unit for borrowing purposes and which had a legally constituted 
public debt, such debt shall be divided between the new divisions of 
the area in a proportion to be determined by the Reparation Com- 
mission in accordance with the principles laid down for the re- 
apportionment of Government debts under Article 186 of the present 
Treaty, and the responsibility so assumed shall be discharged in such 
a manner as the Reparation Commission shall determine. 

2. The public debt of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be regarded 
as the debt of a local area and not as part of the public debt of the 
former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. 

Article 188. 

Within two months of the coming into force of the present Treaty, 
each one of the States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy is transferred in accordance with the present 
Treaty, and each one of the States arising from the dismemberment 
of that Monarchy, including Hungary, shall, if it has not already 
done so, stamp with the stamp of its own Government the securities 
of various kinds which are separately provided for, representing the 
bonded war debt of the former Hungarian Government as legally 
constituted prior to October 31, 1918, and existing in their respective 
territories. 

The securities thus stamped shall be withdrawn and replaced by 
certificates, their distinguishing numbers shall be recorded, and any 
securities withdrawn, together with the documents recording the 
transaction, shall be sent to the Reparation Commission.^ 

The stamping and replacement of a security by a certificate under 
the provisions of this Article shall not imply that the State so stamp- 
ing and replacing a security thereby assumes or recognises any ob- 
ligation in respect of it, unless the State in question desires that the 
stamping and replacement should have this implication. 



PEACE TREATIES. 235 

The aforementioned States, with the exception of Hungary, shall 
be free from any obligation in respect of the war debt of the former 
Hungarian Government, wherever that debt may be held, but neither 
the Governments of those States nor their nationals shall have re- 
course under any circumstances whatever against any other States, 
including Hungary, in respect of the war debt bonds of which they 
or their nationals are the beneficial owners. 

The war debt of the former Hungarian Government which was 
prior to the signature of the present Treaty in the beneficial owner- 
ship of nationals or Governments of States other than those to which 
territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is assigned in 
accordance with the present Treaty shall be a charge upon the Hun- 
garian Government only, and no one of the other States aforemen- 
tioned shall be held responsible for any part thereof. 

The provisions of this Article shall not apply to the securities of 
the former Hungarian Government deposited by that Government 
with the Austro-Hungarian Bank as security for the currency notes 
of the said bank. 

The Hungarian Government shall be solely responsible for all 
liabilities of the former Hungarian Government incurred during the 
war, other than those evidenced by the bonds, bills, securities and 
currency notes which are specifically provided for under the terms 
of the present Treaty. 

Article 189. 

1. Within two months of the coming into force of the Treaty with 
Austria, each one of the States to which territory of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarch} 7 is transferred, and each one of the 
States arising from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including 
Austria and Hungary, shall, if it has not already done so, stamp 
with the stamp of its own Government the currency notes of the 
Austro-Hungarian Bank existing in its territory. 

2. Within twelve months of the coming into force of the Treaty 
with Austria, each one of the States to which territory of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, and each one of the 
States arising from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including 
Austria and Hungary, shall replace, as it may think fit, the stamped 
notes referred to above by its own or a new currency. 

3. The Governments of such States as have already converted the 
currency notes of the Austro-Hungarian Bank by stamping or by the 
issue of their own or a new currency, and in carrying out this oper- 
ation have withdrawn, without stamping them, a portion or all of the 
currency notes circulating in their territory, shall either stamp the 
notes so withdrawn or hold them at the disposal of the Reparation 
Commission. 

4. Within fourteen months of the coming into force of the Treaty 
with Austria, those Governments which have replaced notes of the 
bank by their own or new currency, in accordance with the provisions 
of this Article, shall transfer to the Reparation Commission all the 
notes, stamped or unstamped, of the bank which have been with- 
drawn in the course of this replacement. 

5. All notes transferred to the Reparation Commission under the 
provisions of this Article shall be dealt with by that Commission in 
accordance with the provisions of the Annex hereto. 



236 PEACE TREATIES. 

6. The Austro-Hungarian Bank shall be liquidated as from the day 
succeeding the day of the signature of the Treaty with Austria. 

7. The liquidation shall be conducted by receivers specially op- 
pointed for that purpose by the Reparation Commission. In con- 
ducting the liquidation of the bank, the receivers shall follow the 
rules laid down in the Statutes or other valid instruments regulating 
the constitution of the bank, subject, however, to the special provi- 
sions of this Article. In the case of any doubt arising as to the inter- 
pretation of the rules concerning the liquidation of the bank, whether 
laid down in these Articles and Annexes or in the Statutes of the 
bank, the decision of the Reparation Commission or any arbitrator 
appointed by it for that purpose shall be final. 

8. The currency notes issued by the bank subsequent to October 27, 

1918, shall have a claim on the securities issued by the former or exist- 
ing Austrian and Hungarian Governments and deposited with the 
bank by those Governments as security for these notes, but the}' shall 
not have a claim on any other assets of the bank. 

9. The currency notes issued by the bank on or prior to October 27, 
1918 (in so far as they are entitled to rank at all in conformity with 
this Article), shall all rank equally as claims against all the assets of 
the bank, other than the Austrian and Hungarian Government se- 
curities deposited as security for the various note issues. 

10. The securities deposited by the former or existing Austrian and 
Hungarian Government with the bank as security for the currency 
notes issued on or prior to October 27, 1918, shall be cancelled in so 
far as they represent the notes converted in the territory of the former 
Austro-Hungarion Monarchy as it existed on July 28. 1914, by States 
to which territory of that Monarchy is transferred or by States arising 
from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Austria and 
Hungary. 

11. The remainder of the securities deposited by the former or 
existing Austrian and Hungarian Governments with the bank as se- 
curity for the currency notes issued on or prior to October 27. 1918, 
shall be retained in force as security for. and in so far as they repre- 
sent, the notes issued on or prior to October 27, 1918, which on June 15, 

1919, were outside the limits of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy, that is to say, firstly, all notes of this description which are 
presented to the Reparation Commission in accordance with para- 
graph 4 of this Article, and secondly all notes of this description 
which may be held elsewhere and are presented to the receivers of the 
bank in accordance Avith the Annex hereto. 

12. No claims on account of any other currency notes issued on or 
prior to October 27, 1918, shall rank either against the general -assets 
of the bank or against the securities deposited by the former or exist- 
ing Austrian or Hungarian Governments as security for the notes, 
and any balance of such securities remaining after the amount of se- 
curities mentioned in paragraphs 10 and 11 has been calculated and 
deducted shall be cancelled. 

13. All securities deposited by the former or existing Austrian and 
Hungarian Governments with the bank as security for currency note 
issues and which are maintained in force shall be the obligations re- 
spectively of the Governments of Austria and Hungary only and not 
of any other States. 



PEACE TREATIES. 237 

i I. The holders of currency notes of the Austro-Hungarian Bank 
shall have no recourse against the Governments of Austria or Hungary 
or any other Government in respect of any loss which they may suffer 
as the result of the liquidation of the hank. 

15. Nevertheless, it" any difficulties should arise owing to the date 
of the signature of the present Treaty, the dates at which any of the 
operations laid down by this Article are to be carried out may be 
altered by the Reparation Commission. 

Annex. 

1. 

The respective Governments, when transmitting to the Reparation 
Commission all the currency notes of the Austro-Hungarian Bank 
withdrawn by them from circulation in accordance with the terms of 
Article 189. shall also deliver to the Commission all the records show- 
ing the nature and amounts of the conversions which they have 
effected. 

2. 

The Reparation Commission, after examining the records, shall de- 
liver to the said Governments separate certificates stating the total 
amount of currency notes which the Governments have converted 

(a) within the boundaries of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy as it existed on July 28, 1914, 

(b) elsewhere. 

These certificates will entitle the bearer to lodge a claim with the 
receivers of the bank for currency notes thus converted which are en- 
titled to share in the assets of the bank. 



After the liquidation of the bank is completed, the Reparation 
Commission shall destroy the notes thus withdrawn. 



Xo note- issued on or prior to October 27, 1918, whever they may 
be held, will rank as claims against the bank unless they are presented 
through the Government of the country in which they are held. 

Article 190. 

Each one of the States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy is transferred, and each one of the States aris- 
ing from the dismemberment of that Monarchy, including Hungary, 
shall deal as it thinks fit with the petty or token coinage of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy existing in its territory. 

No such State shall have any recourse under any circumstance.-, on 
behalf either of itself or of its nationals, against any other State with 
regard to such petty or token coinage. 



238 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 191. 

States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy is transferred and States arising from the dismemberment of 
that Monarchy shall acquire all property and possessions situated 
within their territories belonging to the former or existing Hungarian 
Government. 

For the purposes of this Article, the property and possessions of 
the former or existing Hungarian Government shall be deemed to in- 
clude the property of the former Kingdom of Hungary and the inter- 
ests of that Kingdom in the joint property of the Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy, as well as all the property of the Crown and the private 
property of members of the former Koyal Family of Austria- 
Hungary. 

These States shall, however, have no claim to any property of the 
former or existing Government of Hungary situated outside their 
own respective territories. 

The value of such property and possessions acquired by States other 
than Hungary shall be fixed by the Reparation Commission and 
placed by that Commission to the credit of Hungary and to the debit 
of the State acquiring such property on account of the sums due for 
reparation. The Reparation Commission shall deduct from the value 
of the public property thus acquired an amount proportionate to the 
contribution in money, land, or material made directly by any prov- 
ince or commune or other autonomous local authority towards the cost 
of such property. 

Without prejudice to Article 186 relating to secured debt, in the case 
of each State acquiring property under the provisions of this Article, 
the amount placed to the credit of Hungary and to the debit of the 
said State in accordance with the preceding paragraph shall be re- 
duced by the value of the amount of the liability in respect of the 
unsecured debt of the former Hungarian Government assumed by 
that State under the provisions of Article 186 which, in the opinion 
of the Reparation Commission, represents expenditure upon the prop- 
erty so acquired. The value shall be fixed by the Reparation Commis- 
sion on such basis as the Commission may consider equitable. 

Property of the former and existing Hungarian Government shall 
be deemed to include a share of the real property in Bosnia-Herze- 
govina of all descriptions for which, under Article 5 of the Convention 
of February 26, 1909, the Government of the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarch paid £T.2,500,000 to the Ottoman Government. Such 
share shall be proportionate to the share which the former Kingdom 
of Hungary contributed to the above payment, and the value of this 
share, as assessed by the Reparation Commission, shall be credited to 
Hungary on account of reparation. 

As exception to the above there shall be transferred without pay- 
ment : 

(1) the property and possessions of provinces, communes and other 
local autonomous institutions of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy, including those in Bosnia-Herzegovina which did not belong to 
the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ; 

(2) schools and hospitals the property of the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy. 



PEACE TREATIES. 239 

Further, any building or other property situated in the respective 
territories transferred to the States referred to in the first paragraph 
whose principal value lies in its historic interest and associations, and 
which formerly belonged to the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom 
of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Republic of 
Ragusa, the Venetian Republic, or the Episcopal Principalities of 
Trient and Bressanone, may, subject to the approval of the Repara- 
tion Commission, be transferred to the Government entitled thereto 
without payment. 

Article 192. 

Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, all rights accorded 
to her or her nationals by treaties, conventions or agreements, of 
whatsoever kind, to representation upon or participation in the con- 
trol or administration of commissions, state banks, agencies or other 
financial or economic organisations of an international character exer- 
cising powers of control or administration and operating in any of the 
Allied or Associated States, or in Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or 
Turkey, or in the dependencies of these States, or in the former 
Russian Empire. 

Article 193. 

1. Hungary engages to recognise the transfer provided for in 
Article 210 of the Treaty with Austria of the sum in gold deposited 
in the Austro-Hungarian Bank in the name of the Council of the 
Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt as security for the first 
issue of Turkish Government currency notes. 

2. Without prejudice to Article 227, Part X (Economic Clauses) 
of the present Treaty, Hungary renounces, so far as she is concerned, 
any benefit disclosed by the Treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk 
and by the Treaties supplementary thereto. 

Hungary undertakes to transfer either to Roumania or to the 
Principal Allied and Associated Powers, as the case may be, all mone- 
tary instruments, specie, securities and negotiable instruments or 
goods which she has received under the aforesaid Treaties. 

3. The sums of money and all securities, instruments and goods, of 
whatsoever nature, to be delivered, paid or transferred under the 

t provisions of this Article, shall be disposed of by the Principal Allied 
and Associated Powers in a manner hereafter to be determined by 
those Powers. 

4. Hungary recognises any transfer of gold provided for by 
Article 259 (5) of the Treaty of Peace concluded at Versailles on 
June 28, 1919, between the Allied and Associated Powers and Ger- 
many, and any transfer of claims provided for by Article 261 of that 
Treaty. 

Article 194. 

ft 

Without prejudice to the renunciation of any rights by Hungary 
on behalf of herself or of her nationals in the other provisions of the 
present Treaty, the Reparation Commission may, within one year 
from the coming into force of the present Treaty, demand that Hun- 
gary become possessed of any rights and interests of her nationals 



240 PEACE TREATIES. 

in any public utility undertaking or in any concession operating, in 
Russia. Turkey. Germany, Austria or Bulgaria, or in the possessions 
or dependencies of these States, or in any territory formerly belong- 
ing to Hungary or her allies to be transferred by Hungary or her 
allies to any State, or to be administered by a mandatory under any 
Treaty entered into with the Allied and Associated Powers, and 
may require that the Hungarian Government transfer, within six 
months of the date of demand, to the Reparation Commission all 
such rights and interests and any similar rights and interests owned 
by the former or existing Hungarian Government. 

Hungary shall be responsible for indemnifying her nationals so 
dispossessed, and the Reparation Commission shall credit Hungary 
on account of sums due for reparation with such sums in respect of 
the value of the transferred rights and interests as may be assessed 
by the Reparation Commission, and Hungary shall, within six 
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, communi- 
cate to the Reparation Commission all such rights and interests, 
whether already granted, contingent or not yet exercised, and shall 
renounce on behalf of herself and her nationals in favour of the 
Allied and Associated Powers all such rights and interests which 
have not been so communicated. 

Article 195. 

Hungary undertakes to refrain from preventing or impeding such 
acquisition by the German, Austrian, Bulgarian or Turkish Govern- 
ments of any rights and interests of German, Austrian, Bulgarian, 
and Turkish nationals in public utility undertakings or concessions 
operating in Hungary as may be required by the Reparation Com- 
mission under the terms of the Treaties of Peace or supplementary 
treaties or conventions concluded between the Allied and Associated 
Powers and the German, Austrian. Bulgarian and Turkish Gov- 
ernments respectively. 

Article 196. 

Hungary undertakes to transfer to the Allied and Associated 
Powers any claims to payment or reparation by Germany, Austria, 
Bulgaria or Turkey in favour of the former or existing Hungarian 
Governments, and in particular any claims which ma}^ arise now 
or hereafter in the fulfilment of undertakings made from July 28, 
1914, to the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

The value of such claims shall be assessed by the Reparation Com- 
mission, and shall be transferred to the Reparation Commission for 
the credit of Hungary on account of the sums due for reparation. 

Article 197. 

Any monetary obligation arising out of the present Treaty and ex- 
pressed in terms of gold kronen shall, unless some other arrangement 
is specifically provided for in any particular case under the terms 
of the present Treaty or of treaties or conventions supplementary 
thereto, be payable at the option of the creditors in pounds sterling 
payable in London, gold dollars of the United States of America 



PEACE TREATIES. 241 

payable in New York, gold francs payable in Paris, or gold lire 
payable in Rome. 

For the purposes of this Article, the gold coin? mentioned above 
shall be defined as being of the weight and fineness of gold as enacted 
by law on January 1, 1914. 

Article 198. 

Any financial adjustments, such as those relating to any banking 
and insurance companies, savings banks, postal savings banks, land 
banks, mortgage companies or other similar institutions, operating 
within the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, 
necessitated by the partition of that Monarchy and the resettlement 
of public debts and currency provided for by these Articles, shall 
be regulated by agreement between the various Governments con- 
cerned in such a manner as shall best secure equitable treatment to all 
the parties interested. In case the Governments concerned are un- 
able to come to an agreement on any question arising out of this 
financial adjustment, or in case any (government is of opinion that 
its nationals have not received equitable treatment, the Reparation 
Commission shall, on the application of any one of the Governments 
concerned, appoint an arbitrator or arbitrators, whose decision shall 
be final. 

Article 199. 

The Hungarian Government shall be under no liability in respect 
of civil or military pensions granted to nationals of the former 
Kingdom of Hungary who have been recognised as nationals of 
other States or who become so under the provisions of the present 
Treaty. 

PART X.— ECONOMIC CLAUSES. 

Section I. — Commercial Relations. 

CHAPTER I.— CUSTOMS REGULATIONS, DUTIES AND RESTRICTIONS. 

Article 200. 

Hungary undertakes that o;oods the produce or manufacture of any 
one of the Allied or Associated States imported into Hungarian ter- 
ritory, from whatsoever place arriving, shall not be subjected to 
other or higher duties or charges (including internal charges) than 
those to which the like goods the produce or manufacture of any 
other suoh State or of any other foreign country are subject. 

Hungary will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restriction 
on the importation into Hungarian territory of any goods the prod- 
uce or manufacture of the territories of any one of the Allied or 
Associated States, from whatsoever place arriving, which shall not 
equally extend to the importation of the like goods the produce or 
manufacture of any other such State or of any other foreign country. 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 1G 



242 peace treaties. 

Article 201. 

Hungary further undertakes that, in the matter of the regime 
applicable on importation, no discrimination against the commerce 
of any of the Allied and Associated States as compared with any 
other of the said States or any other foreign country shall be made, 
even by indirect means, such as customs regulations or procedure, 
methods of verification or analysis, conditions of payment of duties, 
tariff classification or interpretation, or the operation of monopolies. 

Article 202. 

In all that concerns exportation, Hungary undertakes that goods, 
natural products or manufactured articles, exported from Hungarian 
territory to the territories of any one of the Allied or Associated 
States, shall not be subjected to other or higher duties or charges 
(including internal charges) than those paid on the like goods ex- 
ported to any other such State or to any other foreign country. 

Hungary will not maintain or impose any prohibition or restric- 
tion on the exportation of any goods sent from her territory to any 
one of the Allied or Associated States which shall not equally extend 
to the exportation of the like goods, natural products or manufac- 
tured articles, sent to any other such State or to any other foreign 
country. 

Article 203. 

Every favour, immunity, or privilege in regard to the importation, 
exportation or transit of goods granted by Hungary to any Allied 
or Associated State or to any other foreign country whatever shall 
simultaneously and unconditionally, without request and without 
compensation, be extended to all the Allied and Associated States. 

Article 204. 

By way of exception to the provisions of Article 270, Part XII 
(Ports, Waterways and Railways), products in transit by the ports 
which before the war were situated in territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy shall, for a period of three years from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, enjoy on importation into 
Hungary reductions of duty corresponding with and in proportion 
to those applied to such products under the Austro-Hungarian Cus- 
toms Tariff of the year 1906, when imported by such ports. 

Article 205. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 200 to 203, the Allied 
and Associated Powers agree that they will not invoke these provi- 
sions to secure the advantage of any arrangements which may be 
made by the Hungarian Government with the Governments of Aus- 
tria or of the Czecho-Slovak State for the accord of a special customs 
regime to certain natural or manufactured products which both origi- 
nate in and come from those countries, and which shall be specified 
in the arrangements, provided that the duration of these arrange- 



PEACE TREATIES. 243 

ments does not exceed a period of five years from the coming into 
force of the present Treaty. 

Article 206. 

During the first six months after the coming into force of the pres- 
ent Treaty, the duties imposed by Hungary on imports from Allied 
and Associated States shall not be higher than the most favourable 
duties which were applied to imports into the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy on July 28, 1914. 

During a further period of thirty months after the expiration of 
the first six months this provision shall continue to be applied exclu- 
sively with regard to the importation of fruits (fresh and dried), 
fresh vegetables, olive oil. eggs, pigs and pork products, and live 
poultry, in so far as such products enjoyed at the above mentioned 
date (July 28, 1914) rates conventionalised by Treaties with the 
Allied or Associated Powers. 

Article 207. 

1. Special agreements shall be made between Poland and the 
Czecho-Slovak State and Hungary as to the supply of coal, including 
lignite, foodstuffs and raw materials reciprocally. 

2. Pending the conclusion of such agreements, but in no case 
during more than five years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, the Czecho-Slovak State and Poland undertake that no ex- 
port duty or other restrictions of any kind shall be imposed on the 
export to Hungary of coal or lignite up to a reasonable quantity to 
be fixed, failing agreement between the States concerned, by the Repa- 
ration Commission. In fixing this quantity the Reparation Com- 
mission shall take into account all the circumstances, including the 
quantities both of coal and of lignite which passed before the war 
between present Hungarian territory on the one hand and Silesia 
and the territory of the former Austrian Empire transferred to the 
Czecho-Slovak State and Poland in accordance with the Treaties of 
Peace on the other hand, as well as the quantities now available for 
export from those countries. Hungary shall in return furnish to the 
Czecho-Slovak State and Poland supplies of the lignite, foodstuffs 
and raw materials referred to in paragraph 1 in accordance with the 
decisions of the Reparation Commission. 

3. The Czecho-Slovak State and Poland further undertake during 
the same period to take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that 
coal, including lignite, shall be available for sale to purchasers in 
Hungary on terms as favourable as are applicable to like products 
sold under similar conditions to purchasers in the Czecho-Slovak 
State or Poland respectively or in any other country. 

4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 prohibiting export duties 
or restrictions and determining the conditions of sale shall also apply 
to the supply of lignite by Hungary to Poland and the Czecho-Slovak 
State. 

5. In case of disagreement in the execution or interpretation of 
any of the above provisions, the Reparation Commission shall decide. 

6. In order to permit mutual assistance between Poland, Rou- 
mania, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State. Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary and 
Austria, in regard to products hitherto exchanged between the terri- 



244 PEACE TREATIES. 

tories of these States, which are indispensable to their industry or 
trade, negotiations shall be undertaken, on the initiative of any of 
these States, within six months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty with a view to the conclusion with any other of the 
said States of separate conventions in conformity with the provisions 
of the present Treaty, and in particular of Articles 200 to 205. 

At the end of this period any State which has requested such a 
convention without succeeding in concluding it may apply to the 
Reparation Commission and request it to accelerate the conclusion of 
such convention. 

Article 208. 

1. Special agreements shall be made between Hungary and Austria 
as to the supply of foodstuffs, raw materials and manufactured 
articles reciprocally. 

2. Pending the conclusion of such agreements, but in no case during 
more than five years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, Hungary undertakes that no export duty or other restric- 
tions of any kind shall be imposed on the export to Austria of food- 
stuffs of every description produced in Hungarian territory, up to a 
reasonable quantity to be fixed, failing agreement between the States 
concerned, by the Reparation Commission. In fixing this quantity, 
the Reparation Commission shall take into account all the circum- 
stances, and in particular the production and requirements of the 
two countries concerned. Austria shall in return furnish to Hungary 
supplies of the raw materials and manufactured articles referred to 
in paragraph 1 in accordance with the decisions of the Reparation 
Commission. 

3. Hungary further undertakes during the same period to take 
such steps as'may be necessary to ensure that any such products shall 
be available for sale to purchasers in Austria on terms as favourable 
as are applicable to like products sold under similar conditions to 
purchasers in Hungary or in any other country. 

4. In case of disagreement in the execution or interpretation of any 
of the above provisions the Reparation Commission shall decide. 

CHAPTER II.— SHIPPING. 

Article 209. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to recognise the flag flown by 
the vessels of any Contracting Party having no sea-coast, which are 
registered at some one specified place situated in its territory; such 
place shall serve as the port of registry of such vessels. 

CHAPTER III.— UNFAIR < JOMPETITION. 

Article 210. 

1. Hungary undertakes to adopt all the necessary legislative and 
administrative measures to protect goods the product or manufac- 
ture of any one of the Allied and Associated Powers from all forms 
of unfair competition in commercial transactions. 



PEACE TREATIES. 245 

Hungary undertakes to prohibit and repress by seizure and by 
other appropriate remedies the importation, exportation, manufac- 
ture, distribution, sale or offering for sale in her territory of all 
goods bearing upon themselves or their usual get-up or wrappings 
any marks, names, devices, or descriptions whatsoever which are 
calculated to convey directly or indirectly a false indication of the 
origin, type, nature or special characteristics of such goods. 

2. Hungary undertakes, on conditions that reciprocity is accorded 
in these matters, to respect any law, or any administrative or judicial 
decision given in conformity with such law, in force in any Allied 
or Associated State and duly communicated to her by the proper 
authorities, defining or regulating the right to any regional appella- 
tion in respect of wine or spirits produced in the State to which the 
region belongs or the conditions under which the use of any such 
appellation may be permitted; and the importation, exportation, 
manufacture, distribution, sale or offering for sale of products or 
articles bearing regional appellations inconsistent with such law or 
order shall be prohibited by Hungary and repressed by the measures 
prescribed in paragraph 1 of this Article. 

CHAPTER IV.— TREATMENT OF NATIONALS OF ALLIED AND ASSO- 
CIATED POWERS. 

Article 211. 
Hungary undertakes: 

(a) not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers to any prohibition in regard to the exercise of occupations, 
professions, trade and industry, which shall not be equally applicable 
ro all aliens without exception; 

(b) not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers in regard to the rights referred to in paragraph (a) to any 
regulation or restriction which might contravene directly or in- 
directly the stipulations of the said paragraph, or which shall be 
other or more disadvantageous than those which are applicable to 
nationals of the most-favoured nation; 

(c) not to subject the nationals of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, their property, rights, or interests, including companies and 
associations in which they are interested, to any charge, tax or im- 
post, direct or indirect, other or higher than those which are or may 
be imposed on her own nationals or their property, rights or in- 
terests ; 

(d) not to subject the nationals of any one of the Allied and 
Associated Powers to any restriction which was not applicable on 
July 1, 1914, to the nationals of such Powers unless such restriction 
is likewise imposed on her own nationals. 

Article 212. 

The nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy in 
Hungarian territory a constant protection for their persons and for 
their property, rights and interests, and shall have free access to the 
courts of law. 



246 peace treaties. 

Article 213. 

Hungary undertakes to recognise any new nationality which has 
been or may be acquired by her nationals under the laws of the Allied 
and Associated Powers, and in accordance with the decisions of the 
competent authorities of these Powers pursuant to naturalisation 
laws or under treaty stipulations, and to regard such persons as hav- 
ing, in consequence of the acquisition of such new national^, in all 
respects severed their allegiance to their country of origin. 

Article 214. 

The Allied and Associated Powers may appoint consuls-general, 
consuls, vice-consuls and consular agents in Hungarian towns and 
ports. Hungary undertakes to approve the designation of the con- 
suls-general, consuls, vice-consuls and consular agents, whose names 
shall be notified to her, and to admit them to the exercise of their 
functions in conformity with the usual rules and customs. 

CHAPTER V.— GENERAL ARTICLES. 

Article 215. 

The obligations imposed on Hungary by Chapter I above shall 
cease to have effect five years from the date of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, unless otherwise provided in the text, 
or unless the Council of the League of Nations shall, at least twelve 
months before the expiration of that period, decide that these obliga- 
tions shall be maintained for a further period with or without 
amendment. 

Nevertheless it is agreed that, unless the League of Nations de- 
cides otherwise, an Allied or Associated Power shall not after the 
expiration of three years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty be entitled to require the fulfilment by Hungary of the pro- 
visions of Articles 200, 201, 202 or 203 unless that Power accords 
correlative treatment to Hungary. 

Article 211 shall remain in operation, with or without amendment, 
after the period of five years for such further period, if any, not 
exceeding five years, as may be determined by a majority of the 
Council of the League of Nations. 

Article 216. 

If the Hungarian Government engages in international trade, it 
shall not in respect thereof have or be deemed to have any rights, 
privileges or immunities of sovereignty. 

Section II. — Treaties. 

Article 217. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty and subject to 
the provisions thereof, the multilateral Treaties, Conventions and 
Agreements of an economic or technical character concluded by the 



PEACE TREATIES. 247 

former Austro-Hurigarian Monarchy and enumerated below and in 
the subsequent Articles shall alone be applied as between Hungary 
and those of the Allied and Associated Powers party thereto : 

(1) Conventions of March 14, 1884, December 1, 1886, and March 
23, 1887, and Final Protocol of July 7, 1887, regarding the protec- 
tion of submarine cables. 

(2) Convention of October 11, 1909, regarding the international 
circulation of motor-cars. 

(3) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the sealing of railway 
trucks subject to customs inspection, and Protocol of May 18, 1907. 

(4) Agreement of May 15, 1886, regarding the technical standard- 
isation of railways. 

(5) Convention of July 5, 1890, regarding the publication of cus- 
toms tariifs and the organisation of an International Union for the 
publication of customs tariffs. 

(6) Convention of April 25, 1907, regarding the raising of the 
Turkish customs tariff. 

(7) Convention of March 14, 1857, for the redemption of toll dues 
on the Sound and Belts. 

(8) Convention of June 22, 1861, for the redemption of the Stade 
Toll on the Elbe. 

(9) Convention of July 16, 1863, for the redemption of the toll 
dues on the Scheldt. 

(10) Convention of October 29, 1888, regarding the establishment 
of a definite arrangement guaranteeing the free use of the Suez 
Canal. 

(11) Conventions of September 23, 1910, respecting the unification 
of certain regulations regarding collisions and salvage at sea. 

(12) Convention of December 21, 1904, regarding the exemption 
of hospital ships from dues and charges in ports. 

(13) Convention of September 26, 1906, for the suppression of 
nightwork for women. 

(14) Conventions of May 18, 1904, and May 4, 1910, regarding the 
suppression of the White Slave Traffic. 

(15) Convention of May 4, 1910, regarding the suppression of 
obscene publications. 

(16) Sanitary Convention of December 3, 1903, and the preceding 
Conventions signed on January 30, 1892, April 15, 1893, April 3. 
1894, and March 19, 1897. 

(17) Convention of May 20, 1875, regarding the unification and 
improvement of the metric system. 

(18) Convention of November 29, 1906, regarding the unification 
of pharmacopceial formulae for potent drugs. 

(19) Convention of November 16 and 19, 1885, regarding the 
establishment of a concert pitch. 

(20) Convention of June 7, 1905, regarding the creation of an 
International Agricultural Institute at Eome. 

(21) Conventions of November 3, 1881, and April 15, 1889, re- 
garding precautionary measures against phylloxera. 

(22) Convention of March 19, 1902, regarding the protection of 
birds useful to agriculture. 

(23) Convention of June 12, 1902, regarding the guardianship of 
minors. 



248 peace treaties. 

Article 218. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply the conventions and agreements herein- 
after mentioned, in so far as concerns them, Hungary undertaking to 
comply with the special stipulations contained in this Article. 

Postal Conventions. 

Conventions and agreements of the Universal Postal Union con- 
cluded at Vienna, July 4, 1891. 

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Wash- 
ington, June 15, 1897. 

Conventions and agreements of the Postal Union signed at Rome, 
May 26, 1906. 

Telegraphic Conventions. 

International Telegraphic Conventions signed at St. Petersburg, 
July 10/22, 1875. 

Regulations and Tariffs drawn up by the International Tele- 
graphic Conference, Lisbon, June 11, 1908. 

Hungary undertakes not to refuse her assent to the conclusion by 
the new States of the special arrangements referred to in the Con- 
ventions and Agreements relating to the Universal Postal Union and 
to the International Telegraphic Union, to which the said new States 
have adhered or may adhere. 

Article 219. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the Interna- 
tional Radio-Telegraphic Conventions of July 5, 1912, Hungary un- 
dertaking to comply with the provisional regulations which will be 
indicated to her by the Allied and Associated Powers. 

If within five years after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty a new convention regulating international radio-telegraphic 
communications should have been concluded to take the place of the 
Convention of July 5, 1912, this new convention shall bind Hungary, 
even if Hungary should refuse either to take part in drawing up the 
convention, or subscribe thereto. 

This new convention will likewise replace the provisional regula- 
tions in force. 

Article 220. 

The International Convention of Paris of March 20, 1883, for the 
protection of industrial property, revised at Washington on June 2, 
1911, and the Agreement of April 14, 1891. concerning the interna- 
tional registration of trade marks shall be applied as from the com- 
ing into force of the present Treaty, in so far as they are not affected 
or modified by the exceptions and restrictions resulting therefrom. 

Article 221. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall apply, in so far as concerns them, the Con- 
vention of the Hauge of July 17, 1905, relating to civil procedure. 



PEACE TREATIES. 249 

This provision, however, will not apply to France, Portugal and 
Roumania. 

Article 222. 

Hungary undertakes, within twelve months of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, to adhere in the prescribed form to the 
International Convention of Berne of September 9, 1886, for the 
protection of literary and artistic works, revised at Berlin on Novem- 
ber 13, 1908, and completed by the Additional Protocol signed at 
Berne on March 20, 1914, relating to the protection of literary and 
artistic works. 

Until her adherence, Hungary undertakes to recognise and pro- 
tect by effective measures and in accordance with the principles of 
the said Convention the literary and artistic works of nationals of the 
Allied and Associated Powers. 

In addition, and irrespective of the above-mentioned adherence, 
Hungary undertakes to continue to assure such recognition and such 
protection to all literary and artistic works of the nationals of each 
of the Allied and Associated Powers to an extent at least as great 
as upon July 28, 1914, and upon the same conditions. 

Article 223. 

Hungary undertakes to adhere to the following Conventions : 

(1) Convention of September 26. 1906, for the suppression of the 
use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches. 

(2) Convention of December 31, 1913, regarding the unification of 
commercial statistics. 

Article 224. 

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers, being guided by the gen- 
eral principles or special provisions of the present Treaty, shall 
notify to Hungary the bilateral agreements of all kinds which were 
in force between her and the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, 
and which she wishes should be in force as between her and Hun- 
gary. 

The notification referred to in the present Article shall be made 
either directly or through the intermediary of another Power. Ee- 
ceipt thereof shall be acknowledged in writing by Hungary. The 
date of the coming into force shall be that of the notification. 

The Allied and Associated Powers undertake among themselves 
not to apply as between themselves and Hungary any agreements 
which are not in accordance with the terms of the present Treaty. 

The notification shall mention any provisions of the said agree- 
ments which, not being in accordance with the terms of the present 
Treaty, shall not be considered as coming into force. 

In case of any difference of opinion, the League of Nations will be 
called on to decide. 

A period of six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty is allowed to the Allied and Associated Powers within which 
to make the notification. 

Only those bilateral agreements which have been the subject of 
such a notification shall be put in force between the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers and Hungary. 



250 PEACE TREATIES. 

The above rules apply to all bilateral agreements existing between 
any Allied and Associated Powers signatories to the present Treaty 
and Hungary, even if the said Allied and Associated Powers have 
not been in a state of war with Hungary. 

Article 225. 

Hungary hereby recognises that all treaties, conventions or agree- 
ments concluded by her, or by the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy, with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Turkey since August 1, 
1914, until the coming into force of the present Treaty, are of no 
effect. 

Article 226. 

Hungary undertakes to secure to the Allied and Associated 
Powers, and to the officials and nationals of the said Powers, the 
enjoyment of all the rights and advantages of any kind which she, 
or the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, may have granted to 
Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Turkey, or to the officials and na- 
tionals of these States by treaties, conventions or arrangements con- 
cluded before August 1, 1914, so long as those treaties, conventions 
or arrangements are in force. 

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to accept or 
not the enjovment of these rights and advantages. 

Article 227. 

Hungary recognises that all treaties, conventions or arrangements 
which she, or the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, concluded 
with Russia, or with any State or Government of which the ter- 
ritory previously formed a part of Russia, or with Roumania, before 
July 1 28, 1914, or after that date until the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, are of no effect. 

Article 228. 

Should an Allied orAssociated Power, Russia, or a State or Gov- 
ernment of which the territory formerly constituted a part of Russia, 
have been forced since July 28, 1914, by reason of military occupa- 
tion or by any other means or for any other cause, to grant or to 
allow to be granted by the act of any public authority, concessions, 
privileges and favours of any kind to the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy, or to Hungary or to an Hungarian national, such con- 
cessions, privileges and favours are ipso facto annulled by the 
present Treaty. 

No claims or indemnities which may result from this annulment 
shall be charged against the Allied or Associated Powers or the 
Powers, States, Governments or public authorities which are released 
from their engagements by the present Article. 

Article 229. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty Hungary under- 
takes, so far as she is concerned, to give the Allied and Associated 
Powers and their nationals the benefit ipso facto of the rights and 



PEACE TREATIES. 251 

advantages of any kind which she or the former Austro -Hungarian 
Monarchy has granted by treaties, conventions or arrangements to 
non-belligerent States or their nationals since July 28, 1914, until 
the coming into force of the present Treaty, so long as those treaties, 
conventions or arrangements are in force for Hungary. 

Article 230. 

Those of the High Contracting Parties who have not yet signed, 
or who have signed but not yet ratified, the Opium Convention 
signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912, agree to bring the said 
Convention into force, and for this purpose to enact the necessary 
legislation without delay and in any case within a period of twelve 
months from the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Furthermore, they agree that ratification of the present Treaty 
should in the case of Powers which have not yet ratified the Opium 
Convention be deemed in all respects equivalent to the ratification 
of that Convention and to the signature of the Special Protocol 
which was opened at The Hague in accordance with the resolu- 
tions adopted by the Third Opium Conference in 1914 for bringing 
the said Convention into force. 

For this purpose the Government of the French Republic will 
communicate to the Government of the Netherlands a certified copy 
of the protocol of the deposit of ratifications of the present Treaty, 
and will invite the Government of the Netherlands to accept and 
deposit the said certified copy as if it were a deposit of ratifications 
of the Opium Convention and a signature of the Additional Pro- 
tocol of 1914. 

Section III. — Debts. 

Article 231. 

There shall be settled through the intervention of Clearing Offices 
to be established by each of the High Contracting Parties within 
three months of the notification referred to in paragraph (e) here- 
after the following classes of pecuniary obligations : 

(1) Debts payable before the war and due by a national of one 
of the Contracting Powers, residing within its territory, to a national 
of an Opposing Power, residing within its territory ; 

(2) Debts which became payable during the war to nationals of 
one Contracting Power residing within its territory and arose out of 
transactions or contracts with the nationals of an Opposing Power, 
resident within its territory, of which the total or partial execution 
was suspended on account of the existence of a state of war; 

(3) Interest which has accrued due before and during the war to 
a national of one of the Contracting Powers in respect of securities 
issued or taken over by an Opposing Power, provided that the pay- 
ment of interest on such securities to the nationals of that Power or 
to neutrals has not been suspended during the war; 

(4) Capital sums which have become payable before and during 
the war to nationals of one of the Contracting Powers in respect of 
securities issued by one of the Opposing Powers, provided that the 
payment of such capital sums to nationals of that Power or to 
neutrals has not been suspended during the war. 



252 PEACE TREATIES. 

In the case of interest or capital sums payable in respect of 
securities issued or taken over by the former Austro-Hungarian Gov- 
ernment the amount to be credited and paid by Hungary will be the 
interest or capital in respect only of the debt for which Hungary 
is liable in accordance with Part IX (Financial Clauses) of the 
present Treaty, and the principles laid down by the Reparation 
Commission. 

The proceeds of liquidation of enemy property, rights and interests 
mentioned in Section IV and in the Annex thereto will be accounted 
for through the Clearing Offices, in the currency and at the rate of 
exchange hereinafter provided in paragraph (d), and disposed of 
by them under the conditions provided by the said Section and 
Annex. 

The settlements provided for in this Article shall be effected ac- 
cording to the following principles and in accordance with the 
Annex to this Section : 

(a) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall prohibit, as from 
the coming into force of the present Treaty, both the payment and 
the acceptance of payment of such debts, and also all communica- 
tions between the interested parties with regard to the settlement of 
the said debts otherwise than through the Clearing Offices; 

(h) Each of the High Contracting Parties shall be respectively 
responsible for the payment of such debts due by its nationals, except 
in the cases where before the war the debtor was in a state of bank- 
ruptcy or failure, or had given formal indication of insolvency, or 
where the debt was due by a company whose business has been 
liquidated under emergency legislation dining the war: 

(c) The sums due to the nationals of one of the High Contract- 
ing Parties by the nationals of an Opposing State will be debited to 
the Clearing Office of the country of the debtor, and paid to the 
creditor by the Clearing Office of the country of the creditor : 

(d) Debts shall be paid or credited in the currency of such one of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, their colonies or protectorates, or 
the British Dominions or India, as may be concerned. If the debts 
are payable in some other currency they shall be paid or credited in 
the currency of the country concerned, whether an Allied or Asso- 
ciated Power, Colony, Protectorate, P>ritish Dominion or India, at 
the pre-war rate of exchange. 

For the purpose of this provision the pre-war rate of exchange 
shall be defined as the average cable transfer rate prevailing in the 
Allied or Associated country concerned during the month immedi- 
ately preceding the outbreak of war between the said country con- 
cerned and Austria-FIungarjr. 

If a contract provides for a fixed rate of exchange governing the 
conversion of the currency in which the debt is stated into the cur- 
rency of the Allied or Associated country concerned, then the above 
provisions concerning the rate of exchange shall not apply. 

In the case of the new States of Poland and the Czecho-Slovak 
State, the currency in which and the rate of exchange at which debts 
shall be paid or credited shall be determined by the Reparation 
Commission provided for in Part VIII, unless they shall have been 
previously settled by agreement between the States interested : 

(e) The provisions of this Article and of the Annex hereto shall 
not apply as between Hungary on the one hand and any one of the- 



PEACE TREATIES. 253 

Allied and Associated Powers, their colonies or protectorates, or any 
one of the British Dominions or India on the other hand, unless 
within a period of one month from the deposit of the ratification 
of the present Treaty by the Power in question, or of the ratifica- 
tion on behalf of such Dominion or of India, notice to that effect is 
given to Hungaiy by the Government of such Allied or Associated 
Power or of such Dominion or of India as the case may be ; 

(/) The Allied and Associated Powers which have adopted this 
Article and the Annex hereto may agree between themselves to 
apply them to their respective nationals established in their ter- 
ritory so far as regards matters between their nationals and Hun- 
garian nationals. In this case the payments made by application of 
this provision will be subject to arrangements between the Allied 
and Associated Clearing Offices concerned. 

Annex. 



Each of the High Contracting Parties will, within three months 
from the notification provided for in Article 231, paragraph (e), 
establish a Clearing Office for the collection and payment of enemy 
debts. 

Local Clearing Offices may be established for any particular por- 
tion of the territories of the High Contracting Parties. Such local 
Clearing Offices may perform all the functions of a central Clearing 
Office in their respective districts, except that all transactions with 
the Clearing Office in the Opposing State must be effected through 
the central Clearing Office. 

2. 

In this Annex the pecuniary obligations referred to in the first 
paragraph of Article 231 are described as "enemy debts," the per- 
sons from whom the same are due as " enemy debtors," the persons 
to whom they are due as " enemy creditors," the Clearing Office in 
the country of the creditor is called the " Creditor Clearing Office," 
and the Clearing Office in the country of the debtor is called the 
" Debtor Clearing Office." 



The High Contracting Parties will subject contraventions of par- 
agraph (a) of Article 231 to the same penalties as are at present pro- 
vided by their legislation for trading with the enemy. Those who 
have not prohibited trading with the enemy will enact provisions 
punishing the above-mentioned contraventions with severe pen- 
alties. The High Contracting Parties will similarly prohibit within 
their territory all legal process relating to payment of enemy debts, 
except in accordance with the provisions of this Annex. 



The Government guarantee specified in paragraph (b) of Article 
231 shall take effect whenever, for any reason, a debt shall not be 
recoverable, except in a case where at the date of the outbreak of 



254 PEACE TREATIES. 

war the debt was barred by the laws of prescription in force in the 
country of the debtor, or where the debtor was at that time in a state 
of bankruptcy or failure or had given formal indication of insol- 
vency, or where the debt was due by a company whose business has 
been liquidated under emergency legislation during the war. In 
such case the procedure specified by this Annex shall apply to pay- 
ment of the dividends. 

The terms " bankruptcy " and " failure " refer to the application 
of legislation providing for such juridical conditions. The expres- 
sion " formal indication of insolvency " bears the same meaning as 
it has in English law. 



Creditors shall give notice to the Creditor Clearing Office within 
six months of its establishment of debts due to them, and shall fur- 
nish the Clearing Office with any documents and information re- 
quired of them. 

The High Contracting Parties will take all suitable measures to 
trace and punish collusion between enemy creditors and debtors. 
The Clearing Offices will communicate to one another any evidence 
and information which might help the discovery and punishment of 
such collusion. 

The High Contracting Parties will facilitate as much as possible 
postal and telegraphic communication at the expense of the parties 
concerned and through the intervention of the Clearing Offices be- 
tween debtors and creditors desirous of coming to an agreement as to 
the amount of their debt. 

The Creditor Clearing Office will notify the Debtor Clearing 
Office of all debts declared to it. The Debtor Clearing Office will, 
in due course, inform the Creditor Clearing Office which debts are 
admitted and which debts are contested. In the latter case, the 
Debtor Clearing Office will give the grounds for the non-admission 
of debt. 



When a debt has been admitted, in whole or in part, the Debtor 
Clearing Office will at once credit the Creditor Clearing Office with 
the amount admitted, and at the same time notify it of such credit. 

7. 

The debt shall be deemed to be admitted, in full and shall be 
credited forthwith to the Creditor Clearing Office unless within three 
months from the receipt of the notification or such longer time as 
may be agreed to by the Creditor Clearing Office notice has been 
given by the Debtor 'Clearing Office that it is not admitted. 



When the whole or part of a debt is not admitted the two Clearing 
Offices will examine into the matter jointly and will endeavour to 
bring the parties to an agreement. 



PEACE TREATIES. 255 

9. 

The Creditor Clearing Office will pay to the individual creditor 
the sums credited to it out of the funds placed at its disposal by the 
Government of its country and in accordance with the conditions 
fixed by the said Government, retaining any sum considered neces- 
sary to cover risks, expenses or commissions. 

10. 

Any person having claimed payment of an enemy debt which is 
not admitted in whole or in part shall pay to the Clearing Office, by 
way of fine, interest at 5 per cent, on the part not admitted. Any 
person having unduly refused to admit the whole or part of a debt 
claimed from him shall pay, by way of fine, interest at 5 per cent, 
on the amount with regard to which his refusal shall be disallowed. 

Such interest shall run from the date of expiration of the period 
provided for in paragraph 7 until the date on which the claim shall 
have been disallowed or the debt paid. 

Each Clearing Office shall in so far as it is concerned take steps to 
collect the fines above provided for, and will be responsible if such 
fines cannot be collected. 

The fines will be credited to the other Clearing Office, which shall 
retain them as a contribution towards the cost of carrying out the 
present provisions. 

.11. 

The balance between the Clearing Offices shall be struck every 
three months and the credit balance paid in cash by the debtor State 
within one month. 

Nevertheless, any credit balances which may be due by one or more 
of the Allied and Associated Powers shall be retained until com- 
plete payment shall have been effected of the sums due to the Allied 
or Associated Powers or their nationals on account of the war. 

12. 

To facilitate discussion between the Clearing Offices each of them 
shall have a representative at the place where the other is established. 

13. 

Except for special reasons all discussions in regard to claims will, 
so far as possible, take place at the Debtor Clearing Office. 

14. 

In conformity with Article 231, paragraph (&), the High Con- 
tracting Parties are responsible for the payment of the enemy debts 
owing by their nationals. 

The Debtor Clearing Office will therefore credit the Creditor 
Clearing Office with all debts admitted, even in case of inability to 
collect them from the individual debtor. The Governments con- 



256 PEACE TREATIES. 

cernecl will, nevertheless, invest their respective Clearing Offices 
with all necessary powers for the recovery of debts which have been 
admitted. 

15. 

Each Government will defray the expenses of the Clearing Office 
set up in its territory, including the salaries of the staff. 

16. 

Where the two Clearing Offices are unable to agree whether a debt 
claimed is due, or in case of a difference between an enemy debtor and 
an enemy creditor or between the Clearing Offices, the dispute shall 
either be referred to arbitration if the parties so agree under condi- 
tions fixed by agreement between them, or referred to the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI hereafter. 

At the request of the Creditor Clearing Office the dispute may, 
however, be submitted to the jurisdiction of the Courts of the place 
of domicile of the debtor. 

IT. 

Recovery of sums found by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, the 
Court, or the Arbitration Tribunal to be due shall be effected through 
the Clearing Offices as if these sums were debts admitted by the 
Debtor Clearing Office. 

18. 

Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint an agent who 
will be responsible for the presentation to the Mixed Arbitral Tri- 
bunal of the cases conducted on behalf of its Clearing Office. This 
agent will exercise a general control over the representatives or 
counsel emplo.yed by its nationals. 

Decisions will be arrived at on documentary evidence, but it will 
be open to the Tribunal to hear the parties in person, or according 
to their preference by their representatives approved by the two 
Governments, or by the agent referred to above, who shall be compe- 
tent to intervene along with the ' party or to re-open and main- 
tain a claim abandoned by the same. 

19. 

The Clearing Offices concerned will lay before the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal all the information and documents in their possession, so 
as to enable the Tribunal to decide rapidly on the cases which are 
brought before it. 

20. 

Where one of the parties concerned appeals against the joint deci- 
sion of the two Clearing Offices he shall make a deposit against the 
costs, which deposit shall only be refunded when the first judgment 
is modified in favour of the appellant and in proportion to the sue- 



PEACE TREATIES. 257 

cess he may attain, his opponent in case of such a refund being re- 
quired to pay an equivalent proportion of the costs and expenses. 
Security accepted by the Tribunal may be substituted for a deposit. 

A fee of 5 per cent, of the amount in dispute shall be charged in 
respect of all cases brought before the Tribunal. This fee shall, 
unless the Tribunal directs otherwise, be borne by the unsuccessful 
party. Such fee shall be added to the deposit referred to. It is also 
independent of the security. 

The Tribunal may award to one of the parties a sum in respect of 
the expenses of the proceedings. 

Any sum payable under this paragraph shall be credited to the 
Clearing Office of the successful party as a separate item. 

21. 

With a view to the rapid settlement of claims, due regard shall be 
paid in the appointment of all persons connected with the Clearing 
Offices or with the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal to their knowledge of 
the language of the other country concerned. 

Each of the Clearing Offices will be at liberty to correspond with 
the other and to forward documents in its own language. 

22. 

Subject to any special agreement to the contrary between the 
Governments concerned, debts shall carry interest in accordance with 
the following provisions : 

Interest shall not be payable on sums of money due by way of divi- 
dend, interest, or other periodical payments which themselves repre- 
sent interest on capital. 

The rate of interest shall be 5 per cent, per annum, except in cases 
where, by contract, law or custom, the creditor is entitled to payment 
of interest at a different rate. In such cases the rate to which he is 
entitled shall prevail. 

Interest shall run from the date of commencement of hostilities 
(or, if the sum of money to be recovered fell due during the war, 
from the date at which it fell due) until the sum is credited to the 
Clearing Office of the creditor. 

■Sums due by way of interest shall be treated as debts admitted by 
the Clearing Offices and shall be credited to the Creditor Clearing 
Office in the same way as such debts. 

23. 

Where by decision of the Clearing Offices or the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal a claim is held not to fall within Article 231, the creditor 
shall be at liberty to prosecute the claim before the Courts or to take 
such other proceedings as may be open to him. 

The presentation of a claim to the Clearing Office suspends the 
operation of any period of prescription. 

24. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of the 
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to render them 
binding upon their nationals. 
47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 -17 



258 PEACE TREATIES. 

25. 

In any case where a Creditor Clearing Office declines to notify a 
claim to the Debtor Clearing Office, or to take any step provided for 
in this Annex intended to make effective in whole or in part a 
request of which it has received due notice, the enemy creditor shall 
be entitled to receive from the Clearing Office a certificate setting 
out the amount of the claim, and shall then be entitled to prosecute 
the claim before the Courts or to take such other proceedings as may 
be open to him. 

Section IV. — Property, Rights and Interests. 

Article 232. 

I. The question of private property, rights and interests in an 
enemy country shall be settled according to the principles laid down 
in this Section and to the provisions of the Annex hereto. 

(a) The exceptional war measures and measures of transfer (de- 
fined in paragraph 3 of the Annex hereto) taken in the territory of 
the former Kingdom of Hungary with respect to the property, 
rights and interests of nationals of Allied or Associated Powers, 
including companies and associations in which they are interested, 
when liquidation has not been completed, shall be immediately dis- 
continued or stayed and the property, rights and interests concerned 
restored to their owners. 

(b) Subject to any contrary stipulations which may be provided 
for in the present Treaty, the Allied and Associated Powers reserve 
the right to retain and liquidate all property, rights and interests 
which belong at the date of the coining into force of the present 
Treaty to nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, or com- 
panies controlled by them, and are within the territories, colonies, 
possessions and protectorates of such Powers (including territories 
ceded to them by the present Treaty ) or which are under the control 
of those powers. 

The liquidation shall be carried out in accordance with the laws of 
the Allied or Associated State concerned, and the owner shall not 
be able to dispose of such property, rights or interests nor to subject 
them to any charge without the consent of that State. 

Persons who within six months of the coming into force of the 
present Treaty show that they have acquired ipso facto in accord- 
ance with its provisions the nationality of an Allied or Associated 
Power, including those who under Article 62 obtain such nationality 
with the consent of the competent authorities or in virtue of pre- 
vious rights of citizenship {pertinenza) , will not be considered as 
nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary within the meaning of 
this paragraph. 

(c) The price or the amount of compensation in respect of the 
exercise of the right referred to in paragraph (h) will be fixed in 
accordance with the methods of sale or valuation adopted by the 
laws of the country in which the property has been retained or 
liquidated. 

(d) As between the Allied and Associated Powers and their na- 
tionals on the one hand and nationals of the former Kingdom of 



PEACE TREATIES. 2. r 9 

Hungary on the other hand, as also between Hungary on the one 
hand and the Allied and Assoeiated Powers and their nationals on 
the other hand, all the exceptional war measures, or measures of 
transfer, or acts done or to be done in execution of such measures as 
defined in paragraphs 1 and 3 of the Annex hereto shall be consid- 
ered as final and binding upon all persons except as regards the reser- 
vations laid down in the present Treaty. 

(e) The nationals of Allied and Associated Powers shall be en- 
titled to compensation in respect of damage or injury inflicted upon 
their property, rights or interests, including any company or asso- 
ciation in which they are interested, in the territory of the former 
Kingdom of Hungary, by the application either of the exceptional 
Avar measures or measures of transfer mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 
3 of the Annex hereto. The claims made in this respect by such 
nationals shall be investigated, and the total of the compensation 
shall be determined by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in 
Section YI or by an arbitrator appointed by that Tribunal. This 
compensation shall be borne by Hungary, and may be charged upon 
the property of nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary, or 
companies controlled by them, as defined in paragraph (b) . within 
the territory or under the control of the claimant's State. This prop- 
erty may be constituted as a pledge for enemy liabilities under the 
conditions fixed by paragraph 4 of the Annex hereto. The payment 
of this compensation may be made by the Allied or Associated State, 
and the amount will be debited to Hungary. 

(/) Whenever a national of an Allied or Associated Power is en- 
titled to property which has been subjected to a measure of transfer 
in the ter: itory of the former Kingdom of Hungary and expresses 
a desire for its restitution, his claim for compensation in accordance 
with paragraph (e) shall be satisfied by the restitution of the said 
property if it still exists in specie. 

In such case Hungary shall take all necessary steps to restore, the 
evicted owner to the possession of his property, free from all encum- 
brances or burdens with which it may have been charged after the 
liquidation, and to indemnify all third parties injured by the resti- 
tution. 

If the restitution provided for in this paragraph cannot be effected, 
private agreements arranged by the intermediation of the Powers 
concerned or the Clearing Offices provided for in the Annex to Sec- 
tion III may be made, in order to secure that the national of the 
Allied or Associated Power may secure compensation for the injury 
referred to in paragraph (e) by the grant of advantages or equiva- 
lents which he agrees to accept in place of the property, rights or 
interests of which he was deprived. 

Through restitution in accordance with this Article, the price or 
the amount of compensation fixed by the application of paragraph 
(e) will be reduced by the actual* value of the property restored, 
account being taken of compensation in respect of loss of use or 
deterioration. 

(c/) The rights conferred by paragraph (/) are reserved to owners 
who are nationals of AJlied or Associated Powers within whose terri- 
tory legislative measures prescribing the general liquidation of 
enemy pronerty. rights or interests were not anplied before the si<r- 
nature >f t 1 e Armistice. 



260 PEACE TREATIES. 

(h) Except in cases where, by application of paragraph (/), resti- 
tutions in specie have been made, the net proceeds of sales of enemy 
property, rights or interests wherever situated carried out either by 
virtue of war legislation, or by application of this Article, and in 
general all cash assets of enemies, other than proceeds of sales of 
propei ty or cash assets in Allied or Associated countries belonging 
to persons covered by the last sentence of paragraph (b) above, shall 
be dealt with as follows : — 

(1) As regards Powers adopting Section III and the Annex 
thereto, the said proceeds and cash assets shall be credited to the 
Tower of which the owner is a national, through the Clearing Office 
established thereunder; any credit balance in favour of Hungary 
resulting therefrom shall be dealt with as provided in Article 173, 
Part VIII (Reparation), of the present Treaty. 

(2) As regards Powers not adopting Section III and the Annex 
thereto, the proceeds of the property, rights and interests, and the 
cash assets, of the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers held by 
Hungary shall be paid immediately to the person entitled thereto 
or to his Government ; the proceeds of the property, rights and inter- 
ests, and the cash assets, of nationals of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary, or companies controlled by them, as defined in paragraph 
(&), received by an Allied or Associated Power shall be subject to dis- 
posal by such Power in accordance with its laws and regulations and 
may be applied in payment of the claims and debts defined by this 
Article or paragraph 4 of the Annex hereto. Any such property, 
rights and interests or proceeds thereof or cash assets not used as 
above provided may be retained by the said Allied or Associated 
Power, and if retained, the cash value thereof shall be dealt with as 
provided in Article 173, Part VIII (Reparation), of the present 
Treaty. 

(I) Subject to the provisions of Article "250, in the case of liquida- 
tions effected in new States, which are signatories of the present 
Treaty as Allied and Associated Powers, or in States which are not 
entitled to share in the reparation payments to be made by Hungary, 
the proceeds of liquidations effected by such States shall, subject to 
the rights of the Reparation Commission under the present Treaty, 
particularly under Articles 165, Part VIII (Reparation), and 194, 
Part IX (Financial Clauses), be paid direct to the owner. If, on 
the application of that owner, the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal pro- 
vided for by Section VI of this Part, or an arbitrator appointed by 
that Tribunal, is satisfied that the conditions of the sale or measures 
taken by the Government of the State in question outside its general 
legislation were unfairly prejudicial to the price obtained, they shall 
have discretion to award to the owner equitable compensation to be 
paid by that State. 

(j) Hungary undertakes to compensate her nationals in respect 
of the sale or retention of their property, rights or interests in Allied 
or Associated States. 

(&) The amount of all taxes or imposts on capital levied or to be 
levied by Hungary on the property, rights and interests of the na- 
tionals of the Allied or Associated Powers from November 3. 1918, 
until three months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, 
or. in the case of property, rights or interests which have been sub- 



PEACE TREATIES. 261 

jected to exceptional measures of war, until restitution in accordance 
with the present Treaty, shall be restored to the owners. 

II. Subject to the preceding provisions, all measures other than 
those above referred to taken by the de jure or de facto authorities 
in the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary between Novem- 
ber 3, 1918, and the coming into force of the present Treaty, and 
causing injury to the property, rights and interests of the Allied 
and Associated Powers or their nationals, including companies and 
associations in which they were interested, are declared null and void. 

The provisions of paragraphs (a), (e), (/), (//) and (k) above 
apply to property, rights and interests which belong to nationals of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, including companies and associa- 
tions in which they were interested, and which have been the subject 
of injurious measures such as expropriation, confiscation, seizure, 
requisition, destruction or deterioration effected as the result either 
of laws or regulations or of acts of violence on the part of the de jure 
or de facto authorities which have existed in Hungary, or of the 
Hungarian population. 

III. Companies and associations include in particular the Ortho- 
dox Greek communities established in Buda-Pesth and other Hun- 
garian towns, as well as pious and other foundations, when nationals 
of the Allied and Associated Powers are interested in such com- 
munities or foundations. 

IV. No forfeiture on account of failure to complete any formality 
or make any declaration imposed by Hungaiian laws or decrees pro- 
mulgated since the Armistice and before the coming into force of 
the present Treaty shall be valid as against nationals of the Allied 
and Associated Powers, including companies and associations in 
which they were interested. 

Article 233. 

Hungary undertakes, with regard to the property, rights -and inter- 
est : , including companies and associations in which they were inte:- 
ested, resorted to nationals of Allied and Associated Powers in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of Article 232 : 

(a) to restore and maintain, except as expressly provided in the 
present Treaty, the property, rights and interests of the nationals 
of Allied or Associated Powers in the legal position obtaining in 
respect of the property, rights and interests of nationals of the for- 
mer Kingdom of Hungary under the laws in force before the war ; 

(b) not to subject the property, lights or interests of the nationals 
of the Allied or Associated Powers to any measures in derogation of 
property rights which are not applied equally to the property, rights 
and interests of Hungarian nationals, and to pay adequate compen- 
sation in the event of the application of these measures. 

Annex. 



In accordance with the provisions of Article 232. paragraph (d), 
the validity of vesting orders and of orders for the winding up of 
business or companies, and of any other orders, directions, decisions 



262 PEACE TREATIES. 

or instructions of any coiut or any department of the Government 
or any of the High Contracting Parties made or given, or purport- 
ing to be made or given, in pursuance of war legislation with regard 
to enemy property, rights and interests is confirmed. The interests 
of all -persons shall be regarded as having been effectively dealt with 
by any order, direction, decision or instruction dealing with property 
in which they may be interested, whether or not such interests are 
specifically mentioned in the order, direction, decision or instruction. 
No question shall be raised as to the regularity of a transfer of any 
property, rights or interests dealt with in pursuance of any such 
order, direction, decision or instruction. Every action taken with 
regard to any property, business or company, whether as regards its 
investigation, sequestration, compulsory administration, use, requisi- 
tion, supervision or winding up, the sale or management of property, 
rights or interests, the collection or discharge of debts, the payment 
of costs, charges or expenses, or any other matter whatsoever, in pur- 
suance of orders, directions, decision- or instructions of any court 
or of any department of the Government of any of the High Con- 
tracting Parties, made or given, or purporting to be made or given, 
in pursuance of war legislation with regard to enemy property, rights 
or interests, is confirmed. Provided that the provisions of this para- 
graph shall not be held to prejudice the titles to property heretofore 
acquired in good faith and for value and in accordance with the laws 
of the country in which the property is situated by nationals of the 
Allied and Associated Powers. 

The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to such of the above- 
mentioned measures as have been taken by the former Austro-Him- 
garian Government in invaded or occupied territory, nor to such of 
the above-mentioned measures as have been taken by Hungary or 
the Hungarian authorities since November 3, 1918, all of which 
measures shall be void. 



No claim or action shall be made or brought against any Allied 
or Associated Power or against any person acting on behalf of or 
under the direction of any legal authority or department of the 
Government of such a Power by Hungary or by any Hungarian 
national or by or on behalf of any national of the former Kingdom 
of Hungary wherever resident in respect of any act or omission with 
regard to his property, rights or interests during the war or in 
preparation for the war. Similarly no claim or action shall be made 
or brought against any person in respect of any act or omission 
under or in accordance with the exceptional war measures, laws or 
regulations of any Allied or Associated Power. 

3. 

In Article 232 and this Annex the expression " exceptional war 
measures " includes measures of all kinds, legislative, administrative, 
judicial or others, that have been taken or will be taken hereafter 
with regard to enemy property, and which have had or will have the 
effect of removing from the proprietors the power of disposition 
over their property, though without affecting the ownership, such as 



PEACE TREATIES. 263 

measures of supervision, of compulsory administration, and of 
sequestration; or measures which have had or will have as an object 
the seizure ,of, the use of, or the interference with enemy assets, for 
whatsoever motive, under whatsoever form or in whatsoever place. 
Acts in the execution of these measures include all detentions, in- 
structions, orders or decrees of Government departments or courts 
applying- these measures to enemy property, as well as acts performed 
by any person connected with the administration or the supervision 
of enemy property, such as the payment of debts, the collecting of 
credits, the payment of any costs, charges or expenses, or the col- 
lecting of fees. 

Measures of transfer are those which have affected or will affect 
the ownership of enemy property by transferring it in whole or in 
part to a person other than the enemy owner, and without his con- 
sent, such as measures directing the sale, liquidation or devolution 
of ownership in enemy property, or the cancelling of titles or s« - 
curities. 



All property, rights and interests of nationals of the former King- 
dom of Hungary within the territory of any Allied or Associated 
Power and the net proceeds of their sale, liquidation or other dealing 
therewith may be charged by that Allied or Associated Power in the 
first place with payment of amounts due in respect of claims by the 
nationals of that Allied or Associated Power w T ith regard to their 
property, rights and interests, including companies and associations 
in which they are interested, in territory of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary or debts owing to them by Hungarian nationals, and with 
payment of claims growing out of acts committed by the former 
Austro -Hungarian Government or by any Hungarian authorities 
since July 28, 1914, and before that Allied or Associated Power 
entered into the war. The amount of such claims may be assessed by 
an arbitrator appointed by M. Gustave Ador, if he is willing, or if 
no such appointment is made by him, by an arbitrator appointed by 
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI. They may 
be charged in the second place with payment of the amounts due in 
respect of claims by the nationals of such Allied or Associated Power 
with regard to their property, rights and interests in the territory 
of other enemy Powers, in so far as those claims are otherwise 
unsatisfied. 



Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 232, where immediately 
before the outbreak of war a company incorporated in an Allied or 
Associated State had rights in common with a company controlled 
by it and incorporated in Hungary to the use of trade-marks in third 
countries, or enjoyed the use in common with such company of unique 
means of reproduction of goods or articles for sale in third countries, 
the former company shall alone have the right to use these trade- 
marks in third countries to the exclusion of the Hungarian company, 
and these unique means of reproduction shall be handed over to the 
former company, notwithstanding any action taken under war legis- 
lation in force in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with regard to 



264 PEACE TREATIES. 

the latter company or its business, industrial property or shares. 
Nevertheless, the former company, if requested, shall deliver to the 
latter company derivative copies permitting the continuation of re- 
production of articles for use in Hungary. 

6. 

Up to the time when restitution is carried out in accordance with 
Article 232, Hungary is responsible for the conservation of property, 
rights and interests of the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers, 
including companies and associations in which they are interested, 
that have been subjected by. her to exceptional war measures. 



Within one year from the coming into force of the present Treaty 
the Allied or Associated Powers will specify the property, rights and 
interests, over which they intend to exercise the right provided in 
Article 232. paragraph (/'). 



The restitution provided in Article 232 will be carried out by order 
of the Hungarian Government or of the authorities which have been 
substituted for it. Detailed accounts of the action of administrators 
shall be furnished to the interested persons by the Hungarian au- 
thorities upon request, which may be made at any time after the 
coming into force of the present Treaty. 

9. 

Until completion of the liquidation provided for by Article 232, 
paragraph (?;), the property, rights and interests of the persons 
referred to in that paragraph will continue to be subject to excep- 
tional Avar measures that have been or Avill be taken with regard to 
them. 

10. 

Hungary will, within six months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, deliver to each Allied or Associated Power all securi- 
ties, certificates, deeds or other documents of title held by its nationals 
and relating to property, rights or interests situated in the territory 
of that Allied or Associated Power, including any shares, stock, 
debentures, debenture stock or other obligations of any company 
incorporated in accordance with the laws of that Power. 

Hungary will at any time on demand of any Allied or Associated 
Power furnish such information as may be required with regard to 
the property, rights and interests of Hungarian nationals within the 
territory of such Allied or Associated Power, or with regard to any 
transactions concerning such property, rights or interests effected 
since July 1, 1914. 

11. 

The expression " cash assets " includes all deposits or funds estab- 
lished before or after the existence of a state of war, as well as all 
assets coming from deposits, revenues, or profits collected by ad- 



PEACE TREATIES. 265 

ministrators, sequestrators, or others from funds placed on deposit 
or otherwise, but does not include sums belonging to the Allied or 
Associated Powers or to their component States, Provinces or Munici- 
palities. 

12. 

All investments wheresoever effected with the cash assets of na- 
tionals of the High Contra cting Parties, including companies and 
associations in which such nationals were interested, by persons re- 
sponsible for the administration of enemy properties or having; con- 
trol over such administration, or by order of such persons or of any 
authority whatsoever, shall be annulled. These cash assets shall be 
accounted for irrespective of any such investment. 

13. 

Within one month from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, or on demand at any time, Hungan^ will deliver to the Allied 
and Associated Powers all accounts, vouchers, records, documents 
and information of any kind which may be within Hungarian terri- 
tory, and which concern the property, rights and interests of the na- 
tionals of those Powers, including companies and associations in 
which they are interested, that have been subjected to an exceptional 
war measure, or to a measure of transfer either in the territory of 
the former Kingdom of Hungary or in territory occupied by that 
Kingdom or its allies. 

The controllers, supervisors, managers, administrators, sequestra- 
tors, liquidators and receivers shall be personally responsible under 
guarantee of the Hungarian Government for the immediate delivery 
in full of these accounts and documents, and for their accuracy. 

14. 

The provisions of Article 232 and this Annex relating to property, 
rights and interests in an enemy country, and the proceeds of the 
liquidation thereof, apply to debits, credits and accounts, Section III 
regulating only the method of payment. 

In the settlement of matters provided for in Article 232 between 
Hungary and the Allied or Associated Powers, their colonies or pro- 
tectorates, or any one of the British Dominions or India, in respect 
of any of which a declaration shall not have been made that they 
adopt Section III, and between their respective nationals, the provi- 
sions of Section III respecting the currency in which payment is to 
be made and the rate of exchange and of interest shall apply unless 
the Government of the Allied or Associated Power concerned shall 
within six months of the coming into force of the present Treaty 
notify Hungary that one or more of the said provisions are not to be 
applied. 

15. 

The provisions of Article 232 and this Annex apply to industrial, 
literary and artistic property which has been or will be dealt with 
in the liquidation of property, rights, interests, companies or busi- 



'266 PEACE TREATIES. 

nesses under war legislation by the Allied or Associated Powers, or 
in accordance with the stipulations of Article 232, paragraph (b ) . 

Section V. — Contracts, Prescriptions, Judgments. 

Article 234. 

(a) Any contract concluded between enemies shall be regarded as 
having been dissolved as from the time when any two of the parties 
became enemies, except in respect of any debt or other pecuniary ob- 
ligation arising out of am- act done or money paid thereunder, and 
subject to the exceptions and special rules with regard to particular 
contracts or classes of contracts contained herein or in the Annex 
hereto. 

(b) Any contract of which the execution shall be required in the 
general interest, within six months from the date of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, by the Government of the Allied or As- 
sociated Power of which one of the parties is a national, shall be ex- 
cepted from dissolution under this Article. 

When the execution of the contract thus kept alive would, owing 
to the alteration of trade conditions, cause one of the parties sub- 
stantial prejudice the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Sec- 
tion VI shall be empowered to grant to the prejudiced party equitable 
compensation. 

(o) Having regard to the provisions of the constitution and law 
of the United States of America and of Japan, neither the present 
Article, nor Article 235, nor the Annex hereto shall apply to con- 
tracts made between nationals of these States and nationals of the 
former Kingdom of Hungary; nor shall Article 240 apply to the 
United States of America or its nationals. 

(d) The present Article and the Annex hereto shall not apply to 
contracts the parties to which became enemies by reason of one of 
them being an inhabitant of territory of which the sovereignty has 
been transferred, if such party shall acquire under the present Treaty 
the nationality of an Allied or Associated Power, nor shall they apply 
to contracts between nationals of the xVllied and Associated Powers 
between whom trading has been prohibited by reason of one of the 
parties being in Allied or Associated territory in the occupation of 
the enemy. 

(e) Nothing in the present Article or the Annex hereto. shall be 
deemed to invalidate a transaction lawfully carried out in accord- 
ance with a contract between enemies if it has been carried out with 
the authority of one of the belligerent Powers. 

Article 235. 

(a) All periods of prescription, or limitation of right of action, 
whether they began to run before or after the outbreak of war, shall 
be treated in the territory of the High Contracting Parties, so far 
as regards relations between enemies, as having been suspended for 
the duration of the war. They shall begin to run again at earliest 
three months after the coming into force of the present treaty. This 
provision shall apply to the period prescribed for the presentation 



PKACE TREATIES. 267 

of interest or dividend coupons or for the presentation for repayment 
of securities drawn for repayment or repayable on any other ground. 

(b) Where, on account of failure to perform any act or comply 
with any formality during the war, measures of execution have been 
taken in the territory of the former Kingdom of Hungary to the 
prejudice of a national of an Allied or Associated Power, the claim 
of such national shall, if the matter does not fall within the compe- 
tence of the Courts of an Allied or Associated Power, be heard by the 
Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Section VI. 

(c) Upon the application of any interested person who is a na- 
tional of an Allied or Associated Power the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal 
shall order the restoration of the rights which have been prejudiced 
by the measures of execution referred to in paragraph (&), wherever, 
having regard to the particular circumstances of the case, such res- 
toration is equitable and possible. 

If such restoration is inequitable or impossible the Mixed Arbitral 
Tribunal may grant compensation to the prejudiced party to be paid 
by the Hungarian Government. 

(<7) Where a contract between enemies has been dissolved by rea- 
son either of failure on the part of either party to carry out its pro- 
visions or of the exercise of a right stipulated in the contract itself 
the party prejudiced may apply to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal for 
relief. The Tribunal will have the powers provided for in para- 
graph {<■). 

(c) The provisions of the preceding paragraphs of this Article 
shall apply to the nationals of Allied and Associated Powers who 
have been prejudiced by reason of measures referred to above taken 
by the authorities of the former Hungarian Government in invaded 
or occupied territory, if they have not been otherwise compensated. 

(/) Hungary shall compensate any third party who may be 
prejudiced by any restitution or restoration ordered by the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal under the provisions of the preceding paragraphs 
of this Article. 

(r/) As regards negotiable instruments, the period of three months 
provided under paragraph (a) shall commence as from the date on 
which any exceptional regulations applied in the territories of the 
interested Power with regard to negotiable instruments shall have 
definitely ceased to have force. 

Article 236. 

As between enemies no negotiable instrument made before the war 
shall be deemed to have become invalid by reason only of failure 
within the required time to present the instrument for acceptance or 
payment or to give notice of non-acceptance or non-payment to draw- 
ers or indorsers or to protest the instrument, nor by reason of failure 
to complete any formality during the war. 

Where the period within which a negotiable instrument should 
have been presented for acceptance or for payment, or within which 
notice of non-acceptance or non-payment should have been given to 
the drawer or indorser, or within which the instrument should have 
been protested, has elapsed during the war, and the party who should 
have presented or protested the instrument or have given notice of 



268 PEACE TKEATIES. 

non-acceptance or non-payment has failed to do so during the war, a 
period of not less than three months from the coming into force of 
the present Treaty shall be allowed within which presentation, notice 
of non-acceptance or non-payment or protest may be made. 

Article 237. 

Judgments given by the Courts of an Allied or Associated Power 
in all cases which, under the present Treaty, they are competent to 
decide, shall be recognised in Hungary as final, and shall be enforced 
without it being necessary to have them declared executory. 

If a judgment or measure of execution in respect of any dispute 
which may have arisen has been given during the war by a judicial 
authority of the former Kingdom of Hungary against a national of 
an Allied or Associated Power, or a company or association in which 
one of such nationals was interested, in a case in which either such 
national or such company or association was not able to make their 
defence, the Allied and Associated national who has suffered preju- 
dice thereby shall be entitled to recover compensation to be fixed by 
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for in Section VI. 

At the instance of the national of the Allied or Associated PoAver 
the compensation above-mentioned may, upon order to that effect of 
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal, be effected where it is possible by 
replacing the parties in the situation which they occupied before the 
judgment was given by the Hungarian Court. 

The above compensation may likewise be obtained before the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal by the nationals of Allied or Associated Powers 
who have suffered prejudice by judicial measures taken in invaded or 
occupied territories, if they have not been otherwise compensated. 

Article 238. 

For the purpose of Sections III, IV, V and VII, the expression 
'• during the war " means for each Allied or Associated Power the 
period between the commencement of the state of war between that 
Power and the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the com- 
ing into force of the present Treaty. 

Annex. 

I. General Provisions. 



Within the meaning of Articles 234, 235 and 236, the parties to a 
contract shall be regarded as enemies when trading between them 
shall have been prohibited by or otherwise became unlawful under 
laws, orders or regulations to which one of those parties was subject. 
They shall be deemed to have become enemies from the date when 
such trading was prohibited or otherwise became unlawful. 

2. 

The following classes of contracts are excepted from dissolution by 
Article 234 and, without prejudice to the rights contained in Article 
232 (b), remain in force subject to the application of domestic laws, 



PEACE TREATIES. 269 

orders or regulations made during the war by the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Powers and subject to the terms of the contracts : 

(a) Contracts having for their object the transfer of estates or of 
real or personal property where the property therein had passed or 
the object had been delivered before the parties became enemies; 

(b) Leases and agreements for leases of land and houses; 

(c) Contracts of mortgage, pledge or lien ; 

(d) Concessions concerning mines, quarries or deposits; 

(e) Contracts between individuals or companies and States, prov- 
inces, municipalities or other similar juridical persons charged with 
administrative functions, and concessions granted by States, prov- 
inces, municipalities or other similar juridical persons charged with 
administrative functions. 

3. 

If the provisions of a contract are in part dissolved under Article 
234, the remaining provisions of that contract shall, subject to the 
same application of domestic laws as is provided for in paragraph 2, 
continue in force if they are severable, but where they are not sev- 
erable the contract shall be deemed to have been dissolved in its 
entirety. 

II. Provisions relating to certain classes of Contracts. 

Stock Exchange and C ommereial Exchange Contracts. 



(a) Rules made during the war by any recognised Exchange or 
Commercial Association providing for the closure of contracts en- 
tered into before the war by an enemy are confirmed by the High 
Contracting Parties, as also an}' action taken thereunder, provided: 

(1) that the contract was expressed to be made subject to the 
rules of the Exchange or Association in question ; 

(2) that the rules applied to all persons concerned; 

(3) that the conditions attaching to the closure were fair and 
reasonable. 

(b) The preceding paragraph shall not apply to rules made during 
the occupation by Exchanges or Commercial Associations in the dis- 
tricts occupied by the enemy. 

(c) The closure of contracts relating to cotton " futures," which 
were closed as on July 31, 1914, under the decision of the Liverpool 
Cotton Association, is also confirmed. 

Security. 

5. 

The sale of a security held for an unpaid debt owing by an enemy 
shall be deemed to have been valid irrespective of notice to the owner 
if the creditor acted in good faith and within reasonable care and 
prudence, and no claim by the debtor on the ground of such sale 
shall be admitted. 



270 PEACE TREATIES. 

This stipulation shall not apply to any sale of securities effected by 
an enemy during the occupation in regions invaded or occupied by 
the enemy. 

Negotiable Instrurm nts. 

6. 

As regards Powers which adopt Section III and the Annex thereto 
the pecuniary obligations existing between enemies and resulting 
from the issue of negotiable instruments shall be adjusted in con- 
formity with the said Annex by the instrumentality of the Clearing 
Offices, which shall assume the rights of the holder as regards the 
various remedies open to him. 

7. 

If a person has either before or during the war become liable upon 
a negotiable instrument in accordance with an undertaking given to 
him by a person who has subsequently become an enemy, the latter 
shall remain liable to indemnify the former in respect of his liability 
notwithstanding the outbreak of war. 

III. Contracts of Insurance. 



Contracts of insurance entered into by any person with another 
person who subsequently became an enemy will be dealt with in 
accordance with the following paragraphs. 

Fire Insurance. 

9. 

Contracts for the insurance of property against fire entered into by 
a person interested in such property with another person who subse- 
quently became an enemy shall not be deemed to have been dissolved 
by the outbreak of war, or by the fact of the person becoming an 
enemy, or on account of the failure during the war and for a period 
of three months thereafter to perform his obligations under the con- 
tract, but they shall be dissolved at the date when the annual pre- 
mium becomes payable for the first time after the expiration of a 
period of three months after coming into force of the present Treaty. 

A settlement shall be effected of unpaid premiums which became 
due during the Avar or of claims for losses which occurred during 
the war. 

10. 

Where by administrative or legislative action an insurance against 
fire effected before the Avar has been transferred during the war from 
the original to another insurer, the transfer will be recognised and 
the liability of the original insurer will be deemed to have ceased as 
from the date of the transfer. The original insurer will, however, 



PEACE TREATIES. 271 

be entitled to receive on demand full information as to the terms 
of the transfer, and if it should appear that these terms were not 
equitable they shall be amended so far as may be necessary to render 
them equitable. 

Furthermore, the insured shall, subject to the concurrence of the 
original insurer, be entitled to retransfer the contract to the original 
insurer as from the date of the demand. 

Life Insurance. 

11. 

Contracts of life insurance entered into between an insurer and a 
person who subsequently became an enemy shall not be deemed to 
have been dissolved by the outbreak of war, or by the fact of the 
person becoming an enemy. 

Any sum which during the war became due upon a contract 
deemed not to have been dissolved under the preceding provision 
shall be recoverable after the war with the addition of interest at 
five per cent, per annum from the date of its becoming due up to the 
day of payment. 

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to non-pay- 
ment of premiums, or has become void from breach of the conditions 
of the contract, the assured or his representatives or the persons 
entitled shall have the right at any time within twelve months of 
the coming into force of the present Treaty to claim from the insurer 
the surrender value of the policy at the date of its lapse or avoid- 
ance. 

Where the contract has lapsed during the war owing to non-pay- 
ment of premiums the payment of which has been prevented by the 
enforcement of measures of war, the assured or his representative 
or the persons entitled shall have the right to restore the contract on 
payment of the premiums with interest at five per cent, per annum 
within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty. 

12. 

Where contracts of life insurance have been entered into by a 
local branch of an insurance company established in a country which 
subsequently became an enemy country, the contract shall, in the 
absence of any stipulation to the contrary in the contract itself, be 
governed by the local law, but the insurer shall be entitled to demand 
from the insured or his representatives the refund of sums paid on 
claims made or enforced under measures taken during the war, if 
the making or enforcement of such claims was not in accordance with 
the terms of the contract itself or was not consistent with the laws 
or treaties existing at the time when it was entered into. 

13. 

In any case where by the law applicable to the contract the insurer 
remains bound by the' contract notwithstanding the non-payment of 
premiums until notice is given to the insured of the termination of 



272 PEACE TREATIES. 

the contract, he shall be entitled, where the giving of such notice 
was prevented by the war, to recover the unpaid premiums with in- 
terest at five per cent, per annum from the insured. 

14. 

Insurance contracts shall be considered as contracts of life assur- 
ance for the purpose of paragraphs 11 to 13 when they depend on 
the probabilities of human life combined with the rate of interest 
for the calculation of the reciprocal engagements between the two 
parties. 

Marine Insurance. 
15. 

Contracts of marine insurance including time policies and voyage 
policies entered into between an insurer and a person who subse- 
quently became an enemy shall be deemed to have been dissolved on 
his becoming an enemy, except in cases where the risk undertaken in 
the contract had attached before he became an enemy. 

Where the risk had not attached, money paid by way of premium 
or otherwise shall be recoverable from the insurer. 

Where the risk had attached, effect shall be given to the contract 
notwithstanding the party becoming an enemy, and sums due under 
the contract either by way of premiums or in respect of losses shall 
be recoverable after the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

In the event of any agreement being come to for the payment of 
interest on sums due before the war to or by the nationals of States 
which have been at war and recovered after the war, such interest 
shall in the case of losses recoverable under contracts of marine in- 
surance run from the expiration of a period of one year from the 
date of the loss. 

16. 

No contract of marine insurance with an insured person who sub- 
sequently became an enemy shall be deemed to cover losses due to 
belligerent action by the Power of which the insurer was a national 
or by the allies or associates of such Power. 

17. 

Wliere it is shown that a person who had before the war entered 
into a contract of marine insurance with an insurer who subse- 
quently became an enemy entered after the outbreak of war into a 
new contract covering the same risk with an insurer who was not an 
enemy, the new contract shall be deemed to be substituted for the 
original contract as from the date when it was entered into, and 
the premiums payable shall be adjusted on the basis of the original 
insurer having remained liable on the contract only up till the time 
when the new contract was entered into. 



PEACE TREATIES. 273 

Other Insurance. 

18. 

Contracts of insurance entered into before the war between an in- 
surer and a person who subsequently became an enemy, other than 
contracts dealt with in paragraphs 9 to IT, shall be treated in all 
respects on the same footing as contracts of fire insurance between 
the same persons would be dealt with under the said paragraphs. 

Re-insurance. 

19. 

All treaties of re-insurance with a person who became an enemy 
shall be regarded as having been abrogated by the person becoming 
an enemy, but without prejudice in the case of life or marine risks 
which had attached before the war to the right to recover payment 
after the war for sums due in respect of such risks. 

Nevertheless if, owing to invasion, it has been impossible for the 
re-insured to find another re-insurer, the treaty shall remain in 
force until three months after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty. 

Where a re-insurance treaty becomes void under this paragraph, 
there shall be an adjustment of accounts between the parties in re- 
spect both of premiums paid and payable and of liabilities for losses 
in respect of life or marine risks which had attached before the war. 
In the case of risks other than those mentioned in paragraphs 11 to 
17 the adjustment of accounts shall be made as at the date of the 
parties becoming enemies without regard to claims for losses which 
•nay have occurred since that date. 

20. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraph will extend equally 
to re-insurances existing at the date of the parties becoming enemies 
of particular risks undertaken by the insurer in a contract of insur- 
ance against any risks other than life or marine risks. 

21. 

Re-insurance of life risks effected by particular contracts and not 
under any general treaty remain in force. 

In case of a re-insurance effected before the war of a contract of 
marine insurance, the cession of a risk which had been ceded to the 
re-insurer shall, if it had attached before the outbreak of war, re- 
main valid and effect be given to the contract notwithstanding the 
outbreak of war; sums due under the contract of re-insurance in re- 
spect either of premiums or of losses shall be recoverable after the 
war. 

23. 

The provisions of paragraphs 1G and 17 and the last part of para- 
graph 15 shall apply to contracts for the re-insurance of marine risks. 
47808— S. Doc. 7, G7-1 18 



274 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section VI. — Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. 
Article 239. 

(a) Within three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, a Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall be established between each 
of the Allied and Associated Powers on the one hand and Hungary 
on the other hand. Each such Tribunal shall consist of thiee mem- 
bers. Each of the Governments concerned shall appoint one of these 
members. The President shall be chosen by agreement between the 
two Governments concerned. 

22. 

In case of failure to reach agreement, the President of the Tribunal 
and two other persons, either of whom may in case of need take his 
place, shall be chosen by the Council of the League of Nations, or, 
until this is set up, by M. Gustave Ador if he is willing. These per- 
sons shall be nationals of Powers that have remained neutral during 
the war. 

If in case there is a vacancy a Government does not proceed within 
a period of one month to appoint as provided above a member of the 
Tribunal, such member shall be chosen by the other Government from 
the two persons mentioned above other than the President. 

The decision of the majority of the members of the Tribunal shall 
be the decision of the Tribunal. 

(b) The Mixed Arbitral Tribunals established pursuant to para- 
graph (a) shall decide all questions within their competence under 
Sections III, IV, V and VII. 

In addition, all questions, whatsoever their nature, relating to 
contracts concluded before the coming into force of the present 
Treaty between nationals of the Allied and Associated Powers and 
Hungarian nationals shall be decided by the Mixed Arbitral Tri- 
bunal, always excepting questions which, under the laws of the 
Allied, Associated or Neutral Powers, are within the jurisdiction of 
the national courts of those Powers. Such questions shall be decided 
bv the national courts in question, to the exclusion of the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal. The party who is a national of an Allied or 
Associated Power may nevertheless bring the case before the Mixed 
Arbitral Tribunal if this is not prohibited by the laws of his 
country. 

(c) If the number of cases justifies it, additional members shall be 
appointed and each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal shall sit in divisions. 
Each of these divisions will be constituted as above. 

(d) Each Mixed Arbitral Tribunal will settle its own procedure 
except in so far as it is provided in the following Annex, and is em- 
powered to award the sums to be paid by the loser in respect of the 
costs and expenses of the proceedings. 

(e) Each Government will pay the remuneration of the member 
of the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal appointed by it and of any agent 
whom it may appoint to represent it before the Tribunal. The re- 
muneration of the President will be determined by special agreement 
between the Governments concerned ; and this remuneration and the 



PEACE TREATIES. 275 

joint expenses of each Tribunal will be paid by the two Governments 
in equal moieties. 

(/) The High Contracting Parties agree that their courts and au- 
thorities shall render to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunals direct all the 
assistance in their power, particularly as regards transmitting notices 
and collecting evidence. 

(g) The High Contracting Parties agree to regard the decisions of 
the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal as final and conclusive, and to render 
them binding upon their nationals. 

Annex. 



Should one of the members of the Tribunal either die, retire or be 
unable for any reason whatever to discharge his functions, the same 
procedure will be followed for filling the vacancy as was followed 
for appointing him. 

2. 

The Tribunal may adopt such rules of procedure as shall be in 
accordance with justice and equity and decide the order and time at 
which each party must conclude its arguments, and may arrange all 
formalities required for dealing with the evidence. 



The agent and counsel of the parties on each side are authorised to 
present orally and in writing to the Tribunal arguments in support 
or in defence of each case. 



The Tribunal shall keep record of the questions and cases submitted 
and the proceedings thereon, with the dates of such proceedings. 



Each of the Powers concerned may appoint a secretary. These 
secretaries shall act together as joint secretaries of the Tribunal and 
shall be subject to its direction. The Tribunal may appoint and 
employ any other necessary officer or officers to assist in the perform- 
ance of its duties. 

6. 

The Tribunal shall decide all questions and matters submitted upon 
such evidence and information as may be furnished by the parties 
concerned. 

7. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to give the Tribunal all facili- 
ties and information required by it for carrying out its investigations. 



276 PEACE TREATIES. 



The language in which the proceedings shall be conducted shall, 
unless otherwise agreed, be English, French, Italian or Japanese, as 
may be determined by the Allied or Associated Power concerned. 

9. 

The place and time for the meetings of each Tribunal shall be 
determined by the President of the Tribunal. 

Article 240. 

Whenever a competent court has given or gives a decision in a case 
covered by Sections III, IV, V or VII, and such decision is incon- 
sistent with the provisions of such Sections, the party who is prej- 
udiced by the decision shall be entitled to obtain redress which. shall 
be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal. At the request of the 
national of an Allied or Associated Power, the redress may, whenever 
possible, be effected by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal directing the 
replacement of the parties in the position occupied by them before 
the judgment was given by the court of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary. 

Section VII. — Industrial Property. 
Article 241. 

Subject to the stipulations of the present Treaty, rights of indus- 
trial, literary and artistic property, as such property is defined by 
the International Conventions of Paris and of Berne, mentioned in 
Articles 220 and 222, shall be re-established or restored, as from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, in the territories of the High 
Contracting Parties, in favour of the persons entitled to the benefit 
of them at the moment when the state of war commenced, or their 
legal representatives. Equally, rights which, except for the war, 
would have been acquired during the war in consequence of an appli- 
cation made for the protection of industrial property, or the publi- 
cation of a literary or artistic work, shall be recognised and estab- 
lished in favour of those persons who would have been entitled 
thereto, from the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Nevertheless, all acts done by virtue of the special measures taken 
during the war under legislative, executive or administrative au- 
thority of any Allied or Associated Power in regard to the rights of 
nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary in industrial, literary 
or artistic property shall remain in force and shall continue to main- 
tain their full effect. 

No claim shall be made or action brought by Hungary or Hun- 
garian nationals or by or on behalf of nationals of the former King- 
dom of Hungary in respect of the use during the war by the Govern- 
ment of any Allied or Associated Power, or by any persons acting on 
behalf or with the assent of such Government of any rights in indus- 
trial, literary or artistic property, nor in respect of the sale, offering 
for sale, or use of any products, articles or apparatus whatsoever to 
which such rights applied. 



PEACE TREATIES. 277 

Unless the legislation of any one of the Allied or Associated Powers 
in force at the moment of the signature of the present Treaty other- 
wise directs, sums due or paid in respect of the property of persons 
referred to in Article 232 (b) in virtue of any act or operation re- 
sulting from the execution of the special measures mentioned in the 
second paragraph of this Article shall be dealt with in the same way 
as other sums due to such persons are directed to be dealt with by 
the present Treaty ; and sums produced by any special measures taken 
by the Government of the former Kingdom of Hungary in respect 
of rights in industrial, literary or artistic property belonging to the 
nationals of the Allied or Associated Powers shall be considered and 
treated in the same way as other debts due from Hungarian nationals. 

Each of the Allied and Associated Powers reserves to itself the 
right to impose such limitations, conditions or restrictions on rights 
of industrial, literary or artistic property (with the exception of 
trade marks) acquired before or during the war, or which may be: 
subsequently acquired in accordance with its legislation, by Hun- 
garian nationals, whether by granting licences, or by the working, 
or by preserving control over their exploitation, or in any other way, 
as may be considered necessary for national defence, or in the public 
interest, or for assuring the fair treatment by Hungary of the rights 
of industrial, literary and artistic property held in Hungarian ter- 
ritory by its nationals, or for securing the due fulfillment of all the 
obligations undertaken by Hungary in the present Treaty. As re- 
gards rights of industrial, literary and artistic property acquired 
after the coming into force of the present Treaty, the right so re- 
served by the Allied and Associated Powers shall only be exercised 
in cases where these limitations, conditions or restrictions may be 
considered necessary for national defence or in the public interest. 

In the event of the application of the provisions of the preceding 
paragraph by any Allied or Associated Power, there shall be paid 
reasonable indemnities or royalties, which shall be dealt with in 
the same way as other sums due to Hungarian nationals are directed 
to be dealt with by the present Treaty. 

Each of the Allied or Associated Powers reserves the right to 
treat as void and of no effect any transfer in whole or in part of or 
other dealing with rights of or in respect of industrial, literary or 
artistic property effected after July 28, 1914, or in the future, which 
would have the result of defeating the objects of the provisions of 
this Article. 

The provisions of this Article shall not apply to rights in in- 
dustrial, literary or artistic property which have been dealt with 
in the liquidation of businesses or companies under war legislation 
by the Allied or Associated Powers, or which may be so dealt with 
by virtue of Article 232, paragraph (b). 

Article 242. 

A minimum of one year after the coming into force of the present 
Treaty shall be accorded to the nationals of the High Contracting 
Parties, without extension fees or other penalty, in order to enable 
such persons to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, pay any 
fees, and generally satisfy any obligation prescribed by the laws or 
regulations of the respective States relating to the obtaining, pre- 



278 PEACE TREATIES. 

serving or opposing rights to, or in respect of, industrial property 
either acquired before July 28, 1914, or which, except for the war, 
might have been acquired since that date as a result of an application 
made before the war or during its continuance, but nothing in this 
Article shall give any right to re-open interference proceedings in 
the United States of America where a final hearing has taken place. 

All rights in, or in respect of, such property which may have lapsed 
by reason of any failure to accomplish any act, fulfil any formality, 
or make any payment, shall revive, but subject in the case of patents 
and designs to the imposition of such conditions as each Allied or 
Associated Power may deem reasonably necessary for the protection 
of persons who have manufactured or made use of the subject- 
matter of such property while the rights had lapsed. Further, where 
rights to patents or designs belonging to Hungarian nationals are 
revived under this Article, they shall be subject in respect of the 
grant of licences to the same provisions as would have been appli- 
cable to them during the war, as well as to all the provisions of the 
present Treaty. 

The period from July 28, 1914, until the coming into force of the 
present Treaty shall be excluded in considering the time within 
which a patent should be worked or a trade mark or design used, and 
it is further agreed that no patent, registered trade mark or design 
in force on July 28, 1914, shall be subject to revocation or cancella- 
tion by reason only of the failure to work such patent or use such 
trade mark or design for two years after the coming into force of 
the present Treaty. 

Article 243. 

The rights of priority provided by Article 4 of the International 
Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property of Paris of 
March 20, 1883, revised at Washington in 1911, or by any other Con- 
vention or Statute, for the filing or registration of applications for 
patents or models of utility, and for the registration of trade marks, 
designs and models which had not expired on July 28, 1914, and 
those which have arisen during the war, or would have arisen but 
for the war, shall be extended by each of the High Contracting 
Parties in favour of all nationals of the other High Contracting 
Parties for a period of six months after the coming into force of the 
present Treaty. 

Nevertheless, such extension shall in no way affect the right of 
any of the High Contracting Parties or of any person who before 
the coming into force of the present Treaty was bona fide in posses- 
sion of any rights of industrial property conflicting with rights ap- 
plied for by another who claims rights of priority in respect of them, 
to exercise such rights by itself or himself personally, or by such 
agents or licensees as derived their rights from it or him before 
the coming into force of the present Treaty; and such persons shall 
not be amendable to any action or other process of law in respect 
of infringement. 

Article 244. 

No action shall be brought and no claim made by nationals of the 
former Kingdom of Hungary, or by persons residing or carrying on 
business within the territory of that Kingdom on the one part, and 



PEACE TREATIES. 279 

on the other part by persons residing or carrying on business in the 
territory of the Allied or Associated Powers, or persons who are 
nationals of such Powers respectively, or by any one deriving title 
during the war from such persons, by reason of any action which 
has taken place within the territory of the other party between the 
date of the existence of a state of war and that of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, which might constitute an infringement 
of the rights of industrial property or rights of literary and artistic 
property, either existing at any time during the war or revived under 
the provisions of Articles 242 and 243. 

Equally, no action for infringement of industrial, literary or artistic 
property rights by such persons shall at any time be permissible in 
respect of the sale or offering for sale for a period of one year after 
the signature of the present Treaty in the territories of the Allied or 
Associated Powers on the one hand or Hungary on the other, of 
products or articles manufactured, or of literary or artistic works 
published, during the period between the existence of a state of war 
and the signature of the present Treaty, or against those who have 
acquired and continue to use them. It is understood, nevertheless, 
that this provision shall not apply when the possessor of the rights 
was domiciled or had an industrial or commercial establishment in 
the districts occupied by the Austro-Hungarian armies during the 
war. 

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of 
America on the one hand and Hungary on the other. 

Article 245. 

Licences in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property con- 
cluded before the war between nationals of the Allied or Associated 
Powers or persons residing in their territory or carrying^ on business 
therein, on the one part, and nationals of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary, on the other part, shall be considered as cancelled as from 
the date of the existence of a state of war between the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy and the Allied or Associated Power. But, in 
any case, the former beneficiary of a contract of this kind shall have 
the right, within a period of six months after the coming into force 
of the present Treaty, to demand from the proprietor of the rights the 
grant of a new licence, the conditions of which, in default of agree- 
ment between the parties, shall be fixed by the duly qualified tribunal 
in the country under whose legislation the rights had been acquired, 
except in the case of licences held in respect of rights acquired under 
the law of the former Kingdom of Hungary. In such cases the con- 
ditions shall be fixed by the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal referred to in 
Section VI of this Part. The tribunal may, if necessary, fix also the 
amount which it may deem just should be paid by reason of the use 
of the rights during the war. 

No licence in respect of industrial, literary or artistic property, 
granted under the special war legislation of any Allied or Associated 
Power, shall be affected by the continued existence of any licence 
entered into before the war, but shall remain valid and of full effect, 
and a licence so granted to the former beneficiary of a licence entered 
into before the war shall be considered as substituted for such licence. 



280 PEACE TREATIES. 

Where sums have been paid during the war in respect of the 
rights of persons referred to in Article 232 (?>) by virtue of a licence 
or agreement concluded before the war in respect of rights of indus- 
trial property or for the reproduction or the representation of 
literary, dramatic or artistic works, these sums shall be dealt with 
in the same manner as other debts or credits of such persons as pro- 
vided by the present Treaty. 

This Article shall not apply as between the United States of 
America on the one hand and Hungary on the other. 

Section VIII. — Special Provisions Relating to Transferred 

Territory. 

Article 246. 

Of the individuals and juridical persons previously nationals of 
the former Kingdom of Hungary, including Bosnia-Herzegovinians, 
those who acquire ipso facto under the present Treaty the nationality 
of an Allied or Associated Power are designated in the provisions 
which follow by the expression " nationals of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary " ; the remainder are designated by the expression " Hun- 
garian nationals." 

Article 247. 

The inhabitants of territories transferred by virtue of the present 
Treaty shall, notwithstanding this transfer and the change of na- 
tionality consequent thereon, continue to enjoy in Hungary all the 
rights in industrial, literary and artistic property to which they were 
entitled under the legislation in force at the time of the transfer. 

Article 248. 

The questions concerning the nationals of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary, as well as Hungarian nationals, their rights, privileges 
and property, which are not dealt with 'in the present Treaty, or in 
the Treaty prepared for the purpose of regulating certain immediate 
relations between the States to which territory of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy has been transferred, or arising from the dis- 
memberment of that Monarchy, shall form the subject of special 
conventions between the States* concerned, including Hungary; such 
conventions shall not in any way conflict with the provisions of the 
present Treaty. 

For this purpose it is agreed that within three months from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty a Conference of delegates of 
the States in question shall take place. 

Article 249. 

The Hungarian Government shall without delay restore to na- 
tionals of the former Kingdom of Hungary their property, rights 
and interests situated in Hungarian territory. 

The amount of taxes and imposts on capital which have been levied 
or increased on the property, rights and interests of nationals of the 
former Kingdom of Hungary since November 3, 1918, or which shall 



PEACE TREATIES. 281 

be levied or increased until restitution in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the present Treaty, or, in the case of property, rights and 
interests which have not been subjected to exceptional measures of 
war. until three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty j shall be returned to the owners. 

The property, rights and interests restored shall not be subject to 
any tax levied in respect of any other property or any other business 
owned by the same person after such property had been removed 
from Hungary or such business had ceased to be carried on therein. 

If taxes of any kind have been paid in anticipation in respect of 
property, rights and interests removed from Hungary, the propor- 
tion of such taxes paid for any period subsequent to the removal of 
the property, rights and interests in question shall be returned to the 
owners. 

Cash assets shall be paid in the currency and at the rate of ex- 
change provided for the case of debts under Articles 231 (c/) and 254. 

Legacies, donations and funds given or established in the former 
Kingdom of Hungary for the benefit of nationals of that Kingdom 
shall be placed by Hungary, so far as the funds in question are in 
her territory, at the disposition of the Allied or Associated Power 
of which the persons in question are now, or become, under the pro- 
visions of the present Treaty, or of any Treaties concluded for the 
purpose of completing the present settlement, nationals, in the con- 
dition in which these funds were on July 28, 1914, taking account 
of payments properly made for the purpose of the trust. 

Where under the terms of family trusts which continue to be 
administered by the Hungarian State the rights of the beneficiaries 
are subject to their retaining Hungarian nationality, the presump- 
tive beneficiaries will retain their right to pensions, expenses of edu- 
cation, dowries and similar privileges, even if they acquire now or 
subsequently, under the present Treaty or any Treaties concluded for 
the purpose of completing the present settlement, the nationality of 
one of the States to which territory of the former Kingdom of Hun- 
gary is transferred by the said Treaties. 

Where in consequence of the extinction of a family in whose 
favour such a trust had been constituted the funds would revert to 
the Hungarian State or to an institution of that State, such right of 
succession will pass to the State to which the last beneficiary be- 
longed. 

Article 250. 

Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 232 and the Annex to 
Section IV the property, rights and interests of Hungarian nationals 
or companies controlled by them situated in the territories which 
formed part of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy shall not be 
subject to retention or liquidation in accordance with these pro- 
visions. 

Such property, rights and interests shall be restored to their own- 
ers freed from any measure of this kind, or from any other measure 
of transfer, compulsory administration or sequestration, taken since 
November 3, 1918, until the coming into force of the present Treat}', 
in the condition in which they were before the application of the 
measures in question. 



282 PEACE TREATIES. 

Claims made by Hungarian nationals under this Article shall be 
submitted to the Mixed Arbitral Tribunal provided for by Ar- 
ticle 239. 

The property, rights and interests here referred to do not include 
property which is the subject of Article 191, Part IX (Financial 
Clauses). 

Nothing in this Article shall affect the provisions laid down in 
Part VIII (Eeparation) Section I, Annex III as to property of 
Hungarian nationals in ships and boats. 

Article 251. 

All contracts for the sale of goods for delivery by sea concluded 
before January 1, 1917, between nationals of the former Kingdom of 
Hungary of the one part and the administrations of the former 
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Hungary, or Bosnia-Herzegovina, or 
Hungarian nationals of the other part shall be annulled, except in 
respect of any debt or other pecuniary obligation arising out of any 
act done or money paid thereunder. All other contracts between 
such parties which were made before November 1, 1918, and were 
in force at that date shall be maintained. 

Article 252. 

With regard to prescriptions, limitations and forfeitures in the 
transferred territories, the provisions of Articles 235 and 236 shall 
be applied with substitution for the expression " outbreak of war " 
of the expression " date, which shall be fixed by administrative deci- 
sion of each Allied or Associated Power, at which relations between 
the parties became impossible in fact or in law," and for the expres- 
sion " duration of the war " of the expression " period between the 
date above indicated and that of the coming into force of the present 
Treaty." 

Article 253. 

Hungary undertakes not to impede in any way the transfer of 
property, rights or interests belonging to a company incorporated 
in accordance with the laws of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy, in which Allied or Associated nationals are interested, to a 
company incorporated in accordance with the laws of any other 
Power, to facilitate all measures necessary for giving effect to such 
transfer, and to render any assistance which may be required for 
effecting the restoration to Allied or Associated nationals, or to com- 
panies in which they are interested, of their property, rights or 
interests whether in Hungary or in transferred territory. 

Article 254. 

Section III, except Article 231 (d) , shall not apply to debts con- 
tracted between Hungarian nationals and nationals of the former 
Kingdom of Hungary. 

Subject to the special provisions laid down in Article 231 (d) for 
the case of the new States, these debts shall be paid in the legal 
currency at the time of payment of the State of which the national 



PEACE TREATIES. 283 

of the former Kingdom of Hungary has become a national, and the 
rate of exchange applicable shall be the average rate quoted on the 
Geneva Exchange during the two months preceding November 1, 
1918. 

Article 255. 

Insurance companies whose principal place of business was in terri- 
tory which previously formed part of the former Austro-Hungarian 
Monarchy shall have the right to carry on their business in Hun- 
garian territory for a period of ten years from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty, without the rights which they previously en- 
joyed being affected in any way by the change of nationality. 

During the above period the operations of such companies shall 
not be subjected by Hungary to any higher tax or charge than shall 
be imposed on the operations of national companies. No measure in 
derogation of their rights of property shall be imposed upon them 
which is not equally applied to the property, rights or interests of 
Hungarian insurance companies; adequate compensation shall be 
paid in the event of the application of any such measures. 

These provisions shall only apply so long as Hungarian insurance 
companies previously carrying on business in the transferred terri- 
tories, even if their principal place of business was outside such 
territories, are reciprocally accorded a similar right to carry on their 
business therein. 

After the period of ten years above referred to, the provisions of 
Article 211 of the present Treaty shall apply in regard to the Allied 
and Associated companies in question. 

The provisions of this Article shall apply similarly to co-operative 
societies, provided that the legal position of such societies places upon 
their members effective responsibility for all operations and contracts 
within the objects of such societies. 

Article 256. 

Special agreements will determine the division of the property of 
associations or public corporations carrying on their functions in 
territory which is divided in consequence of the present Treaty. 

Article 257. 

States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy is transferred, and States arising from the dismemberment 
of that Monarchy, shall recognise and give effect to rights of indus- 
trial, literary and artistic property in force in the territory at the 
time when it passes to the State in question, or re-established or re- 
stored in accordance with the provisions of Article 241 of the present 
Treaty. These rights shall remain in force in that territory for the 
same period as that for which they would have remained in force 
under the law of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. 

A special convention shall determine all questions relative to the 
records, registers and copies in connection with the protection of 
industrial, literary or artistic property, and fix their eventual trans- 
mission or communication by the Offices of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy to the Offices of the States to which are trans- 
ferred territory of the said Monarchy and to the Offices of new States. 



284 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 258. 

Without prejudice to other provisions of the present Treaty, the 
Hungarian Government undertakes so for as it is concerned to hand 
over to any Power to which territory of the former Austro-Hun- 
garian Monarchy is transferred, or which arises from the dismem- 
berment of that Monarchy, such portion of the reserves accumulated 
by the Governments or the administrations of the former Austro- 
Hungarian Monarchy, or by public or private organizations under 
their control, as is attributable to the carrying on of Social or State 
Insurance in such territory. 

The Powers to which these funds are handed over must apply them 
to the performance of the obligations arising from such insurances. 

The conditions of the delivery will be determined by special con- 
ventions to be concluded between the Hungarian Government and 
the Governments concerned. 

In case these special conventions are not concluded in accordance 
with the above paragraph within three months after the coming into 
force of the present Treaty, the conditions of transfer shall in each 
case be referred to a Commission of five members, one of whom shall 
be appointed by the Hungarian Government, one by the other inter 
ested Government and three by the Governing Body of the Inter 
national Labour Office from the nationals of other States. This 
mission shall by majority vote within three months after appoint- 
ment adopt recommendations for submission to the Council of the 
League of Nations, and the decisions of the Council shall forthwith 
be accepted as final by Hungary and the other Government con- 
cerned. 

Article 259. 

The provisions of the present Section referring to the relations 
between Hungary or Hungarian nationals and the nationals of the 
former Kingdom of Hungary apply to relations of the same nature 
between Hungary or Hungarian nationals and the nationals of the 
former Austrian Empire referred to in Article 263 of the Treaty of 
Peace with Austria. 

Reciprocally, the provisions of Section VIII of Part X of the 
said Treaty referring to the relations between Austria or Austrian 
nationals and the nationals of the former Austrian Empire apply to 
relations of the same nature between Austria or Austrian nationals 
and the nationals of the former Kingdom of Hungary referred to in 
Article 246 of the present Treaty. 

PART XL— AERIAL NAVIGATION. 

Article 260. 

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall have full 
liberty of passage and landing over and in the territory of Hungary, 
and shall enjoy the same privileges as Hungarian aircraft, particu- 
larly in case of distress. 

Article 261. 

The aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers shall, while in 
transit to any foreign country whatever, enjoy the right of flying 



PEACE TREATIES. 285 

over the territory of Hungary Avithout landing, subject always to 
any regulations which may be made by Hungary, and which shall 
be applicable equally to the aircraft of Hungary and to those of 
the Allied and Associated countries. 

Article. 262. 

All aerodromes in Hungary open to national public traffic shall be 
open for the aircraft of the Allied and Associated Powers, and in 
any such aerodrome such aircraft shall be treated on a footing of 
equality with Hungarian aircraft as regards charges of every de- 
scription, including charges for landing and accommodation. 

Article 263. 

Subject to the present provisions, the rights of passage, transit 
and landing provided for in Articles 260, 261 and 262 are subject to 
the observance of such regulations as Hungary may consider it neces- 
sary to enact, but such regulations shall be applied without distinc- 
tion to Hungarian aircraft and to those of the Allied and Associated 
countries. 

Article 264. 

Certificates of nationality, airworthiness, or competency and 
licences, issued or recognised as valid by any of the Allied or Asso- 
ciated Powers, shall be recognised in Hungary as valid and as equiva- 
lent to the certificates and licences issued by Hungary. 

Article 265. 

As regards internal commercial air traffic, the aircraft of the Allied 
and Associated Powers shall enjoy in Hungary most-favoured nation 
treatment. 

Article 266. 

Hungary undertakes to enforce the necessary measures to ensure 
that all Hungarian aircraft flying over her territory shall comply 
with the Rules as to lights and Signals, Rules of the Air and Rules 
for Air Traffic on and in the neighbourhood of aerodromes, which 
have been laid down in the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation 
concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers. 

Article 267. 

The obligations imposed by the preceding provisions shall remain 
in force until January 1, 1923, unless before that date Hungary shall 
have been admitted into the League of Nations or shall have been 
authorised by consent of the Allied and Associated Powers to adhere 
to the Convention relative to Aerial Navigation concluded between 
those Powers. • 



286 PEACE TREATIES. 

PART XII.— PORTS, WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS. 

Section I. — General Provisions. 
Article 268. 

Hungary undertakes to grant freedom of transit through her 
territories on the routes most convenient for international transit, 
either by rail, navigable waterway or canal, to persons, goods, ves- 
sels, carriages, wagons and mails coming from or going to the terri- 
tories of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, whether contiguous 
or not. 

Such persons, goods, vessels, carriages, wagons and mails shall not 
be subjected to any transit duty or to any undue delays or restric- 
tions, and shall be entitled in Hungary to national treatment as 
regards charges, facilities and all other matters. 

Goods in transit shall be exempt from all customs or other similar 
duties. 

All charges imposed on transport in transit shall be reasonable, 
having regard to the conditions of the traffic. No charge, facility 
or restriction shall depend directly or indirectly on the ownership or 
on the nationality of the ship or other means of transport on which 
any part of the through journey has been, or is to be, accomplished. 

Article 269. 

Hungary undertakes neither to impose nor to maintain any control 
over transmigration traffic through her territories beyond measures 
necessary to ensure that passengers are bona fide in transit; nor to 
allow any shipping company or any other private body, corporation 
or person interested in the traffic to take any part whatever in, or to 
exercise any direct or indirect influence over, any administrative 
service that may be necessary for this purpose. 

Article 270. 

Hungary undertakes to make no discrimination or preference, 
direct or indirect, in the duties, charges and prohibitions relating to 
importations into or exportations from her territories, or, subject to 
the special engagements contained in the present Treaty, in the 
charges and conditions of transport of goods or persons entering or 
leaving her territories, based on the frontier crossed; or on the kind, 
ownership or flag of the means of transport (including aircraft) 
employed; or on the original or immediate place of departure of the 
vessel, wagon or aircraft, or other means of transport employed, or 
its ultimate or intermediate destination, or on the route of or places 
of transhipment on the journey; or on whether the goods are im- 
ported or exported directly through a Hungarian port or indirectly 
through a foreign port; or on whether the goods are imported or 
exported by land or by air. . 

Hungary particularly undertakes not to establish against the ports 
and vessels of any of the Allied and Associated Powers any surtax 
or any direct or indirect bounty for export or import by Hungarian 
ports or ships, or by those of another Power, for example by means 



PEACE TREATIES. 287 

of combined tariffs. She further undertakes that persons or goods 
passing through a port or using a vessel of any of the Allied and 
Associated Powers shall not be subjected to any formality or delay 
whatever to which such persons or goods would not be subjected if 
they passed through a Hungarian port or a port of any other Power, 
or used a Hungarian vessel or a vessel of any other Power. 

Article 271. 

All necessary administrative and technical measures shall be taken 
to expedite, as much as possible, the transmission of goods across the 
Hungarian frontiers and to ensure their forwarding and transport 
from such frontiers, irrespective of whether such goods are coming 
from or going to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers 
or are in transit from or to those territories, under the same material 
conditions in such matters as rapidity of carriage and care en route 
as are enjoyed by other goods of the same kind carried on Hungarian 
territory under similar conditions of transport. 

In particular, the transport of perishable goods shall be promptly 
and regularly carried out, and the customs formalities shall be 
effected in such a way as to allow the goods to be carried straight 
through by trains which make connection. 

Article 272. 

The seaports of the Allied and Associated Powers are entitled to all 
favours and to all reduced tariffs granted on Hungarian railways or 
navigable waterways for the benefit of any port of another Power. 

Article 273. 

Hungary may not refuse to participate in the tariffs or combina- 
tions of tariffs intended to secure for ports of any of the Allied and 
Associated Powers advantages similar to those granted by Hungary 
to the ports of any other Power. 

Section II. — Navigation. 

CHAPTER I.— FREEDOM OF NAVIGATION. 
Article 271. 

The nationals of any of the Allied and Associated Powers, as well 
as their vessels and property, shall enjoy in all Hungarian ports and 
on the inland navigation routes of Hungary the same treatment in all 
respects as Hungarian nationals, vessels and property. 

In particular, the vessels of any one of the Allied or Associated 
Powers shall be entitled to transport goods of any description, and 
passengers, to or from any ports or places in Hungarian territory to 
which Hungarian vessels may have access, under conditions which 
shall not be more onerous than those applied in the case of national 
vessels; they shall be treated on a footing of equality with national 
vessels as regards port and harbour facilities and charges of every 
description, including facilities for stationing, loading and unloading, 



288 PEACE TREATIES. 

and duties and charges of tonnage, harbour, pilotage, lighthouse, 
quarantine, and all analogous duties and charges of whatsoever 
nature, levied in the name of or for the profit of the Government, 
public functionaries, private individuals, corporations or establish- 
ments of any kind. 

In the event of Hungary granting a preferential regime to any of 
the Allied or Associated Powers or to any foreign Power, this regime 
shall be extended immediately and unconditionally to all the Allied 
and Associated Powers. 

There shall be no impediment to the movement of persons or ves- 
sels other than those arising from prescriptions concerning customs, 
police, sanitation, emigration and immigration, and those relating to 
the import and export of prohibited goods. Such regulations must 
be reasonable and uniform and must not impede traffic unnecessarily. 

CHAPTER II.— CLAUSES RELATING TO THE DANUBE. 

1. General Clauses relativi to River Systems declared International. 

Article 275. 

The following river is declared international: the Danube from 
Ulm; together with all navigable parts of this river system which 
naturally provide more than one State with access to the sea, with 
or without transhipment from one vessel to another, as well as 
lateral canals and channels constructed either to duplicate or to 
improve naturally navigable sections of the specified river system 
or to conneet two naturally navigable sections of the same river. 

Any part of the above-mentioned river system which is not in- 
cluded in the general definition may be declared international by 
an agreement between the riparian States. 

Article 276. 

On the waterways declared to be international in the preceding 
Article, the nationals, property and flags of all Powers shall be 
treated on a footing of perfect* equality, no distinction being made, 
to the detriment of the nationals, property or flag of any Power, 
between them and the nationals, property or flag of the riparian 
State itself or of the most-favoured nation. 

Article 277. 

Hungarian vessels shall not be entitled to carry passengers or 
goods by regular services between the ports of any Allied or Asso- 
ciated Power without special authority from such Power. 

Article 278. 

Where such charges are not precluded by any existing convention, 
charges varying on different sections of a river may be levied on ves- 
sels using the navigable channels or their approaches, provided that 
they are intended solely to cover equitably the cost of maintaining 
in a navigable condition, or of improving, the river and its an- 



PEACE TREATIES. 289 

proaches, or to meet expenditure incurred in the interests of naviga- 
tion. The schedule of such charges shall be calculated on the basis 
of such expenditure and shall be posted up in the ports. These 
charges shall be levied in such manner as to render any detailed ex- 
amination of cargoes unnecessary, except in cases of suspected fraud 
or contravention. 

Article 279. 

The transit of vessels, passengers and goods on these waterways 
shall be effected in accordance with the general conditions prescribed 
for transit in Section I above. 

When the two banks of an international river are within the same 
State goods in transit may be placed under seal or in the custody of 
customs agents. When the river forms a frontier goods and passen- 
gers in transit shall be exempt from all customs formalities; the 
loading and unloading of goods, and the embarkation and disem- 
barkation of passengers, shall only take place in the ports specified 
by the riparian State. 

Article 280. 

No dues of any kind other than those provided for in this Part 
shall be levied along the course or at the mouth of these waterways. 
This provision shall not prevent the fixing by the riparian States of 
customs, local octroi or consumption duties, or the creation of rea- 
sonable and uniform charges levied in the ports, in accordance with 
public tariffs, for the use of cranes, elevators, quays, warehouses 
and other similar constructions. 

Article 281. 

In default of any special organisation for carrying out the works 
connected with the upkeep and improvement of the international 
portion of a navigable system, each riparian State shall be bound to 
take the necessary measures to remove any obstacle or danger to 
navigation and to ensure the maintenance of good conditions of 
navigation. 

If a State neglects to comply with this obligation any riparian 
State, or any State represented on the International Commission, 
may appeal to the tribunal instituted for this purpose by the League 
of Nations. 

Article 282. 

The same procedure shall be followed in the case of a riparian State 
undertaking any works of a nature to impede navigation in the in- 
ternational section. The tribunal mentioned in the preceding Article 
shall be entitled to enforce the suspension or suppression of such 
works, making due allowance in its decision for all rights in connec- 
tion with irrigation, water-power, fisheries and other national inter- 
ests, which, with the consent of all the riparian States or of all the 
States represented on the International Commission, shall be given 
priority over the requirements of navigation. 

Appeal to the tribunal of the League of Nations does not require 
the suspension of the works. 
47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 19 



290 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 283. 

The regime set out in Articles 276 and 278 to 282 above shall be 
superseded by one to be laid down in a General Convention drawn 
up by the Allied and Associated Powers, and approved by the 
League of Nations, relating to the waterways recognised in such 
Convention as having an international character. This Convention 
shall apply in particular to the whole or part of the above-mentioned 
river system of the Danube, and such other parts of that river sys- 
tem as may be covered by a general definition. 

Hungary undertakes, in accordance with the provisions of Article 
314, to adhere to the said General Convention. 

Article 284. 

Hungary shall cede to the Allied and Associated Powers con- 
cerned, within a maximum period of three months from the date on 
which notification shall be given her, a proportion of the tugs and 
vessels remaining registered in the ports of the river system re- 
ferred to in Article 275 after the deduction of those surrendered by 
way of restitution or reparation. Hungary shall in the same way 
cede material of all kinds necessary to the Allied and Associated 
Powers concerned for the utilisation of that river system. 

The number of the tugs and vessels and the amount of the material 
so ceded, and their distribution, shall be determined by an arbitrator 
or arbitrators nominated by the United States of America, due 
regard being had to the legitimate needs of the parties concerned, 
and particularly to the shipping traffic during the five years preced- 
ing the war. 

All craft so ceded shall be provided with their fittings and gear, 
shall be in a good state of repair and in condition to carry goods, 
and shall be selected from among those most recently^ built. 

Wherever the cessions made under the present Article involve a 
change of ownership, the arbitrator or arbitrators shall determine 
the rights of the former owners as they stood on October 15, 1918, 
and the amount of the compensation to be paid to them, and shall 
also direct the manner in which such payment is to be effected in 
each case. If the arbitrator or arbitrators find that the whole or 
part of this sum will revert directly or indirectly to States from 
whom reparation is due, they shall decide the sum to be placed under 
this head to the credit of the said States. 

As regards the Danube the arbitrator or arbitrators referred to in 
this Article will also decide all questions as to the permanent allo- 
cation and the conditions thereof of the vessels whose ownershp or 
nationality is in dispute between States. 

Pending final allocation the control of these vessels shall be vested 
in a Commission consisting of representatives of the United States 
of America, the British Empire. France and Italy, who will be em- 
powered to make provisional arrangements for the working of these 
vessels in the general interest by any local organisation, or failing 
such arrangements by themselves, without prejudice to the final 
allocation. 



PEACE TREATIES. 291 

As far as possible these provisional arrangements will be on a 
commercial basis, the net receipts by the Commission for the hire 
of these vessels being disposed of as directed by the Reparation Com- 
mission. 

(2) Special Clauses relating to the Danube. 

Article 285. 

The European Commission of the Danube reassumes the powers 
it possessed before the war. Nevertheless, as a provisional measure, 
only representatives of Great Britain, France, Italy and Roumania 
shall constitute this Commission. 

Article 286. 

From the point where the competence of the European Commis- 
sion ceases, the Danube system referred to in Article 275 shall be 
placed under the administration of an International Commission 
composed as follows : 

Two representatives of German riparian States ; 
One representative of each other riparian State; 
One representative of each non-riparian State represented in 
the future on the European Commission of the Danube. 
If certain of these representatives cannot be appointed at the 
time of the coming into force of the present Treaty, the decisions of 
the Commission shall nevertheless be valid. 

Article 287. 

The International Commission provided for in the preceding 
Article shall meet as soon as possible after the coming into force of 
the present Treaty, and shall undertake provisionally the adminis- 
tration of the river in conformity with the provisions of Articles 
276 and 278 to 282, until such time as a definitive statute regarding 
the Danube is concluded by the Powers nominated by the Allied and 
Associated Powers. 

The decisions of this International Commission shall be taken by a 
majority vote. The salaries of the Commissioners shall be fixed and 
paid by their respective countries. 

As a provisional measure, any deficit in the administrative expenses 
of this International Commission shall be borne equally by the States 
represented on the Commission. 

In particular this Commission shall regulate the licensing of pilots, 
charges for pilotage and the administration of the pilot service. 

Article 288. 

Hungary agrees to accept the regime which shall be laid down for 
the Danube by a Conference of the Powers nominated by the Allied 
and Associated Powers, which shall meet within one year after the 
coming into force of the present Treaty, and at which Hungarian 
representatives may be present. 



292 PEACE TREATIES. 

Until such time as a definite statute regarding the Danube is con- 
cluded, the International Commission provided for in Article 286 
shall have provisionally under its control the equipment, buildings 
and installations used for carrying out and maintaining works on the 
section of the Danube between Turnu-Severin and Moldava. The 
final allocation of the equipment, buildings and installations shall be 
determined by the Conference provided for in the preceding para- 
graph. 

Hungary renounces all interest in and all control over the said 
equipment, buildings and installations. 

Article 289. 

The mandate given by Article 57 of the Treaty of Berlin of July 
13, 1878, to Austria-Hungary, and transferred by her to Hungary, to 
carry out works at the Iron Gates, is abrogated. The Commission 
entrusted with the administration of this part of the river shall lay 
down provisions for the settlement of accounts subject to the financial 
provisions of the present Treaty. Charges which may be necessary 
shall in no case be levied by Hungary. 

Article 290. 

Should the Czecho-Slovak State, the Serb-Croat-Slovene State or 
Roumania, with the authorisation of or under mandate from the 
International Commission, undertake maintenance, improvement, 
weir, or other works on a part of the river system which forms a 
frontier, these States shall enjoy on the opposite bank, and also on 
the part of the bed which is outside their territory, all necessary 
facilities for the survey, execution and maintenance of such works. 

Article 291. 

Hungary shall be obliged to make to the European Commission of 
the Danube all restitutions, reparations and indemnities for damages 
inflicted on the Commission during the war. 

CHAPTER III.— HYDRAULIC SYSTEM. 
Article 292. 

In default of any provisions to the contrary, when as the result of 
the fixing of a new frontier the hydraulic system (canalisation, in- 
undations, irrigation, drainage, or similar matters) in a State is de- 
pendent on works executed within the territory of another State, or 
when use is made on the territory of a State, in virtue of pre-war 
usage, of water or hvdraulic power, the source of which is on the 
territory of another State, an agreement shall be made between the 
States concerned to safeguard the interests and rights acquired by 
each of them. 

Unless otherwise provided, when use is made for municipal or 
domestic purposes in one State of electricity or water, the source of 
which as the result of the fixing of a new frontier is on the territory 
of another State, an agreemnt shall be made between the States con- 



PEACE TREATIES. 293 

cerned to safeguard the interests and rights acquired by each of 
them. Pending- an agreement, central electric stations and water- 
works shall be required to continue the supply up to an amount corre- 
sponding to the undertakings and contracts in force on November 
3, 1918. 

Failing an agreement in the case of either of the above paragraphs, 
and subject to the provisions of Article 293, the matter shall be regu- 
lated by an arbitrator appointed by the Council of the League of 
Nations. 

Article 293. 

In view of the application of Article 292 to the territories of the 
former Kingdom of Hungary forming the Basin of the Danube, ex- 
cluding the Basin of the Olt, as well as for the exercise of the powers 
provided for below, there shall be set up, in the common interest of 
the States possessing sovereignty over the ' territories in question, a 
permanent technical Hydraulic System Commission, composed of 
one representative of each of the States territorially concerned and a 
Chairman appointed by the Council of the League of Nations. 

This Commission shall bring about the conclusion, and supervise 
and, in urgent cases, ensure the carrying out, of the agreements pro- 
vided for in Article 292; it shall maintain and improve, particularly 
as regards deforestation and afforestation, the uniform character of 
the hydraulic system, as well as of the services connected therewith, 
such as the hydrometric service and the service of information as to 
the rising of the waters. It shall also study questions relating to 
navigation, excepting those falling within the competence of the 
Commission for regulating the navigation of the Upper Danube, 
which it shall refer to the said Commission, and it shall give special 
consideration to fishery interests. The Commission shall in addition 
undertake all works or schemes and shall establish all services with 
which it may be charged by the unanimous consent of the interested 
States. 

The Hydraulic System Commission shall meet within three months 
from the coming into force of the present Treaty; it shall draw up 
a regulation as to its functions and procedure, which will be subject 
to approval by the States concerned. 

Any disputes which may arise out of the matters dealt with in this 
Article shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations. 

Section III. — Railways. 

CHAPTER I.— FREEDOM OF TRANSIT TO THE ADRIATIC FOR 

HUNGARY. 

Article 294. 

Free access to the Adriatic Sea is accorded to Hungary, who with 
this object will enjoy freedom of transit over the territories and in 
the ports severed from the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. 

Freedom of transit is the freedom defined in Article 268 until such 
time as a General Convention on the subject shall have been con- 
cluded between the Allied and Associated Powers, whereupon the 
dispositions of the new Convention shall be substituted therefor. 



294 PEACE TREATIES. 

Special conventions between the States or Administrations con- 
cerned will lay down the conditions of the exercise of the right 
accorded above, and will settle in particular the method of using the 
ports and the free zones existing in them, and the railways ordinarily 
giving access thereto, the establishment of international (joint) 
services and tariffs, including through tickets and way-bills, and the 
maintenance of the Convention of Berne of October 14, 1890, and its 
supplementary provisions until its replacement by a new Convention. 

Freedom of transit will extend to postal, telegraphic and telephonic 
services. 

CHAPTER II.— CLAUSES RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT. 

Article 295. 

Goods coming from the territories of the Allied and Associated 
Powers and going to Hungary, or in transit through Hungary from 
or to the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers, shall enjoy 
on the Hungarian railways as regards charges to be collected (rebates 
and drawbacks being taken into account), facilities, and all other 
matters, the most favourable treatment applied to goods of the same 
kind carried on any Hungarian lines, either in internal traffic, or for 
export, import or in transit, under similar conditions of transport, 
for example as regards length of route. The same rule shall be ap- 
plied, on the request of one or more of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, to goods specially designated by such Power or Powers 
coming from Hungary and going to their territories. 

International tariffs established in accordance with the rates re- 
ferred to in the preceding paragraph and involving through way- 
bills shall be established when one of the Allied and Associated 
Powers shall require it from Hungary. 

However, without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 272 and 
273, Hungary undertakes to maintain on her own lines the regime of 
tariffs existing before the war as regards traffic to Adriatic and Black 
Sea ports, from the point of view of competition with North German 
ports. 

Article 296. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the High Con- 
tracting Parties shall renew, in so far as concerns them and under 
the reserves indicated in the second paragraph of the present Article, 
the Conventions and Arrangements signed at Berne on October 14, 
1890, September 20, 1893, July 16, 1895, June 16, 1898, and Septem- 
ber 19, 1906. regarding the transportation of goods by rail. 

If within five years from the date of the coming into force of the 
present Treaty a new Convention for the transportation of passen- 
gers, luggage and goods by rail shall have been concluded to replace 
the Berne Convention of October 14, 1890, and the subsequent addi- 
tions referred to above, this new Convention and the supplementary 
provisions for international transport by rail which may be based 
on it shall bind Hungary, even if she shall have refused to take part 
in the preparation of the Convention or to subscribe to it. Until a 
new Convention shall have been concluded, Hungary shall conform 



PEACE TREATIES. 295 

to the provisions of the Berne Convention and the subsequent addi- 
tions referred to above and to the current supplementary provisions. 

Article 297. 

Hungary shall be bound to co-operate in the establishment of 
through ticket services (for passengers and their luggage) which 
shall be required by any of the Allied and Associated Powers to en- 
sure their communication by rail with each other and with all other 
countries by transit across the territories of Hungary ; in particular 
Hungary shall, for this purpose, accept trains and carriages coming 
from the territories of the Allied and Associated Powers and shall 
forward them with a speed at least equal to that of her best long- 
distance trains on the same lines. The rates applicable to such 
through services shall not in any case be higher than the rates col- 
lected on Hungarian internal services for the same distance, under 
the same conditions of speed and comfort. 

The tariffs applicable under the same conditions of speed and com- 
fort to the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports 
of the Allied and Associated Powers and using the Hungarian rail- 
ways shall not be at a higher kilometric rate than the most favourable 
tariffs (drawbacks and rebates being taken into account) enjoyed 
on the said railways by emigrants going to or coming from any 
other ports. 

Article 298. 

Hungary shall not apply specially to such through services, or to 
the transportation of emigrants going to or coming from ports of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, any technical, fiscal or adminis- 
trative measures, such as measures of customs examination, general 
police, sanitary police, and control, the result of which would be 
to impede or delay such services. 

Article 299. 

In case of transport partly by rail and partly by internal naviga- 
tion, with or without through way-bill, the preceding Articles shall 
apply to the part of the journey performed by rail. 

CHAPTER III— ROLLING-STOCK. 

Article 300. 

Hungary undertakes that Hungarian wagons shall be fitted with 
apparatus allowing: 

(1) of their inclusion in goods trains on the lines of such of the 
Allied and Associated Powers as are parties to the Berne Convention 
of May 15, 1886, as modified on May 18, 1907, without hampering the 
action of the continuous brake which may be adopted in such coun- 
tries within ten years of the coming into force of the present Treaty, 
and 

(2) of the inclusion of wagons of such countries in all goods trains 
on Hungarian lines. 



296 PEACE TREATIES. 

The rolling-stock of the Allied and Associated Powers shall enjoy 
on the Hungarian lines the same treatment as Hungarian rolling- 
stock as regards movement, upkeep and repairs. 

CHAPTER IV.— TRANSFERS OP RAILWAY LINES. 

Article 301. 

Subject to any special provisions concerning the transfer of ports, 
waterways and railwa} 7 s situated in the territories transferred under 
the present Treaty, and to the financial conditions relating to the 
concessionaires and the pensioning of the. personnel, the transfer of 
railways will take place under the following conditions: — 

(1) The works and installations of all the railroads shall be 
handed over complete and in good condition. ' 

(2) When a railway system possessing its own rolling-stock is 
handed over in its entirety by Hungary to one of the Allied and 
Associated Powers, such stock shall be handed over complete, in 
accordance with the last inventory before November 3, 1918, and in 
a normal state of upkeep. 

(3) As regards lines without any special rolling-stock, the dis- 
tribution of the stock existing on the system to which these lines 
belong shall be made by Commissions of experts designated by the 
Allied and Associated Powers, on which Hungary shall be repre- 
sented. These Commissions shall have regard to the amount of the 
material registered on these lines in the last inventory before No- 
vember 3, 1918, to the length of track (sidings included), and the 
nature and amount of the traffic. These Commissions shall also 
specify the locomotives, carriages and wagons to be handed over in 
each case ; they shall decide upon the conditions of their acceptance, 
and shall make the provisional arrangements necessary to ensure their 
repair in Hungarian workshops. 

(4) Stock of stores, fittings and plant shall be handed over under 
the same conditions as the rolling-stock. 

The provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 above shall be applied to 
the lines of former Eussian Poland converted by the Austro- 
Hungarian authorities to the normal gauge, such lines being regarded 
as detached from the Austrian and Hungarian State systems. 

CHAPTER V.— PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN RAILWAY LINES. 

Article 302. 

When, as a result of the fixing of new frontiers, a railway connec- 
tion between two parts of the same country crosses another country, or 
a branch line from one country has its terminus in another, the con- 
ditions of working, if not specifically provided for in the present 
Treaty, shall be laid down in a convention between the railway ad- 
ministrations concerned. If the administrations cannot come to an 
agreement as to the terms of such convention, the points of difference 
shall be decided by Commissions of experts composed as provided in 
the preceding Article. 

In particular, the convention as to the working of the line between 
Csata and Losoncz shall provide for the direct passage in each 



PEACE TREATIES. 297 

direction through Hungarian territory of Czecho-Slovak trains with 
Czecho-Slovak traction and Czecho-Slovak train crews. Neverthe- 
less, unless otherwise agreed, this right of passage shall lapse either 
on the completion of a direct connection wholly in Czecho-Slovak 
territory between Csata and Losoncz or at the expiration of fifteen 
years from the coming into force of the present Treaty, whichever 
may occur first. 

Similarly, the convention as to the working of the portion in Hun- 
garian territory of the line from Nagyszalonta through Bekescsaba 
to Arad and to Kisjeno shall provide for the direct passage in each 
direction through Hungarian territory of Roumanian trains with 
Roumanian traction and Roumanian train crews. Unless otherwise 
agreed this right of passage shall lapse either on the completion 
of a direct connection wholly in Roumanian territory between the 
Nagyszalonta-Bekescsaba and the Kisjeno-Bekescsaba lines or at the 
expiration of ten years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty. 

The establishment of all the new frontier stations between Hun- 
gary and the contiguous Allied and Associated States, as well as the 
working of the lines between those stations, shall be settled by agree- 
ments similarly concluded. 

Article 303. 

In order to assure to the town and district of Gola in Serb-Croat- 
Slovene territory the use of the station of Gola in Hungarian terri- 
tory and of the railway serving the same, and in order to ensure the 
free use to Serb-Croat-Slovene traffic of direct railway connection 
between the Csaktornya-Nagy-Kanisza line and the Zcagrab- 
Gyekenj^es line during the time required for the completion of a 
direct railway in Serb-Croat-Slovene territory between the above 
lines, the conditions of working of the station of Gola and of the 
railway from Kotor to Barcz shall be laid down in a convention 
between the Hungarian and Serb-Croat-Slovene railwaj^ adminis- 
trations concerned. If these administrations cannot come to an 
agreement as to the terms of such convention, the points of difference 
shall be decided by the competent Commission of experts referred 
to in Article 301 of the present Treaty. 

Article 304, 

With the object of ensuing regular utilization of the railroads of 
the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy owned by private com- 
panies which, as a result of the stipulations of the present Treaty, 
will be situated in the territory of several States, the administrative 
and technical re-organisation of the said lines shall be regulated 
in each instance by an agreement between the owning company and 
the States territorially concerned. 

Any differences on which agreement is not reached, including 
questions relating to the interpretation of contracts concerning the 
expropriation of the lines, shall be submitted to arbitrators desig- 
nated by the Council of the League of Nations. 

This arbitration may, as regards the South Austrian Railway 
Company, be required either by the Board of Management or by 
the Committee representing the bondholders. 



298 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 305. 

Within a period of five years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, the Czecho-Slovak State may require the improve- 
ment of the Bratislava (Pressburg) -Nagy-Kanisza line on Hun- 
garian territory. 

The expenses shall be divided in proportion to the advantages 
derived by the interested States. Failing agreement, such division 
shall be made by an arbitrator appointed by the League of Nations. 

Article 306. 

In view of the importance to the Czecho-Slovak State of free 
communication between that State and the Adriatic, Hungary recog- 
nises the right of the Czecho-Slovak State to run its own trains over 
the sections included within her territory of the following lines : 

(1) from Bratislava (Pressburg) towards Fiume via Sopron, 
Szombathely and Mura-Keresztur, and a branch from Mura-Ker- 
esztur towards Pragerhof; 

(2) from Bratislava (Pressburg) towards Fiume via Hegyesha- 
lon, Csorna, Hegyfalu, Zalaber, Zalaszentivan, Mura-Keresztur, and 
the branch lines from Hegyfalu to Szombathely and from Mura- 
Keresztur to Pragerhof. 

On the application of either party, the route to be followed by 
the Czecho-Slovak trains may be modified either permanently or 
temporarily by mutual agreement between the Czecho-Slovak Rail- 
way Administration and those of the railways over which the run- 
ning powers are exercised. 

Article 307. 

The trains for which the running powers are used shall not en- 
gage in local traffic, except by agreement between the State traversed 
and the Czecho-Slovak State. 

Such running powers will include, in particular, the right to 
establish running sheds with small shops for minor repairs to loco- 
motives and rolling-stock, and to appoint representatives where 
necessary to supervise the working of Czecho-Slovak trains. 

The technical, administrative and financial conditions under which 
the rights of the Czecho-Slovak State shall be exercised shall be laid 
down in a Convention between the railway administration of the 
Czecho-Slovak State and the railway administrations of the Hun- 
garian systems concerned. If the administrations cannot come to 
an agreement on the terms of this Convention, the points of differ- 
ence shall be decided by an arbitrator nominated by Great Britain, 
and his decisions shall be binding on all parties. 

In the event of disagreement as to the interpretation of the Con- 
vention or of difficulties arising unprovided for in the Convention, 
the same form of arbitration will be adopted until such time as the 
League of Nations may lay down some other procedure. 



PEACE TREATIES. 299 

CHAPTER VI— TRANSITORY PROVISION. 
Article 308. 

Hungaiw shall carry out the instructions given her, in regard to 
transport, bv an authorised body acting on behalf of the Allied and 
Associated Powers: 

(1) for the carriage of troops under the provisions of the present 
Treaty, and of material, ammunition and supplies for army use ; 

(2) as a temporary measure, for the transportation of supplies 
for certain regions, as well as for the restoration, as rapidly as possi- 
ble, of the normal conditions of transport, and for the organisation 
of postal and telegraphic services. 

CHAPTED VII.— TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES. 

Article 309. 

Notwithstanding any contrary stipulations in existing treaties, 
Hungary undertakes to grant freedom of transit for telegraphic 
correspondence and telephonic communications coming from or 
going to any one of the Allied and Associated Powers, whether neigh- 
bours or not, over such lines as may be most suitable for international 
transit and in accordance with the tariffs in force. This corre- 
spondence and these communications shall be subjected to no delay 
or restriction; they shall enjoy in Hungary national treatment in 
regard to every kind of facility and especially in regard to rapidity 
of transmission. No payment, facility or restriction shall depend 
directly or indirectly on the nationality of the transmitter or the 
addressee. 

Article 310. 

In view of the geographical situation of the Czecho-Slovak State, 
Hungary agrees to the following modifications in the International 
Telegraph and Telephone Conventions referred to in Article 218, 
Part X (Economic Clauses), of the present Treaty: 

(1) On the demand of the Czecho-Slovak State, Hungary shall 
provide and maintain trunk telegraph lines across Hungarian ter- 
ritory. 

(2) The annual rent to be paid by the Czecho-Slovak State for 
each of such lines will be calculated in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the above-mentioned Conventions, but unless otherwise 
agreed shall not be less than the sum which would be payable under 
those Conventions for the number of messages laid down in those 
Conventions as conferring the right to demand a new trunk line, 
taking as a basis the reduced tariff provided for in Article 23, para- 
graph 5, of the International Telegraph Convention as revised at 
Lisbon. 

(3) So long as the Czecho-Slovak State shall pay the above mini- 
mum annual rent of a trunk line: 

(a) The line shall be reserved exclusively for transit traffic to and 
from the Czecho-Slovak State; 

(b) The faculty given to Hungary by Article 8 of the Inter- 
national Telegraph Convention of July 22, 1875, to suspend inter- 
national telegraph services shall not apply to that line. 



300 PEACE TREATIES. 

(4) Similar provisions will apply to the provision and mainte- 
nance of trunk telephone circuits, but the rent payable by the Czecho- 
slovak State for a trunk telephone circuit shall, unless otherwise 
agreed, be double the rent payable for a trunk telegraph line. 

(5) The particular lines to be provided, together with any neces- 
sary administrative, technical and financial conditions not provided 
for in existing International Conventions or in this Article, shall be 
fixed by a further convention between the States concerned. In 
default of agreement on such convention they will be fixed by an 
arbitrator appointed by the Council of the League of Nations. 

(6) The stipulations of the present Article may be varied at any 
time by agreement between Hungary and the Czecho-Slovak State. 
After the expiration of ten years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty the conditions under which the Czecho-Slovak State 
shall enjoy the rights conferred by this Article may, in default of 
agreement by the parties, be modified at the request of either party 
by an arbitrator designated by the Council of the League of Nations. 

(7) In case of any dispute between the parties as to the inter- 
pretation either of this Article or of the convention referred to in 
paragraph 5, this dispute shall be submitted for decision to the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice to be established by the 
League of Nations. 

Section IV. — Disputes and Revision of Permanent Clauses. 

Article 311. 

Disputes which may arise between interested Powers with regard 
to the interpretation and application of this Part of the present 
Treaty shall be settled as provided by the League of Nations. 

Article 312. 

At any time the League of Nations may recommend the revision 
of such of the above Articles as relate to a permanent administrative 
regime. 

Article 313. 

The stipulations in Articles 268 to 274, 277, 295, 297 to 299 and 309 
shall be subject to revision by the Council of the League of Nations 
at any time after three years from the coming into force of the pres- 
ent Treaty. 

Failing such revision, no Allied or Associated Power can claim 
after the experiation of the above period of three years the benefit 
of any of the stipulations in the Articles enumerated above on be- 
half of any portion of its territories in which reciprocity is not 
accorded in respect to such stipulations. The period of three years 
during which reciprocity cannot be demanded may be prolonged 
by the Council of the League of Nations. 

The benefit of the stipulations mentioned above cannot be claimed 
by States to which territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Mon- 
archy has been transferred, or which have arisen out of the dis- 
memberment of that Monarchy, except upon the footing of giving 



PEACE TREATIES. 301 

in the territory passing under their sovereignty in virtue of the 
present Treaty reciprocal treatment to Hungary. 

Section V. — Special Provision. 

Article 314. 

Without prejudice to the special obligations imposed on her by 
the present Treaty for the benefit of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, Hungary undertakes to adhere to any General Conventions 
regarding the international regime of transit, waterways, ports or 
railways which may be concluded by the Allied and Associated 
Powers, with the approval of the League of Nations, within five 
years of the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

PART XIII.— LABOUR. 

Section I. — Organisation of Labour. 

Whereas the League of Nations has for its object the establish- 
ment of universal peace, and such a peace can be established only 
if it is based upon social justice ; 

And whereas conditions of labour exist involving such injustice, 
hardship and privation to large numbers of people as to produce 
unrest so great that the peace and harmony of the world are im- 
perilled; and an improvement of those conditions is urgently re- 
quired: as, for example, by the regulation of the hours of work, 
including the establishment of a maximum working day and week, 
the regulation of the labour supply, the prevention of unemployment, 
the provision of an adequate living wage, the protection of the 
worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of his em- 
ployment, the protection of children, young persons and women, pro- 
vision for old age and injury, protection of the interests of workers 
when employed in countries other than their own, recognition of the 
principle of freedom of association, the organisation of vocational 
and technical education and other measures ; 

Whereas also the failure of any nation to adopt humane conditions 
of labour is an obstacle in the way of other nations which desire to 
improve the conditions in their own countries ; 

The High Contracting Parties, moved by sentiments of justice and 
humanity as well as by the desire to secure the permanent peace of 
the world, agree to the following : 

CHAPTER I.— ORGANISATION. 
Article 315. 

A permanent organisation is hereby established for the promotion 
of the objects set forth in the Preamble. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be the 
original Members of this organisation, and hereafter membership 
of the League of Nations shall carry with it membership of the 
said organisation. 



302 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 316. 

The permanent organisation shall consist of : 

(1) a General Conference of Representatives of the Members, and 

(2) an International Labour Office controlled by the Governing 
Body described in Article 321. 

Article 317. 

The meetings of the General Conference of Representatives of 
the Members shall be held from time to time as occasion may re- 
quire, and at least once in every year. It shall be composed of four 
Representatives of each of the Members, of whom two shall be 
Government Delegates and the two others shall be Delegates repre- 
senting respectively the employers and the workpeople of each of 
the Members. 

Each Delegate may be accompanied by advisers, who shall not 
exceed two in number for each item on the agenda of the meeting. 
When questions specially affecting women are to be considered by the 
Conference, one at least of the advisers should be a woman. 

The Members undertake to nominate non-Government Delegates 
and advisers chosen in agreement with the industrial organisations, 
if such organisations exist, which are most representative of em- 
ployers or workpeople, as the case may be, in their respective 
countries. 

Advisers shall not speak except on a request made by the Delegate 
whom they accompany and by the special authorization of the Presi- 
dent of the Conference, and may not vote. 

A Delegate may by notice in writing addressed to the President 
appoint one of his advisers to act as his deputy, and the adviser, 
while so acting, shall be allowed to speak and vote. 

The names of the Delegates and their advisers will be communi- 
cated to the International Labour Office by the Government of each 
of the Members. 

The credentials of Delegates and their advisers shall be subject to 
scrutiny by the Conference, which may, by two-thirds of the votes 
cast by the Delegates present, refuse to admit any Delegate or ad- 
viser whom it deems not to have been nominated in accordance with 
this Article. 

Article 318. 

Every Delegate shall be entitled to vote individually on all mat- 
ters which are taken into consideration by the Conference. 

If one of the Members fails to nominate one of the non-Govern- 
cent Delegates whom it is entitled to nominate, the other non-Gov- 
ernment Delegate shall be allowed to sit and speak at the Confer- 
ence, but not to vote. 

If in accordance with Article 317 the Conference refuses admis- 
sion to a Delegate of one of the Members, the provisions of the pres- 
ent Article shall apply as if that Delegate had not been nominated. 



PEACE TREATIES. 803 

Article 319. 

The meetings of the Conference shall be held at the seat of the 
League of Nations, or at such other place as may be decided by the 
Conference at a previous meeting by two-thirds of the votes cast by 
the Delegates present. 

Article 320. 

The International Labour Office shall be established at the seat of 
the League of Nations as part of the organisation of the League. 

Article 321. 

The International Labour Office shall be under the control of a 
Governing Body consisting of twenty-four persons, appointed in ac- 
cordance with the following provisions: 

The Governing Body of the International Labour Office shall be 
constituted as follows : 

Twelve persons representing the Governments; 

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference represent- 
ing the employers ; 

Six persons elected by the Delegates to the Conference represent- 
ing the workers. 

Of the twelve persons representing the Governments eight shall be 
nominated by the Members which are of the chief industrial im- 
portance, and four shall be nominated by the Members selected for 
the purpose by the Government Delegates to the Conference, ex- 
cluding the Delegates of the eight Members mentioned above. 

Any question as to which are the Members of the chief industrial 
importance shall be decided by the Council of the League of Nations. 

The period of office of the Members of the Governing Body will be 
three years. The method of filling vacancies and other similar ques- 
tions may be determined by the Governing Body subject to the 
approval of the Conference. 

The Governing Body shall, from time to time, elect one of its 
members to act as its Chairman, shall regulate its own procedure 
and shall fix its own times of meeting. A special meeting shall be 
held if a written request to that effect is made by at least ten mem- 
bers of the Governing Body. 

Article 322. 

There shall be a Director of the International Labour Office, who 
shall be appointed by the Governing Body, and. subject to the in- 
structions of the Governing Body, shall be responsible for the effi- 
cient conduct of the International Labour Office and for such other 
duties as may be assigned to him. 

The Director or his deputy shall attend all meetings of the Gov- 
erning Body. 

Article 323. 

The staff of the International Labour Office shall be appointed by 
the Director, who shall, so far as is possible with due regard to the 



304 PEACE TREATIES. 

efficiency of the work of the Office, select persons of different nation- 
alities. A certain number of these persons shall be women. 

Article 324. 

The functions of the International Labour Office shall include the 
collection and distribution of information on all subjects relating to 
the international adjustment of conditions of industrial life and 
labour, and particularly the examination of subjects which it is 
proposed to bring before the Conference with a view to the conclu- 
sion of international conventions, and the conduct of such special 
investigations as may be ordered by the Conference. 

It will prepare the agenda for the meetings of the Conference. 

It will carry out the duties required of it by the provisions of this 
Part of the present Treaty in connection with international disputes. 

It will edit and publish in French and English, and in such other 
languages as the Governing Body may think desirable, a periodical 
paper dealing with problems of industry and employment of inter- 
national interest. 

Generally, in addition to the functions set out in this Article, it 
shall have such other powers and duties as may be assigned to it by 
the Conference. 

Article 325. 

The Government Departments of any of the Members which deal 
with questions of industry and employment may communicate di- 
rectly with the Director through the Representative of their Gov- 
ernment on the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, 
or failing any such Representative, through such other qualified 
official as the Government may nominate for the purpose. 

Article 326. 

The International Labour Office shall be entitled to the assistance 
of the Secretary-General of the League of Nations in any matter in 
which it can be given. 

Article 327. 

Each of the Members will pay the travelling and subsistence ex- 
penses of its Delegates and their advisers and of its Representatives 
attending the meetings of the Conference or Governing Body, as the 
case may be. 

All the other expenses of the International Labour Office and of 
the meetings of the Conference or Governing Body shall be paid to 
the Director by the Secretary- General of the League of Nations out 
of the general funds of the League. 

The Director shall be responsible to the Secretary- General of the 
League for the proper expenditure of all moneys paid to him in pur- 
suance of this Article. 



PEACE TREATIES. 305 

CHAPTER II.— PROCEDURE. 

Article 328. 

The agenda for all meetings of the Conference will be settled by 
the Governing Body, who shall consider any suggestion as to the 
agenda that may be made by the Government or any of the Mem- 
bers or by any representative organisation recognised for the pur- 
pose of Article 317. 

Article 329. 

The Director shall act as the Secretary of the Conference, and 
shall transmit the agenda so as to reach the Members four months 
before the meeting of the Conference, and, through them, the non- 
Government Delegates when appointed. 

Article 330. 

Any of the Governments of the Members may formally object to 
the inclusion of any item or items in the agenda. The grounds for 
such objection shall be set forth in a reasoned statement addressed 
to the Director, who shall circulate it to all the Members of the Per- 
manent Organisation. 

Items to which such objection has been made shall not, however, 
be excluded from the agenda, if at the Conference a majority of 
two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present is in favour of 
considering them. 

If the Conference decides (otherwise than under the preceding 
paragraph) by two-thirds of the votes cast by the Delegates present 
that any subject shall be considered by the Conference, that subject 
shall be included in the agenda for the following meeting. 

Article 331. 

The Conference shall regulate its own procedure, shall elect its own 
President and may appoint committees to consider and report on 
any matter. 

Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Part of the present 
Treaty, all matters shall be decided by a simple majority of the votes 
cast by the Delegates present. 

The voting is void unless the total number of votes cast is equal to 
half the number of the Delegates attending the Conference. 

Article 332. 

The Conference may add to any committees which it appoints 
technical experts, who shall be assessors without power to vote. 

Article 333. 

When the Conference has decided on the adoption of proposals with 
regard to an item in the agenda, it will rest with the Conference to 
determine whether these proposals should take the form : (a) of a 
47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 20 



306 PEACE TREATIES. 

recommendation to be submitted to the Members for consideration 
with a view to effect being given to it by national legislation or other- 
wise, or (b) of a draft international convention for ratification by the 
Members. 

In either case a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by the 
Delegates present shall be necessary on the final vote for the adoption 
of the recommendation or draft convention, as the case may be. by 
the Conference. 

In framing any recommendation or draft convention of general 
application, the Conference shall have due regard to those countries 
in which climatic conditions, the imperfect development of indus- 
trial organisation or other special circumstances, make the indus- 
trial conditions substantially different and shall suggest the modi- 
fications, if any, which it considers may be required to meet the case 
of such countries. 

A copy of the recommendation or draft convention shall be authen- 
ticated by the signature of the -President of the Conference and of the 
Director and shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the 
League of Nations. The Secretary-General will communicate a cer- 
tified copy of the recommendation or draft convention to each of 
the Members. 

Each of the Members undertakes that it will, within the period of 
one year at most from the closing of the session of the Conference,. 
or if it is impossible owing to exceptional circumstances to do so 
within the period of one year, then at the earliest practicable moment 
and in no case later than eighteen months from the closing of the 
session of the Conference, bring the recommendation or draft con- 
vention before the authority or authorities within whose competence 
the matter lies, for the enactment of legislation or other action. 

In the case of a recommendation, the Members will inform the Sec- 
retary-General of the action taken. 

In the case of a draft convention, the Member will, if it obtains the 
consent of the authority or authorities within whose competence the 
matter lies, communicate the formal ratification of the convention 
to the Secretary-General and will take such action as may be neces- 
sary to make effective the provisions of such convention. 

If on a recommendation no legislative or other action is taken to 
make a recommendation effective, or if the draft convention fails 
to obtain the consent of the authority or authorities within whose 
competence the matter lies, no further obligation shall rest upon the 
Member. 

In the case of a federal State, the power of which to enter into 
conventions on labour matters is subject to limitations, it shall be 
in the discretion of that Government to treat a draft convention to 
which such limitations apply as a recommendation only, and the pro- 
visions of this Article with respect to recommendations shall apply 
in such case. 

The above Article shall be interpreted in accordance with the fol- 
lowing principle. 

In no case shall any Member be asked or required, as a result of the 
adoption of any recommendation or draft convention by the Con- 
ference, to lessen the protection afforded by its existing legislation to 
the workers concerned. 



peace treaties. 307 

Article 334. 

Any convention so ratified shall be registered by the Secretary- 
General of the League of Nations, but shall only be binding upon the 
Members which ratify it. 

Article 335. 

If any convention coming before the Conference for final con- 
sideration fails to secure the support of two-thirds of the votes cast 
by the Delegates present, it shall nevertheless be within the right of 
any of the Members of the Permanent Organisation to agree to such 
convention among themselves. 

Any convention so agreed to shall be communicated by the Govern- 
ments concerned to the Secretary-General of the League of Nations, 
who shall register it. 

Article 336. 

Each of the Members agrees to make an annual report to the Inter- 
national Labour Office on the measures which it has taken to give 
effect to the provisions of conventions to which it is a party. These 
reports shall be made in such form and shall contain such particu- 
lars as the Governing Body may request. The Director shall lay a 
summary of these reports before the next meeting of the Conference. 

Article 337. 

In the event of any representation being made to the International 
Labour Office by an industrial association of employers or of workers 
that any of the Members has failed to secure in any respect the 
effective observance within its jurisdiction of any convention to which 
it is a party, the Governing Body may communicate this representa- 
tion to the Government against which it is made and may invite that 
Government to make such statement on the subject as it may think fit. 

Article 338. 

If no statement is received within a reasonable time from the Gov- 
ernment in question, or if the statement when received is not deemed 
to be satisfactory by the Governing Body, the latter shall have 
the right to publish the representation and the statement, if any, 
made in reply to it. 

Article 339. 

Any of the Members shall have the right to file a complaint with 
the International Labour Office if it is not satisfied that any other 
Member is securing the effective observance of any convention which 
both have ratified in accordance with the foregoing Articles. 

The Governing Body may, if it thinks fit, before referring such a 
complaint to a Commission of Enquiry, as hereinafter provided for, 
communicate with the Government in question in the manner de- 
scribed in Article 337. 



308 PEACE TREATIES. 

If the Governing Body does not think it necessary to communicate 
the complaint to the Government in question, or if, when they have 
made such communication, no statement in reply has been received 
within a reasonable time which the Governing Body considers to be 
satisfactory, the Governing Body may apply for the appointment 
of a Commission of Enquiry to consider the complaint and to report 
thereon. 

The Governing Body may adopt the same procedure either of its 
own motion or on receipt of a complaint from a Delegate to the Con- 
ference. 

When any matter arisino: out of Articles 338 or 339 is being con- 
sidered by the Governing Body, the Government in question shall, if 
not already represented thereon, be entitled to send a representative 
to take part in the proceedings of the Governing Body while the mat- 
ter is under consideration. Adequate notice of the date on which the 
matter will be considered shall be given to the Government in question. 

Article 340. 

The Commission of Enquiry shall be constituted in accordance 
with the following provisions: 

Each of the Members agrees to nominate within six months of the 
date on which the present Treaty comes into force three persons of 
industrial experience, of whom one shall be a representative of 
employers, one a representative of workers, and one a person of 
independent standing, who shall together form a panel from which 
the Members of the Commission of Enquiry shall be drawn. 

The qualifications of the persons so nominated shall be subject to 
scrutiny by the Governing Body, which may by two-thirds of the 
votes cast bj* the representatives present refuse to accept the nomina- 
tion of any person whose qualifications do not in its opinion comply 
with the requirements of the present Article. 

Upon the application of the Governing Body, the Secretary-Gen- 
eral of the League of Nations shall nominate three persons, one 
from each section of this panel, to constitute the Commission of 
Enquiry, and shall designate one of them as the President of the 
Commission. None of these three persons shall be a person nomi- 
nated to the panel by any Member directly concerned in the com- 
plaint. 

Article 341. 

The Members agree that, in the event of the reference of a com- 
plaint to a Commission of Enquiry under Article 339, they will each, 
whether directly concerned in the complaint or not, place at the 
disposal of the Commission all the information in their possession 
which bears upon the subject-matter of the complaint. 

Article 342. 

When the Commission of Enquiry has fully considered the com- 
plaint, it shall prepare a report embodying its findings on all ques- 
tions of fact relevant to determining the issue between the parties 
and containing such recommendations as it may think proper as 



PEACE TREATIES. 309 

to the steps which should be taken to meet the complaint and the 
time within which they should be taken. 

It shall also indicate in this report the measures, if any, of an 
economic character against a defaulting Government which it con- 
siders to be appropriate, and which it considers other Governments 
would be justified in adopting. 

Article 343. 

The Secretary-General of the League of Nations shall communi- 
cate the report of the Commission of Enquiry to each of the Govern- 
ments concerned in the complaint, and shall cause it to be published. 

Each of these Governments shall within one month inform the 
Secretary-General of the League of Nations whether or not it ac- 
cepts the recommendations contained in the report of the Commis- 
sion ; and if not. whether it proposes to refer the complaint to the 
Permanent Court of International Justice of the League of Nations. 

Article 344. 

In the event of any Member failing to take the action required by 
Article 333. with regard to a recommendation or draft Convention, 
any other Member shall be entitled to refer the matter to the Per- 
manent Court of International Justice. 

Article 345. 

The decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice in 
regard to a complaint or matter which has been referred to it in 
pursuance of Article 343 or Article 344 shall be final. 

Article 346. 

The Permanent Court of International Justice may affirm, vary 
or reverse any of the findings or recommendations of the Commis- 
sion of Enquiry, if any, and shall in its decision indicate the measures, 
if any, of an economic character which it considers to be appropriate, 
and which other Governments would be justified in adopting against 
a defaulting Government. 

Article 347. 

In the event of any Member failing to carry out within the time 
specified the recommendations, if any, contained in the report of 
the Commission of Enquiry, or in the decision of the Permanent 
Court of International Justice, as the case may be, any other Member 
may take against that Member the measures of an economic char- 
acter indicated in the report of the Commission or in the decision 
of the Court as appropriate to the case. 

Article 348. 

The defaulting Government may at any time inform the Governing 
Body that it has taken the steps necessary to comply with the recom- 
mendations of the Commission of Enquiry or with those in the 



310 PEACE TREATIES. 

decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice, as the case 
may be, and may request it to apply to the Secretary-General of the 
League to constitute a Commission of Enquiry to verify its conten- 
tion. In this case the provisions of Article 340, 341, 342, 343, 345, 
and 346 shall apply, and if the report of the Commission of Enquiry 
or the decision of the Permanent Court of International Justice 
is in favour of the defaulting Government, the other Governments 
shall forthwith discontinue the measures of an economic character 
that they have taken against the defaulting Government. 

CHAPTER III.— GENERAL. 

Article 349. 

The Members engaged to apply conventions which they have rati- 
fied in accordance with the provisions of this Part of the present 
Treaty to their colonies, protectorates and possessions which are not 
fully self-governing: 

(1) Except where owing to the local conditions the convention is 

inapplicable, or 

(2) Subject to such modifications as may be necessary to adapt the 

convention to local conditions. 
And each of the Members shall notify to the International Labour 
Office the action taken in respect of each of its colonies, protectorates 
and possessions which are not fully self-governing. 

Article 350. 

Amendments to this Part of the present Treaty which are adopted 
b}' the Conference by a majority of two-thirds of the votes cast by 
the Delegates present shall take effect when ratified by the States 
whose representatives compose the Council of the League of Nations 
and by three- fourths of the Members. 

Article 351. 

Any question or dispute relating to the interpretation of this Part 
of the present Treaty or of any subsequent convention concluded by 
the Members in pursuance of the provisions of this Part of the pres- 
ent treaty shall be referred for decision to the Permanent Court of 
International Justice. 

CHAPTER IV.— TRANSITORY PROVISIONS LAID DOWN IN THE 
TREATY OF PEACE CONCLUDED WITH GERMANY ON JUNE 28, 1919. 

Article 352. 

The first meeting of the Conference shall take place in October, 
1919. The place and agenda for this meeting shall be as specified in 
the Annex hereto. 



PKACK THF.ATTKS. 311 

Arrangements for the convening and the organisation of the first 
meeting of the Conference will be made by the Government desig- 
nated for the purpose in the said Annex. That Government shall be 
assisted in the preparation of the documents for submission to the 
Conference by an International Committee constituted as provided 
in the said Annex. 

The expenses of the first meeting and of all subsequent meetings 
held before the League of Nations has been able to establish a gen- 
eral fund, other than the expenses of Delegates and their advisers, 
will be borne by the Members in accordance with the apportionment 
of the expenses of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal 
Union. 

Article 353. 

Until the League of Nations has been constituted all communica- 
tions which under the provisions of the foregoing Article should be 
addressed to the Secretary-General of the League will be preserved 
by the Director of the International Labour Omce, who will transmit 
them to the Secretary-General of the League. 

Article 354. 

Pending the creation of a Permanent Court of International Jus- 
tice, disputes which in accordance with this Part of the present 
Treaty would be submitted to it for decision will be referred to a 
tribunal of three persons appointed by the Council of the League of 
Nations. 

Annex. 
First Meeting of Annual Labour Conference, 1919. 

The place of meeting will be Washington. 

The Government of the United States of America is requested to 
convene the Conference. 

The International Organising Committee will consist of seven 
Members, appointed by the United States of America. Great Britain, 
France, Italy, Japan, Belgium and Switzerland. The Committee 
may, if it thinks necessary, invite other Members to appoint repre- 
sentatives. 

Agenda : 

(1) Application of principle of the 8-hours day or of the 48-hours 
week. 

(2) Question of preventing or providing against unemployment. 

(3) Women's employment: 

(a) Before and after childbirth, including the question of 

maternity benefit; 

(b) During the night ; 

(c) In unhealthy processes. 



312 PEACE TREATIES. 

(4) Employment of children : 

(a) Minimum age of employment; 

(b) During the night; 

(c) In unhealthy processes. 

(5) Extension and application of the International Conventions 

adopted at Berne in 1906 on the prohibition of night work 
for women employed in industry and the prohibition of the 
use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches. 

Section II. — General Principles. 

Article 355. 

The High Contracting Parties, recognising that the well-being, 
physical, moral and intellectual, of industrial wage-earners is of 
supreme international importance, have framed, in order to further 
this great end, the permanent machinery provided for in Section I 
and associated with that of the League of Nations. 

They recognise that differences of climate, habits and customs, of 
economic opportunity and industrial tradition, make strict uni- 
formity in the conditions of labour difficult of immediate attainment. 
But, holding, as they do, that labour should not be regarded merely 
as an article of commerce, they think that there are methods and 
principles for regulating labour conditions which all industrial 
communities should endeavour to apply, so far as their special cir- 
cumstances will permit. 

Among these methods and principles, the following seem to the 
High Contracting Parties to be of special and urgent importance : 

First. — The guiding principle above enunciated that labour should 
not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce. 

Second. — The right of association for all lawful purposes by the 
employed as well as by the employers. 

Third. — The payment to the employed of a wage adequate to 
maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their 
time and country. 

Fourth. — The adoption of an eight-hours day or a forty-eight 
hours week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already 
been attained. 

Fifth, — The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four 
hours, which should include Sunday wherever practicable. 

Sixth. — The abolition of child labour and the imposition of such 
limitations on the labour of young persons as shall permit the con- 
tinuation of their education and assure their proper physical develop- 
ment. 

Seventh, — The principle that men and women should receive equal 
remuneration for work of equal value. 

Eighth. — The standard set by law in each country with respect to 
the conditions of labour should have due regard to the equitable 
economic treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein. 

Ninth. — Each State should make provision for a system of inspec- 
tion in which women should take part, in order to ensure the enforce- 
ment of the laws and regulations for the protection of the employed. 



PEACE TREATIES. 313 

Without claiming - that these methods and principles are either 
complete or final, the High Contracting Parties are of opinion that 
they are well fitted to guide the policy of the League of Nations; 
and that, if adopted by the industrial communities who are members 
of the League, and safeguarded in practice by an adequate system 
of such inspection, they will confer lasting benefits upon the wage- 
earners of the world. 

PART XIV.— MISCELLANEOUS PEOVISIONS. 

Article 356. 

Hungary undertakes to recognise and to accept the conventions 
made or to be made by the Allied and Associated Powers or any of 
them with any other Power as to the traffic in arms and in spirituous 
liquors, and also as to the other subjects dealt with in the General 
Acts of Berlin of February 26, 1885, and of Brussels of July 2, 1890. 
and the conventions completing or modifying the same. 

Article 357. 

The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that 
they have taken note of the Treaty signed by the Government of the 
French Republic on July 17, 1918. with His Serene Highness the 
Prince of Monaco defining the relations between France and the 
Principality. 

Article 358. 

The High Contracting Parties, while they recognise the guarantees 
stipulated by the Treaties of 1815, and especially by the Act of No- 
vember 20. 1815, in favour of Switzerland, the said guarantees con- 
stituting international obligations for the maintenance of peace, 
declare nevertheless that the provisions of these treaties, conventions, 
declarations and other supplementary Acts concerning the neutral- 
ised zone of Savoy, as laid down in paragraph 1 of Article 92 of 
the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna and in paragraph 2 of 
Article 3 of the Treaty of Paris of November 20, 1815, are no longer 
consistent with present conditons. For this reason the High Con- 
tracting Parties take note of the agreement reached between the 
French Government and the Swiss Government for the abrogation 
of the stipulations relating to this zone which are and remain abro- 
gated. 

The High Contracting Parties also agree that the stipulations of 
the Treaties of 1815 and of the other supplementary Acts concerning 
the free zones of Upper Savoy and the Gex district are no longer con- 
sistent with present conditions, and that it is for France and Switzer- 
land to come to an agreement together with a view to settling be- 
tween themselves the status of these territories under such conditions 
as shall be considered suitable by both countries. 



,'u4 peace treaties. 

Annex. 

1. 

The Swiss Federal Council has informed the French Government 
on May 5, 1919, that after examining the provisions of Article 435 
of the Peace conditions presented to Germany by the Allied and 
Associated Powers in a like spirit of sincere friendship it has happily 
reached the conclusion that it was possible to acquiesce in it under the 
following conditions and reservations: 

(1) The neutralised zone of Haute-Savoie : 

(a) It will be understood that as long as the Federal Chambers 
have not ratified the agreement come to between the two Govern- 
ments concerning the abrogation of the stipulations in respect to the 
neutralised zone of Savoy, nothing will be definitively settled, on one 
side or the other, in regard to this subject. 

(b) The assent given by the Swiss Government to the abrogation 
of the above-mentioned stipulations presupposes, in conformity with 
the text adopted, the recognition of the guarantees formulated in 
favour of Switzerland by the Treaties of 1815 and particularly by 
the Declaration of November 20, 1815. 

(c) The agreement between the Governments of France and Swit- 
zerland for the abrogation of the above-mentioned stipulations will 
only be considered as valid if the Treaty of Peace contains this 
Article in its present wording. In addition, the Parties to the Treaty 
of Peace should endeavour to obtain the assent of the signatory 
Powers of the Treaties of 1815 and of the Declaration of November 
20, 1815, which are not signatories of the present Treaty of Peace. 

(2) Free zone of Haute-Savoie and the district of Gex: 

(a) The Federal Council makes the most express reservations to 
the interpretation to be given to the statement mentioned in the last 
paragraph of the above Article for insertion in the Treaty of Peace, 
which provides that "the stipulations of the Treaties of 1815 and 
other supplementary acts concerning the free zones of Haute-Savoie 
and the Gex district are no longer consistent with present conditions." 
The Federal Council would not wish that its acceptance of the above 
wording should lead to the conclusion that it would agree to the sup- 
pression of a system intended to give neighbouring territory the 
benefit of a special regime which is appropriate to the geographical 
and economical situation and which has been well tested. 

In the opinion of the Federal Council the question is not the modi- 
fication of the customs system of the zones as set up by the Treaties 
mentioned above, but only the regulation in a manner more appro- 
priate to the economic conditions of the present day of the terms of 
the exchange of goods between the regions in question. The Federal 
Council has been led to make the preceding observations by the 
perusal of the draft Convention concerning the future constitution 
of the zones which was annexed to the note of April 26 from the 
French Government. While making the above reservations, the 
Federal Council declares its readiness to examine in the most friendly 
spirit any proposals which the French Government may deem it con- 
venient to make on the subject. 



PEACE TREATIES. 315 

(b) It is conceded that the stipulations of the Treaties of 1815 
and other supplementary acts relative to the free zones will remain 
in force until a new arrangement is come to between France and 
Switzerland to regulate matters in this territory. 

II. 

The French Government have addressed to the Swiss Government, 
on May 18, 1919, the following note in reply to the communication 
set out in the preceding paragraph : 

In a note dated May 5 the Swiss Legation in Paris was good 
enough to inform the Government of the French Republic that the 
Federal Government adhered to the proposed Article to be inserted 
in the Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Govern- 
ments and Germany. 

The French Government have taken note with much pleasure of 
the agreement thus reached, and, at their request, the proposed Ar- 
ticle, which had been accepted by the Allied and Associated Govern- 
ments, has been inserted under No. 435 in the Peace Conditions pre- 
sented to the German Plenipotentiaries. 

The Swiss Government, in their Note of May 5 on this subject, 
have expressed various views and reservations. 

Concerning the observations relating to the free zones of Haute- 
Savoie and the Gex district, the French Government have the honour 
to observe that the provisions of the last paragraph of Article 435 
are so clear that their purport cannot be misapprehended, especially 
where it implies that no other Power but France and Switzerland 
will in future be interested in that question. 

The French Government, on their part, are anxious to protect the 
interests of the French territories concerned, and, with that object, 
having their special situation in view, they bear in mind the desira- 
bility of assuring them a suitable customs regime and determining, 
in a manner better suited to present conditions, the methods of ex- 
changes between these territories and the adjacent Swiss territories, 
while taking into account the reciprocal interests of both regions. 

It is understood that this must in no way prejudice the right of 
France to adjust her customs line in this region in conformity with 
her political frontier, as is done on the other portions of her terri- 
torial boundaries, and as was done by Switzerland long ago on her 
own boundaries in this region. 

The French Government are pleased to note on this subject in 
what a friendly disposition the Swiss Government take this oppor- 
tunity of declaring their willingness to consider any French pro- 
posal dealing with the system to be substituted for the present 
regime of the said free zones, which the French Government intend 
to formulate in the same friendly spirit. 

Moreover, the French Government have no doubt that the pro- 
visional maintenance of the regime of 1815 as to the free zones re- 
ferred to in the above-mentioned paragraph of the Note from the 
Swiss Legation of May 5, whose object is to provide for the passage 
from the present regime to the conventional regime, will cause no 
delay whatsoever in the establishment of the new situation which 



316 PEACE TREATIES. 

has been found necessary by the two Governments. This remark 
applies also to the ratification by the Federal Chambers, dealt with 
in paragraph 1 (a) of the Swiss note of May 5, under the heading 
" Neutralized zone of Haute-Savoie." 

Article 359. 

The Allied and Associated Powers agree that where Christian 
religious missions were being maintained by Hungarian societies or 
persons in territory belonging to them, or of which the government 
is entrusted to them in accordance with the present Treaty, the prop- 
erty which these missions or missionary societies possessed, including 
that of trading societies whose profits were devoted to the support 
of missions, shall continue to be devoted to missionary purposes. In 
order to ensure the due execution of this undertaking, the Allied and 
Associated Governments will hand over such property to boards of 
trustees appointed by or approved by the Governments and com- 
posed of persons holding the faith of the mission whose property is 
involved. 

The Allied and Associated Governments, while continuing to 
maintain full control as to the individuals by whom the missions 
are conducted, will safeguard the interests of such missions. 

Hungary, taking note of the above undertaking, agrees to accept 
all arrangements made or to be made by the Allied or Associated 
Government concerned for carrying on the work of the said mis- 
sions or trading societies and waives all claims on their behalf. 

Article 360. 

Without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty, Hun- 
gary undertakes not to put forward directly or indirectly against 
any Allied or Associated Power, signatory of the present Treaty, any 
pecuniary claim based on events which occurred at any time before 
the coming into force of the»present Treaty. 

The present stipulation will bar completely and finally all claims of 
this nature, which will be thenceforward extinguished, whoever may 
be the parties in interest. 

Article 361. 

Hungary accepts and recognises as valid and binding all decrees 
and orders concerning Austro-Hungarian ships and Hungarian goods 
and all orders relating to the payment of costs made by any Prize 
Court of any of the Allied or Associated Powers, and undertakes not 
to put forward any claim arising out of such decrees or orders on 
behalf of any Hungarian national. 

The Allied and Associated Powers reserve the right to examine in 
such manner as they may determine all decisions and orders of 
Austro-Hungarian Prize Courts, whether affecting the property 
rights of nationals of those Powers or of neutral Powers. Hungary 
agrees to furnish copies of all the documents constituting the record 
of the cases, including the decisions and orders made, and to accept 



PEACE TREATIES. 317 

and g\ve effect to the recommendations made after such examination 
of the cases. 

Article 362. 

The High Contracting Parties agree that, in the absence of a sub- 
sequent agreement to the contrary, the Chairman of any Commission 
established by the present Treaty shall in the event of an equality 
of votes be entitled to a second vote. 

Article 8(33. 

Except where otherwise provided in the present Treaty, in all cases 
where the Treaty provides for the settlement of a question affecting 
particularly certain States by means of a special Convention to be 
concluded between the States concerned, it is understood by the High 
Contracting Parties that difficulties arising in this connection shall, 
until Hungary is admitted to membership of the League of Nations, 
be settled by the Principal Allied and Associated Powers. 

Article 364. 

In the present Treaty the expression " former Kingdom of Hun- 
gar}' " includes Bosnia and Herzegovina except where the text im- 
plies the contraiy. This provision shall not prejudice the rights and 
obligations of Austria in such territory. 

The present Treaty, in French, in English, and in Italian, shall be 
ratified. In case of divergence, the French text shall prevail, except 
in Parts I (Covenant of the League of Nations) and XIII (Labour), 
where the French and English texts shall be of equal force. 

The deposit of ratifications shall be made at Paris as soon as 
possible. 

Powers of which the seat of the Government is outside Europe will 
be entitled merely to inform the Government of the French Republic 
through their diplomatic representative at Paris that their ratifica- 
tion has been given ; in that case they must transmit the instrument 
of ratification as soon as possible. 

A first proces-verbal of the deposit of ratifications will be drawn 
up as soon as the Treaty has been ratified by Hungary on the one 
hand, and by three of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers on 
the other hand. 

From the date of this first proces-verbal the Treaty will come into 
force between the High Contracting Parties who have ratified it. 
For the determination of all periods of time provided for in the pres- 
ent Treaty, this date will be the date of the coming into force of the 
Treaty. 

In all other respects the Treaty will enter into force for each Power 
at the date of the deposit of its ratification. 

The French Government will transmit to all the signatory Powers 
a certified copy of the proces- verba ux of the deposit of ratifications. 

In faith whereof the above-named Plenipotentiaries have signed 
the present Treaty. 



318 PEACE TREATIES. 

Done at Trianon, the fourth day of June, one thousand nine hun- 
dred and twenty, in a single copy which will remain deposited in the 
archives of the French Republic, and of which authenticated copies 
will be transmitted to each of the Signatory Powers. 

HUGH C. WALLACE. 

DERBY. 

GEORGE H. PERLEY. 

ANDREW FISHER. 

THOMAS MACKENZIE. 

R. A. BLANKENBERG. 

DERBY. 

A. MILLERAND. 

F. FRANCOIS-MARSAL. 

AUG. ISAAC. 

JULES CAMBON. 

PALEOLOGUE. 

BONIN. 

M. GRASSI. 

K. MATSUI. 

J. VAN DEN HEUVEL. 

ROLIN-JAEQUEMYNS. 

VIKYUIN WELLINGTON KOO. 

RAFAEL MARTINEZ ORTIZ. 

A. ROMANOS. 

CARLOS A. VILLANUEVA. 

R. A. AMADOR. 

E. SAPIEHA. 

ERASME PILTZ. 

AFFONSO COSTA. 

JOAO CHAGAS. 

Dr. J. CANTACUZENE. 

N. TITULESCU. 

NIK. P. PACHITCH. 

Dr. ANTE TRUMBIC. 

Dr. IVAN ZOLGER. 

CHAROON. 

Dr. EDWARD BENES. 

STEFAN OSUSKY. 

A. BENARD. 

DRASCHE LAZAR, 

PROTOCOL. 

With a view to indicating precisely the conditions in which certain 
provisions of the Treaty of even date are to be carried out, it is agreed 
by the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES that: 

1. The list of persons to be handed over to the Allied and Asso- 
ciated Governments by Hungary, under the second paragraph of 
Article 157, shall be communicated to the Hungarian Government 
within a month from the coming into force of the Treaty ; 

2. The Reparation Commission referred to in Article 170 and para- 
graphs 2, 3 and 4 of Annex IV, and the Special Section provided for 



PEACE TREATIES. 319 

in Article 163, cannot require trade secrets or other confidential in- 
formation to be divulged ; 

3. From the signature of the Treaty, and within the ensuing four 
months, Hungary will be entitled to submit for examination by the 
Allied and Associated Powers documents and proposals in order to 
expedite the work connected with reparation, and thus to shorten the 
investigation and to accelerate the decisions ; 

4. Proceedings will be taken against persons who have committed 
punishable offences in the liquidation of Hungarian property, and the 
Allied and Associated Powers will welcome any information or evi- 
dence which the Hungarian Government can furnish on this subject. 

Done in French, in English, and in Italian, of which the French text 
shall prevail in case of divergence, at Trianon, the fourth day of June, 
one thousand nine hundred and twenty. 

DECLARATION. 

With a view to minimizing the losses arising from the sinking of 
ships and cargoes in the course of the war, and to facilitating the re- 
covery of ships and cargoes which can be salved and the adjustment 
of the private claims arising with regard thereto, the Hungarian Gov- 
ernment undertakes to suppty all the information in its power which 
may be of assistance to the Governments of the Allied and Associated 
Powers, or to their nationals, with regard to vessels sunk or damaged 
by the Hungarian naval forces during the period of hostilities. 

This declaration made in French, in English, and in Italian, of 
which the French text shall prevail in case of divergence, at Trianon, 
the fourth day of June, one thousand nine hundred and twenty. 



TREATY OF PEACE BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL ALLIED POWERS 

AND TURKEY. 

SIGNED AT SEVRES, AUGUST 10, 1920. 

THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY, and JAPAN, 

These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Prin- 
cipal Allied Powers ; 

ARMENIA. BELGIUM, GREECE, THE HEDJAZ, POLAND, 
PORTUGAL. ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE 
STATE and CZECHO- SLOVAKIA, 

These Powers constituting, with the Principal Powers mentioned 
above, the Allied Powers, 

of the one part : 
And TURKEY, 

of the other part; 
Whereas on the request of the Imperial Ottoman Government an 
Armistice was granted to Turkey on October 30, 1918, by the Prin- 
cipal Allied Powers in order that a Treaty of Peace might be con- 
cluded, and 

Whereas the Allied Powers are equally desirous that the war in 
which certain among them were successively involved, directly or in- 
directly, against Turkey, and which originated in the declaration of 
war against Serbia on July 28, 1914, by the former Imperial and 
Royal Austro-Hunguiian Government, and in the hostilities opened 
by Turkey against the Allied Powers on October 29, 1914, and con- 
ducted by Germany in alliance with Turkey, should be replaced by a 
firm, just and durable Peace, 

For this purpose the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES have 
appointed as their Plenipotentiaries: 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND AND OF THE 
BRITISH DOMINIONS BEYOND THE SEAS. EM- 
PEROR OF INDIA : 
Sir George Dixon Grahame, K. C. V. O., Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris; 
And 
for the DOMINION of CANADA : 

The Honourable Sir George Halsey Perley, K. C. M. G., 
High Commissioner for Canada in the United Kingdom; 
for the COMMONWEALTH of AUSTRALIA : 

The Right Honourable Andrew Fisher, High Commissioner 
for Australia in the United Kingdom; 
for the DOMINION of NEW ZEALAND : 

Sir George Dixon Grahame, K. C. V. O., Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary of His Britannic Majesty at Paris; 
320 



PEACE TREATIES. 321 

for the UNION of SOUTH AFRICA: 

Mr. Reginald Andrew Blankenberg, O. B. E., Acting High 
Commissioner for the Union of South Africa in the United 
Kingdom ; 
for INDIA : 

Sir Arthur Hirtzel, K. C. B., Assistant Under Secretary of 
State for India ; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC : 

Mr. Alexandre Millerand, President of the Council, Minister 
for Foreign Affairs ; 

Mr. Frederic Francois-Marsal, Minister of Finance; 

Mr. Auguste Paul-Louis Isaac, Minister of Commerce and In- 
dustry ; 

Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of France ; 

Mr. Georges Maurice Paleologue, Ambassador of France, Sec- 
retary-General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ITALY: 

Count Lelio Bonin Longare, Senator of the Kingdom, Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of H. M. the King of 
Italy at Paris; 

General Giovanni Marietti, Italian Military Representative on 
the Supreme War Council; 

HIS MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN: 

Viscount Ciiinda, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at London ; 

Mr. K. Matsui, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary of H. M. the Emperor of Japan at Paris ; 

ARMENIA: 

Mr. Avetis Aharonian, President of the Delegation of the 
Armenian Republic; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE BELGIANS : 

Mr. Jules van den Heuvel, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary, Minister of State; 

Mr. Rolin Jaequemyns, Member of the Institute of Private In- 
ternational Law, Secretary-General of the Belgian Delegation ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HELLENES : 

Mr. Eleftherios K. Veniselos, President of the Council of 
Ministers ; 

Mr. Athos Romanos, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of H. M. the King of the Hellenes at Paris ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE HEDJAZ: 



THE PRESIDENT OF THE POLISH REPUBLIC: 

Count Maurice Zamoyski, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 

Plenipotentiary of the Polish Republic at Paris ; 
Mr. Erasme Piltz ; 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 21 



322 PEACE TREATIES. 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC : 

Dr. Affonso da Costa, formerly President of the Council of 
Ministers ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF ROUMANIA : 

Mr. Nieolae Titulescu, Minister of Finance; 
Prince Dimitrie Ghika. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of H. M. the Kino; of Roumania at Paris ; 

HIS MAJESTY THE KING OF THE SERBS, THE CROATS 
AND THE SLOVENES: 

Mr. Nicolas P. Pachitch, formerly President of the Council 

of Ministers; 
Mr. Ante Trumbio, Minister for Foreign Affairs ; 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE CZECHO-SLOVAK REPUBLIC: 

Mr. Edward Benes, Minister for Foreign Affairs; 
Mr. Stephen Osusky, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of the Czecho-Slovak Republic at London ; 

TURKEY: 

General Haadi Pasha. Senator: 
Riza Tevfik Bey, Senator; 

Rechad Haliss Bey. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary of Turkey at Berne; 

Who, having communicated their full powers, found in good and 
due form, have AGREED AS FOLLOWS : 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty the state of war 
will terminate. 

From that moment, and subject to the provisions of the present 
Treaty, official relations will exist between the Allied Powers and 
Turkey. 

PART I.— THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The High Contracting Parties, 

In order to promote international co-operation and to achieve 
international peace and security 

by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to Avar, 
by the prescription of open, just and honourable relations be- 
tween nations, 
by the firm establishment of the understandings of international 

law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and 
by the maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all 
treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with 
one another, 
Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations. 

Article 1. 

The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of 
the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and 
also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede 
without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be effected 



PEACE TREATIES. 323 

by a Declaration deposited with the Secretariat within two months 
of the coming into force of the Covenant. Notice thereof shall be 
sent to all other Members of the League. 

Any fully self-governing State, Dominion or Colony not named 
in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is 
agreed to by two-thirds of the Assembly, provided that it shall give 
effective guarantees of its sincere intention to observe its inter- 
national obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be 
prescribed by the League in regard to its military, naval and air 
forces and armaments. 

Any Member of the League may, after two years' notice of its in- 
tention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all its 
international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant 
shall have been fulfilled at the time of its withdrawal. 

Article 2. 

The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected 
through the instrumentality of an Assembly and of a Council, with a 
permanent Secretariat. 

Article 3. 

The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of 
the League. 

The Assembly shall meet at stated intervals and from time to time 
as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at such other 
place as may be decided upon. 

The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter within the 
sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

At meetings of the Assembly each Member of the League shall have 
one vote, and may have not more than three Representatives. 

Article 4. 

The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers, together with Representatives of four 
other Members of the League. These four Members of the League 
shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. 
Until the appointment of the Representatives of the four Members 
of the League first selected by the Assembly, Representatives of 
Belgium, Brazil, Spain and Greece shall be members of the Council. 

With the approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council 
may name additional Members of the League whose Representatives 
shall always be members of the Council; the Council with like 
approval may increase the number of Members of the League to be 
selected by the Assembly for representation on the Council. 

The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, 
and at least once a year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other 
place as may be decided upon. 

The Council may deal at its meetings with any matter within the 
sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. 

Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall 
be invited to send a Representative to sit as a member at any meet- 



324 PEACE TREATIES. 

ing of the Council during the consideration of matters specially 
affecting the interests of that Member of the League. 

At meetings of the Council, each Member of the League represented 
on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than one 
Representative. 

Article 5. 

Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by 
the terms of the present Treaty, decisions at any meeting of the 
Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the 
Members of the League represented at the meeting. 

All matters of procedure at meetings of the Assembly or of the 
Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate 
particular matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the 
Council and may be decided by a majority of the Members of the 
League represented at the meeting. 

The first meeting of the Assembly and the first meeting of the 
Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States 
of America. 

Article 6. 

The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the 
League. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary General and such 
secretaries and staff as may be required. 

The first Secretary General shall be the person named in the 
Annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed by the 
Council with the appro vel of the majority of the Assembly. 

The secretaries and staff of the Secretariat shall be appointed by 
the Secretary General with the approval of the Council. 

The Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of 
the Assembly and of the Council. 

The expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of 
the League in accordance with the apportionment of the expenses 
of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union. 

Article 7. 

The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. 

The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of the League 
shall be established elsewhere. 

All positions under or in connection with the League, including 
the Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. 

Representatives of the Members of the League and officials of the 
League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy 
diplomatic privileges and immunities. 

The buildings and other property occupied by the League or its 
officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be in- 
violable. 

Article 8. 

The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of 
peace requires the reduction of national armaments to the lowest 
point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by com- 
mon action of international obligations. 



PEACE TREATIES. 325 

The Council, taking: account of the geographical situation and cir- 
cumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction 
for the consideration and action of the several Governments. 

Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration and revision at least 
every ten years. 

After these plans shall have been adopted by the several Govern- 
ments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded 
without the concurrence of the Council. 

The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private 
enterprise of munitions and implements of war is open to grave 
objections. The Council shall advise how the evil effects attendant 
upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the 
necessities of those Members of the League which are not able to 
manufacture the munitions and implements of war necessary for 
their safety. 

The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and 
frank information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, 
naval and air programmes and the condition of such of their indus- 
tries as are adaptable to war-like purposes. 

Article 9. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Coun- 
cil on the execution of the provisions of Articles 1 and 8, and on 
military, naval and air questions generally. 

Article 10. 

The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as 
against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing 
political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any 
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression 
the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation 
shall be fulfilled. 

Article 11. 

Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of 
the Members of the League or not, is hereby declared a matter of 
concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action 
that may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of 
nations. In case any such emergency should arise the Secretary Gen- 
eral shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith 
summon a meeting of the Council. 

It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the 
League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council 
any circumstance whatever affecting international relations which 
threatens to disturb international peace or the good understanding 
between nations upon which peace depends. 

Article 12. 

The Members of the League agree that if there should arise be- 
tween them any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, they will sub- 



326 PEACE TREATIES. 

mit the matter either to arbitration or to enquiry by the Council, 
and they agree in no case to resort to war until three months after 
the award by the arbitrators or the report by the Council. 

In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall 
be made within a reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall 
be made within six months after the submission of the dispute. 

Article 13. 

The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall 
arise between them which they recognize to be suitable for submis- 
sion to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by 
diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration. 

Disputes as to the interpretation of a treaty, as to any question of 
international law, as to the existence of any fact which if established 
would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to 
the extent and nature of the reparation to be made for any such 
breach, are declared to be among those which are generalty suitable 
for submission to arbitration. 

For the consideration of any such dispute the court of arbitration 
to which the case is referred shall be the court agreed on by the 
parties to the dispute or stipulated in any ton vent ion existing be- 
tween them. 

The Members of the League agree that they will carry out in full 
good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not 
resort to war against a Member of the League which complies there- 
with. In the event of any failure to carry out such an award, the 
Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect 
thereto. 

Article 14. 

The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the 
League for adoption plans for the establishment of a Permanent 
Court of International Justice. The Court shall be competent to 
hear and determine any dispute of an international character which 
the parties thereto submit to it. The Court may also give an ad- 
visory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the 
Council or by the Assembly. 

Article 15. 

If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute 
likely to lead to a rupture, which is not submitted to arbitration in 
accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that 
they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute 
may effect such submission by giving notice of the existence of the 
dispute to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary ar- 
rangements for a full investigation and consideration thereof. 

For this purpose the parties to the dispute will communicate to 
the Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their 
case with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may 
forthwith direct the publication thereof. 

The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, 
and if such efforts are successful, a statement shall be made public 



PEACE TREATIES. 327 

giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the 
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. 

If the dispute is not thus settled, the Council either unanimously 
or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a 
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which 
are deemed just and proper in regard thereto. 

Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make 
public a statement of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions 
regarding the same. 

If a report by the Council is unanimously agreed to by the mem- 
bers thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the 
parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they 
will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies 
with the recommendations of the report. 

If the Council fails to reach a report which is unanimously agreed 
to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of one or 
more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League 
reserve to themselves the right to take such action as they shall 
consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. 

If the dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and 
is found by the Council, to arise out of a matter which by interna- 
tional law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the 
Council shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its 
settlement. 

The Council may in any case under this Article refer the dispute 
to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of 
either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made with- 
in fourteen days after the submission of the dispute to the Council. 

In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of this 
Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the 
Council shall apply to the action and powers of the Assembly, pro- 
vided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in by the 
Representatives of those Members of the League represented on the 
Council and of a majority of the other Members of the League, ex- 
clusive in each case of the Representatives of the parties to the dis- 
pute, shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred 
in by all the members thereof other than the Representatives of one 
or more of the parties to the dispute. 

Article 16. 

Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of 
its covenants under Articles 12, 13 or 15, it shall ipso facto be 
deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members 
of the League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to 
the severance of all trade or financial relations, the prohibition of all 
intercourse between their nationals and the nationals of the con- 
venant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, commer- 
cial or personal intercourse between the nationals of the convenant- 
breaking State and the nationals of any other State, whether a Mem- 
ber of the League or not. 

It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to 
the several Governments concerned what effective military, naval or 



328 PEACE TREATIES. 

air force the Members of the League shall severally contribute to the 
armed forces to be used to protect the convenants of the League. 

The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutu- 
ally support one another in the financial and economic measures 
which are taken under this Article, in order to minimize the loss and 
inconvenience resulting from the above measures, and that they will 
mutually support one another in resisting any special measures, 
aimed at one of their number by the covenant-breaking State, and 
that they will take the necessary steps to afford passage through 
their territory to the forces of any of the Members of the League 
which are co-operating to protect the covenants of the League. 

Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the 
League may be declared to be no longer a Member of the League by a 
vote of the Council concurred in by the Representatives of all the other 
Members of the League represented thereon. 

Article 17. 

In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a 
State which is not a Member of the League, or between States not 
Members of the League, the State or States not Members of the 
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in 
the League for the purposes of such dispute, upon such conditions as 
the Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the pro- 
visions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such modi- 
fications as may be deemed necessaiy by the Council. 

Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately 
institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recom- 
mend such action as may seem best and most effectual in the circum- 
stances. 

If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of mem- 
bership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall re- 
sort to war against a Member of the League, the provisions of Article 
16 shall be applicable as against the State taking such action. 

If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the 
obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of such dis- 
pute, the Council may take such measures and make such recom- 
mendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settlement 
of the dispute. 

Article 18. 

Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by 
any Member of the League shall be forthwith registered with the 
Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No such 
treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so regis- 
tered. 

Artici-e 19. 

The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by 
Members of the League of treaties which have become inapplicable 
and the consideration of international conditions whose continuance 
might endanger the peace of the world. 



PEACE TREATIES. 329 

Article 20. 

The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is 
accepted as abrogating all obligations or understandings inter se 
which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly undertake 
that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent 
with the terms thereof. 

In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Mem- 
ber of the League, have undertaken any obligations inconsistent with 
the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such Member to take 
immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations. 

Article 21. 

Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of 
international engagements, such as treaties of arbitration or regional 
understanding like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the mainte- 
nance of peace. 

Article 22. 

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late 
war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which 
formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet 
able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the 
modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well- 
being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civili- 
sation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be 
embodied in this Covenant. 

The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that 
the tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations 
who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographi- 
cal position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are will- 
ing to accept it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as 
Mandatories on behalf of the League. 

The character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of 
the development of the people, the geographical situation of the terri- 
tory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. 

Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire 
have reached a stage of development where their existence as inde- 
pendent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the ren- 
dering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until 
such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these com- 
munities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the 
Mandatory. 

Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage 
that the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the 
territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience 
and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and 
morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms 
traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment 
of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training 
of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of terri- 



330 PEACE TREATIES. 

tory, and will also secure equal opportunities for the trade and com- 
merce of other Members of the League. 

There are territories, such as South- West Africa and certain of the 
South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the sparseness of their popula- 
tion, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of civili- 
sation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Man- 
datory, and other circumstances, can be best administered under the 
laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to 
the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous 
population. 

In every case of Mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council 
an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge. 

The degree of authority, control or administration to be exercised 
by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members 
of the League, be explicitly defined in each case by the Council. 

A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and 
examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the 
Council on all matters relating to the observance of the mandates. 

Article 23. 

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international 
conventions existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the Members of 
the League: 

(a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and humane con- 

ditions of labour for men, women and children, both in 
their own countries and in all countries to which their 
commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that 
purpose will establish and maintain the necessary inter- 
national organisations ; 

(b) undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants 

of territories under their control ; 

(c) will entrust the League with the general supervision over the 

execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women 
and children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous 
drugs; 

(d) will entrust the League with the general supervision of the 

trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which 
the control of this traffic is necessary in the common inter- 
est; 

(e) will make provision to secure and maintain freedom of com- 

munications and of transit and equitable treatment for the 
commerce of all Members of the League. In this connec- 
tion, the special necessities of the regions devasted during 
the war of 1914-1918 shall be borne in mind ; 
(/) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international con- 
cern for the prevention and control of disease. 

Article 24. 

There shall be placed under the direction of the League all inter- 
national bureaux already established by general treaties if the parties 



PEACE TREATIES. 



331 



to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all com- 
missions for the regulation of matters of international interest here- 
after constituted shall be placed under the direction of the League. 

In all matters of international interest which are regulated by gen- 
eral conventions but which are not placed under the control of inter- 
national bureaux or commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, 
subject to the consent of the Council and if desired by the parties, 
collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any 
other assistance which maj^ be necessary or desirable. 

The Council may include as part of the expenses of the Secretariat 
the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the 
direction of the League. 

Article 25< 

The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the 
establishment and co-operation of duly authorised voluntary national 
Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of 
health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of suffering 
throughout the world. 

Article 26. 

Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by 
the Members of the League whose representatives compose the 
Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose 
Representatives compose the Assembly. 

No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League which 
signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a 
Member of the League. 

Annex. 
i. original members of the league of nations. 



United States of America. 

Belgium. 

Bolivia. 

Brazil. 

British Empire. 

Canada. 

Australia. 

South Africa. 

New Zealand. 

India. 
China. 
Cuba. 
Ecuador. 
France. 
Greece. 
Guatemala. 



Haiti. 

Hedjaz. 

Honduras. 

Italy. 

Japan. 

Liberia. 

Nicaragua. 

Panama. 

Peru. 

Poland. 

Portugal. 

RoUMANIA. 

Serb-Croat-Slovene-State. 

SlAM. 

Czecho-Slovakia. 
Uruguay. 



332 PEACE TREATIES. 



STATES INVITED TO ACCEDE TO THE COVENANT. 



Argentine Republic. 

Chili. 

Colombia. 

Denmark. 

Netherlands. 

Norway. 

Paraguay. 



Persia. 
Salvador. 

Spain. 
Sweden. 
Switzerland. 
Venezuela. 



II. FIRST SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS. 

The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B. 

The Principal Allied and Associated Powers referred to in Article 
4, Part I (Covenant of the League of Nations) are the Principal 
Allied and Associated Powers under the Treaty of Peace with Ger- 
many of June 28, 1919. 

PART II.— FRONTIERS OF TURKEY. 

Article 27. 

I. In Europe, the frontiers of Turkey will be laid down as follows 
(see annexed map No. 1) : 

(1) The Black Sea: 

from the entrance of the Bosphorus to the point described below. 

(2) With Greece: 

From a point to be chosen on the Black Sea near the mouth of the 
Biyuk Dere, situated about 7 kilometres northwest of Podima, south- 
westwards to the most northwesterly point of the limit of the basin 
of the Istranja Dere (about 8 kilometres northwest of Istranja), 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing through Kapilja Dagh 
and Uchbunar Tepe; 

thence southsoutheastwards to a point to be chosen on the railway 
from Chorlu to Chatalja about 1 kilometre west of the railway sta- 
tion of Sinekli, 

a line following as far as possible the western limit of the basin of 
the Istranja Dere; 

thence southeastwards to a point to be chosen between Fener and 
Kurfali on the watershed between the basins of those rivers which 
flow into Biyuk Chekmeje Geul, on the northeast, and the basin of 
those rivers which flow direct into the Sea of Marmora on the south- 
west, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Sinekli : 

thence southeastwards to a point to be chosen on the Sea of Mar- 
mora about 1 kilometre southwest of Kalikratia, 

a line following as far as possible this watershed. 

(3) The Sea of Marmora: 

from the point defined above to the entrance of the Bosphorus. 

II. In Asia, the frontiers of Turkey will be laid down as follows 
(see annexed map No. 2) : 

(1) On the West and South: 

From the entrance of the Bosphorus into the Sea of Marmora to a 
point described below, situated in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 



PEACE TREATIES. 333 

the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Alexandretta near Karatash 
Burun, 

the Sea of Marmora, the Dardanelles, and the Eastern Mediter- 
ranean Sea ; the islands of the Sea of Marmora, and those which are 
situated within a distance of 3 miles from the coast, remaining 
Turkish, subject to the provisions of Section IV and Articles 84 and 
122, Part III (Political Clauses). 

(2) With Syria: 

From a point to be chosen on the eastern bank of the outlet of the 
Hassan Dede, about 3 kilometres northwest of Karatash Burun, 
northeastwards to a point to be chosen on the Djaihun Irmak about 
1 kilometre north of Babeli, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Karatash ; 
thence to Kesik Kale, 
the course of the Djaihun Irmak upstream; 

thence northeastwards to a point to be chosen on the Djaihun 
Irmak about 15 kilometres eastsoutheast of Karsbazar, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Kara Tepe ; 

thence to the bend in the Djaihun Irmak situated west of Duldul 
Dagh. 

the course of the Djaihun Irmak upstream: 

thence in a general southeasterly direction to a point to be chosen 
on Emir Musi Dagh about 15 kilometres south-south-west of Giaour 
Geul, 

a line to be fixed on the ground at a distance of about 18 kilometres 
. from the railway, and leaving Duldul Dagh to Syria; 

thence eastwards to a point to be chosen about 5 kilometres north 
of Urfa, 

a generally straight line from west to east to be fixed on the ground 
passing north of the roads connecting the towns of Baghche, Aintab, 
Biridjik. and Urfa and leaving the last three named towns to Syria; 

thence eastwards to the south-western extremity of the bend in the 
Tigris about 6 kilometres north of Azekh (27 kilometres west of 
Djezire-ibn-Omar) . 

a generally staight line from west to east to be fixed on the ground 
leaving the town of Mardin to Syria; 

thence to a point to be chosen on the Tigris between the point of 
confluence of the Khabur Su with the Tigris and the bend in the 
Tigris situated about 10 kilometres north of this point, 

the course of the Tigris downstream, leaving the island on which 
is situated the town of Djezire-ibn-Omar to Syria. 

(3) With Mesopotamia: 

Thence in a general easterly direction to a point to be chosen on 
the northern boundary of the vilayet of Mosul, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence eastwards to the point where it meets the frontier between 
Turkey and Persia, 

the northern boundary of the valayet of Mosul, modified, however, 
so as to pass south of Amadia. 

(4) On the East and the North East: 

Eom the point above defined to the Black Sea, the existing frontier 
between Turkey and Persia, then the former frontier between Turkey 
and Russia, subject to the provisions of Article 89. 

(5) The Black Sea. 



334 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 28. 

The frontiers described by the present Treaty are traced on the one 
in a million maps attached to the present Treaty. In case of differ- 
ences between the text and the map, the text will prevail. 

Article 29. 

Boundary Commissions, whose composition is or will be fixed in 
the present Treaty or in Treaties supplementary thereto, will have to 
trace these frontiers on the ground. 

They shall have the power, not only of fixing those portions which 
are defined as "a line to be fixed on the ground," but also, if the 
Commission considers it necessary, of revising in matters of detail 
portions defined by administrative boundaries or otherwise. They 
shall endeavour in all cases to follow as nearly as possible the de- 
scriptions given in the Treaties, taking into account, as far as pos- 
sible, administrative boundaries and local economic interests. 

The decisions of the Commissions will be taken by a majority, and 
shall be binding on the parties concerned. 

The expenses of the Boundary Commissions will be borne in equal 
si i -ires by the parties concerned. 

Article 30. 

In so far as frontiers defined by a waterway are concerned, the 
phrases " course " or " channel " used in the descriptions of the pres- 
ent Treaty signify, as regards nonnavigable rivers, the median line 
of the waterway or of its principal branch, and, as regards navigable 
rivers, the median line of the principal channel of navigation. It 
will rest with the Boundary Commissions provided for by the present 
Treaty to specify whether the frontier line shall follow any changes 
of the course or channel which may take place, or whether it shall 
be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the 
time when the present Treaty comes into force. 

In the absence of provisions to the contrary in the present Treaty, 
islands and islets lying within three miles of the coast are included 
within the frontier of the coastal State. 

Article 31. 

The various States concerned undertake to furnish to the Commis- 
sions all documents necessary for their tasks, especially authentic 
copies of agreements fixing existing or old frontiers, all large scale 
maps in existence, geodetic data, surveys completed but unpublished, 
and information concerning the changes of frontier watercourses. 
The maps, geodetic data, and surveys, even if unpublished, which 
are in the possession of the Turkish authorities must be delivered 
at Constantinople, within thirty days from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty, to such representative of the Commissions 
concerned as may be appointed by the principal Allied Powers. 

The States concerned also undertake to instruct the local author- 
ities to communicate to the Commissions all documents, especially 



PEACE TREATIES. 335 

plans, cadastral and land books, and to furnish on demand all details 
regarding property, existing economic conditions, and other neces- 
sary information. 

Article 32. 

The various States interested undertake to give every assistance to 
the Boundary Commissions, whether directly or through local author- 
ities, in everything that concerns transport, accommodation, labour, 
materials (sign posts, boundary pillars) necessary for the accom- 
plishment of their mission. 

In particular the Turkish Government undertakes to furnish to 
the Principal Allied Powers such technical personnel as they may 
consider necessary to assist the Boundary Commissions in the accom- 
plishment of their mission. 

Article 33. 

The various States interested undertake to safeguard the trigo- 
nometrical points, signals, posts or frontier marks erected by the 
Commissions. 

Article 34. 

The pillars will be placed so as to be intervisible : they will be 
numbered, and their position and their number will be noted on a 
cartographic document. 

Article 35. 

The protocols defining the boundary and the maps and documents 
attached thereto will be made out in triplicate, of which two copies 
will be forwarded to the Governments of the limitrophe States, and 
the third to the Government of the French Republic, which will 
deliver authentic copies to the Powers who sign the present Treaty. 

PART III.— POLITICAL CLAUSES. 

Section I. — Constantinople. 
Article 36. 

Subject to the provisions of the present Treaty, the High Contract- 
ing Parties agree that the rights and title of the Turkish Govern- 
ment over Constantinople shall not be affected, and that the said 
Government and His Majesty the Sultan shall be entitled to reside 
there and to maintain there the capital of the Turkish State. 

Nevertheless, in the event of Turkey failing to observe faithfully 
the provisions of the present Treaty, or of any treaties or conven- 
tions supplementary thereto, particularly as regards the protection 
of the rights of racial, religious or linguistic minorities, the Allied 
Powers expressly reserve the right to modify the above provisions, 
and Turkey hereby agrees to accept any dispositions which may be 
taken in this connection. 



336 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section II. — Straits. 
Article 37. 

The navigation of the Straits, including the Dardanelles, the Sea of 
Marmora and the Bosphorus, shall in future be open, both in peace 
and war, to every vessel of commerce or of war and to military and 
commercial aircraft, without distinction of flag. 

These waters shall not be subject to blockade, nor shall any bellig- 
erent right be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within 
them, unless in pursuance of a decision of the Council of the League 
of Nations. 

Article 38. 

The Turkish Government recognizes that it is necessary to take fur- 
ther measures to ensure the freedom of navigation provided for in 
Article 37, and accordingly delegates, so far as it is concerned, to a 
Commission to be called the " Commission of the Straits," and here- 
inafter referred to as " the Commission," the control of the waters 
specified in Article 39. 

The Greek Government, so far as it is concerned, delegates to the 
Commission the same powers and undertakes to give it in all respects 
the same facilities. 

Such control shall be exercised in the name of the Turkish and 
Greek Governments respectively, and in the manner provided in this 
Section. 

Article 39. 

The authority of the Commission will extend to all the waters be- 
tween the Mediterranean mouth of the Dardanelles and the Black Sea 
mouth of the Bosphorus, and to the waters within three miles of 
each of these mouths. 

This authority may be exercised on shore to such extent as may be 
necessary for the execution of the provisions of this Section. 

Article 40. 

The Commission shall be composed of representatives appointed re- 
spectively by the United States of America (if and when that Govern- 
ment is willing to participate), the British Empire, France, Italy, 
Japan, Russia (if and when Russia becomes a member of the League 
of Nations), Greece, Roumania, and Bulgaria and Turkey (if and 
when the two latter States become members of the League of 
Nations). Each Power shall appoint one representative. The repre- 
sentatives of the United States of America, the British Empire, 
France, Italy, Japan and Russia shall each have two votes. The rep- 
resentatives of Greece, Roumania, and Bulgaria and Turkey shall 
each have one vote. Each Commissioner shall be removable only by 
the Government which appointed him. 

Article 41. 

The Commissioners shall enjoy, within the limits specified in Article 
39, diplomatic privileges and immunities. 



peace treaties. 337 

Article 42. 

The Commission will exercise the powers conferred on it by the 
present Treaty in complete independence of the local authority. It 
will have its own flag, its own budget and its separate organisation. 

Article 43. 

Within the limits of its jurisdiction as laid down in Article 39 the 
Commission will be charged with the following duties : 

(a) the execution of any works considered necessary for the im- 
provement of the channels or the approaches to harbours : 

(b) the lighting and buoying of the channels ; 

(c) the control of pilotage and towage; 

(d) the control of anchorages; 

(e) the control necessary to assure the application in the ports of 
Constantinople and Haidar Pasha of the regime prescribed in Articles 
335 to 344, Part XI (Ports, Waterways and Railways) of the present 
Treaty ; 

(/) the control of all matters relating to wrecks and salvage ; 
(ff) the control of lighterage. 

Article 44. 

In the event of the Commission finding that the liberty of passage is 
being interfered with, it will inform the representatives at Constanti- 
nople of the Allied Powers providing the occupying forces provided 
for in Article 178. These representatives will thereupon concert with 
the naval and military commanders of the said forces such measures 
as may be deemed necessary to preserve the freedom of the Straits. 
Similar action shall be taken by the said representatives in the event 
of any external action threatening the liberty of passage of the! 
Straits. 

Article 45. 

For the purpose of the acquisition of any property or the execution 
of any permanent works which may be required, the Commission shall 
be entitled to raise such loans as it may consider necessary. These 
loans will be secured, so far as possible, on the dues to be levied on 
the shipping using the Straits, as provided in Article 53. 

Article 46. 

The functions previously exercised by the Constantinople Superior 
Council of Health and the Turkish Sanitary Administration which 
was directed by the said Council, and the functions exercised by the 
National Life-boat Service of the Bosphorus, will within the limits 
specified in Article 39 be discharged under the control of the Commis- 
sion and in such manner as it may direct. 

The Commission will co-operate in the execution of any common 
policy adopted by the League of Nations for preventing and combat- 
ing disease. 

47808— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 22 



338 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 47. 

Subject to the general powers of control conferred upon the Com- 
mission, the rights of any persons or companies now holding conces- 
sions relating to lighthouses, docks, quays or similar matters shall be 
maintained ; but the Commission shall be entitled if it thinks it neces- 
sary in the general interest to buy out or modify such rights upon the 
conditions laid down in Article 311, ParJ; IX (Economic Clauses) of 
the present Treaty, or itself to take up a new concession. 

Article 48. 

In order to facilitate the execution of the duties with which it is 
entrusted by this Section, the Commission shall have power to or- 
ganise such a force of special police as may be necessary. This force 
shall be drawn so far as possible from the native population of the 
zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178, Part V 
(Military, Naval and Air Clauses), excluding the islands of Lemnos, 
Imbros, Samothrace, Tenedos and Mitylene. The said force shall be 
commanded by foreign police officers appointed by the Commission. 

Article 49. 

In the portion of the zone of the Straits, including the islands of the 
Sea of Marmora, which remains Turkish, and pending the coming 
into force of the reform of the Turkish judicial system provided for 
in Article 136, all infringements of the regulations and by-laws made 
by the Commission, committed by nationals of capitulatory Powers, 
shall be dealt with by the Consular Courts of the said Powers. The 
Allied Powers agree to make such infringements justiciable before 
their Consular Courts or authorities. Infringements committed by 
Turkish nationals or nationals of non-capitulatory Powers shall be 
dealt with by the competent Turkish judicial authorities. 

In the portion of the said zone placed under Greek sovereignty such 
infringements will be dealt with by the competent Greek judicial 
authorities. 

Article 50. 

The officers or members of the crew of any merchant vessel within 
the limits of the jurisdiction of the Commission who may be arrested 
on shore for any offence committed either ashore or afloat within the 
limits of the said jurisdiction shall be brought before the competent 
judicial authority by the Commission's police. If the accused was 
arrested otherwise than by the Commission's police he shall imme- 
diately be handed over to them. 

Article 51. 

The Commission shall appoint such subordinate officers or officials 
as may be found indispensable to assist it in carrying out the duties 
with which it is charged. 



PEACE TREATIES. 339 

Article 52. 

In all matters relating to the navigation of the waters within the 
limits of the jurisdiction of the Commission all the ships referred 
to in Article 37 shall be treated upon a footing of absolute equality. 

Article 53. 

Subject to the provisions of Article 47 the existing rights under 
which dues and charges can be levied for various purposes, whether 
direct by the Turkish Government or by international bodies or 
private companies, on ships or cargoes within the limits of the juris- 
diction of the Commission shall be transferred to the Commission. 
The Commission shall fix these dues and charges at such amounts 
only as may be reasonably necessary to cover the cost of the works 
executed and the services rendered to shipping, including the gen- 
eral costs and expenses of the administration of the Commission, and 
the salaries and pay provided for in paragraph 3 of the Annex to 
this Section. 

For these purposes only and with the prior consent of the Council 
of the League of Nations the Commission may also establish dues 
and charges other than those now existing and fix their amounts. 

Article 54. 

All dues and charges imposed by the Commission shall be levied 
without any discrimination and on a footing of absolute equality 
between all vessels, whatever their port of origin, destination or de- 
parture, their flag or ownership, or the nationality or ownership of 
their cargoes. 

This disposition does not affect the right of the Commission to fix 
in accordance with tonnage the dues provided for by this Section. 

Article 55. 

The Turkish and Greek Governments respectively undertake to 
facilitate the acquisition by the Commission of such land and build- 
ings as the Commission shall consider it necessary to acquire in 
order to carry out effectively the duties with which it is entrusted. 

Article 56. 

Ships of war in transit through the waters specified in Article 39 
shall conform in all respects to the regulations issued by the Com- 
mission for the observance of the ordinary rules of navigation and 
of sanitary requirements. 

Article 57. 

(1) Belligerent warships shall not revictual nor take in stores, 
except so far as may be strictly necessary to enable them to complete 
the passage of the Straits and to reach the nearest port where they 
can call, nor shall they replenish or increase their supplies of war 



340 PEACE TREATIES. 

material or their armament or complete their crews, within the 
waters under the control of the Commission. Only such repairs as 
are absolutely necessary to render them seaworthy shall be carried 
out, and they shall not add in any manner whatever to their fighting 
force. The Commission shall decide what repairs are necessary, and 
these must be carried out with the least possible delay. 

(2) The passage of belligerent warships through the waters under 
the control of the Commission shall be effected with the least pos- 
sible delay, and without any other interruption than that resulting 
from the necessities of the service. 

(3) The stay of such warships at ports within the jurisdiction of 
the Commission shall not exceed twenty-four hours except in case of 
distress. In such case they shall be bound to leave as soon as pos- 
sible. An interval of at least twenty-four hours shall always elapse 
between the sailing of a belligerent ship from the waters under the 
control of the Commission and the departure of a ship belonging to 
an opposing belligerent. 

(4) Any further regulations affecting in time of war the waters 
under the control of the Commission, and relating in particular to 
the passage of war material and contraband destined for the enemies 
of Turkey, or revictualling, taking in stores or carrying out repairs 
in the said waters, will be laid down by the League of Nations. 

Article 58. 

Prizes shall in all respects be subjected to the same conditions as 
belligerent vessels of war. 

Article 59. 

No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war 
or warlike materials in the waters under the control of the Commis- 
sion, except in case of accidental hindrance of the passage, and in 
such cases the passage shall be resumed with all possible despatch. 

Article 60. 

Nothing in Articles 57, 58 or 59 shall be deemed to limit the powers 
of a belligerent or belligerents acting in pursuance of a decision by 
the Council of the League of Nations. 

Article 61. 

Any differences which may arise between the Powers as to the in- 
terpretation or execution of the provisions of this Section, and as 
regards Constantinople and Haidar Pasha of the provisions of 
Articles 335 to 344, Part XI (Ports. Waterways, and Railways) shall 
be referred to the Commission. In the event of the decision of the 
Commission not being accepted by any Power, the question shall, 
on the demand of any Power concerned, be settled as provided by the 
League of Nations, pending whose decision the ruling of the Com- 
mission will be carried out. 



PEACE TREATIES. 341 

Annex. 

1. 

The Chairmanship of the Commission of the Straits shall be rota- 
tory for the period of two years among the members of the Com- 
mission entitled to two votes. 

The Commission shall take decisions by a majority vote, and the 
Chairman shall have a casting vote. Abstention shall be regarded as 
a vote against the proposal under discussion. 

Each of the Commissioners will have the right to designate a 
deputy Commissioner to replace him in his absence. 



The salary of each member of the Commission will be paid by the 
Government which appointed him ; these salaries will be fixed at rea- 
sonable amounts agreed upon from time to time between the Gov- 
ernments represented on the Commission. 



The salaries of the police officers referred to in Article 48, of such 
other officials and officers as may be appointed under Article 51, and 
the pay of the local police referred to in Article 48, shall be paid out 
of the receipts from the dues and charges levied on shipping. 

The Commission shall frame regulations as to the terms and condi- 
tions of employment of all officers and officials appointed by it. 



The Commission shall have at its disposal such vessels as may be 
necessary to enable it to carry out its functions as laid down in this 
Section and Annex. 

5. 

In order to carry out all the duties with which it is charged by the 
provisions of this Section and Annex and within the limits therein 
laid down the Commission will have the power to prepare, issue and 
enforce the necessary regulations; this power will include the right 
of amending so far as may be necessary or repealing the existing 
regulations. 

6. 

The Commission shall frame regulations as to the manner in which 
the accounts of all revenues and expenditure of the funds under its 
control shall be kept, the auditing of such accounts and the publica- 
tion every year of a full and accurate report thereof. 

Section III. — Kurdistan. 

Article 62. 

A Commission sitting at Constantinople and composed of three- 
members appointed by the British, French and Italian Governments 



342 PEACE TREATIES. 

respectively shall draft within six months from the coming into 
force of the present Treaty a scheme of local autonomy for the pre- 
dominantly Kurdish areas lying east of the Euphrates, south of the 
southern boundary of Armenia as it may be hereafter determined, 
and north of the frontier of Turkey with Syria and Mesopotamia, as 
defined in Article 27, II. (2) and (3). If unanimity cannot be 
secured on any question, it will be referred by the members of the 
Commission to their respective Governments. The scheme shall con- 
tain full safeguards for the protection of the Assyro-Chaldeans and 
other racial or religious minorities within these areas, and with this 
object a Commission composed of British, French, Italian, Persian 
and Kurdish representatives shall visit the spot to examine and 
decide what rectifications, if any, should be made in the Turkish 
frontier where, under the provisions of the present Treaty, that 
frontier coincides with that of Persia. 

Article 63. 

The Turkish Government hereby agrees to accept and execute the 
decisions of both the Commissions mentioned in Article 62 within 
three months from their communication to the said Government. 

Article 64. 

If within one year from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the Kurdish peoples within the areas defined in Article 62 
shall address themselves to the Council of the League of Nations in 
such a manner as to show that a majority of the population of these 
areas desires independence from Turkey, and if the Council then con- 
siders that these peoples are capable of such independence and rec- 
ommends that it should be granted to them, Turkey hereby agrees 
to execute such a recommendation, and to renounce all rights and 
title over these areas. 

The detailed provisions for such renunciation will form the sub- 
ject of a separate agreement between the Principal Allied Powers 
and Turkey. 

If and when such renunciation takes place, no objection will be 
raised by the Principal Allied Powers to the voluntary adhesion to 
such an independent Kurdish State of the Kurds inhabiting that part 
of Kurdistan which has hitherto been included in the Mosul Vilayet. 

Section IV. — Smyrna. 

Article 65. 

The provisions of this Section will apply to the city of Smyrna 
and the adjacent territory defined in Article 66, until the determina- 
tion of their final status in accordance with Article 83. 

Article 66. 

The geographical limits of the territory adjacent to the city of 
Smyrna will be laid down as follows (see annexed map No. 1) : 

From the mouth of the river which flows in the Aegean Sea about 
5 kilometres north of Skalanova, eastwards, 



PEACE TREATIES. 343 

the course of this river upstream; 

then southeastwards, the course of the southern branch of this 
river ; 

then southeastwards, to the western point of the crest of the 
Gumush Dagh; 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Chinar K, and east 
of Akache Ova ; 

thence northeastwards, this crest line; 

thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the railway from 
Ayasoluk to Deirmendik about 1 kilometre west of Balachik station, 

a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the road and railway from 
Sokia to Balachik station entirely in Turkish territory ; 

thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the southern bound- 
ary of the Sandjak of Smyrna, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence to a point to be chosen in the neighbourhood of Bos Dagh 
situated about 15 kilometres northeast of Odemish, 

the southern and eastern boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna; 

thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the railway from 
Manisa to Alashehr about 6 kilometres west of Salihli ; 

a line to be fixed on the ground; 

thence northwards to Geurenez Dagh, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Mermer Geul west 
of Kemer, crossing the Kum Chai approximately south of Akshalan, 
and then following the watershed west of Kavakalan; 

thence northwestwards to a point to be chosen on the boundary 
between the Cazas of Kirkagach and Ak Hissar about 18 kilometres 
east of Kirkagach and 20 kilometres north of Ak Hissar, 

a line to be fixed on the ground; 

thence westwards to its junction with the boundary of the Caza of 
Soma, 

the southern boundary of the Caza of Kirkagach, 

thence westwards to its junction with the boundary of the Sandjak 
of Smyrna, 

the southern boundary of the Caza of Soma ; 

thence northwards to its junction with the boundary of the Vilayet 
of Smyrna, 

the northeastern boundary of the Sandjak of Smyrna; 

thence westwards to a point to be chosen in the neighbourhood of 
Charpajik (Tepe), 

the northern boundary of the Vilayet of Smyrna ; 

thence northwards to a point to be chosen on the ground about 
4 kilometres southwest of Keuiluje, 

a line to be fixed on the ground ; 

thence westwards to a point to be selected on the ground between 
Cape Dahlina and Kemer Iskele, 

a line to be fixed on the ground passing south of Kemer and Kemer 
Iskele together with the road joining these places. 

Article 67. 

A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the 
bounderies of the territories described in Article 66. This Commis- 



344 PEACE TREATIES. 

sion shall be composed of three members nominated by the British, 
French and Italian Governments respectively, one member nomi- 
nated by the Greek Government, and one nominated by the Turkish 
Government. 

Article 68. 

Subject to the provisions of this Section, the city of Smyrna and 
the territory defined in Article 66 will be assimilated, in the applica- 
tion of the present Treaty, to territory detached from Turkey. 

Article 69. 

The city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 remain 
under Turkish sovereignty. Turkey however transfers to the Greek 
Government the exercise of her rights of sovereignty over the city of 
Smyrna and the said territory. In witness of such sovereignty the 
Turkish flag shall remain permanently hoisted over an outer fort in 
the town of Smyrna. The fort will be designated by the Principal 
Allied Powers. 

Article 70. 

The Greek Government will be responsible for the administration 
of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66, and will 
effect this administration by means of a body of officials which it 
will appoint specially for the purpose. 

Article 71. 

The Greek Government shall be entitled to maintain in the city of 
Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 the military forces 
required for the maintenance of order and public security. 

Article 72. 

A local parliament shall be set up with an electoral system calcu- 
lated to ensure proportional representation of all sections of the 
population, including racial, linguistic and religious minorities. 
Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty 
the Greek Government shall submit to the Council of the League of 
Nations a scheme for an electoral system complying with the above 
requirements; this scheme shall not come into force until approved 
by a majority of the Council. 

The Greek Government shall be entitled to postpone the elections 
for so long as may be required for the return of the inhabitants who 
have been banished or deported by the Turkish authorities, but such 
postponement shall not exceed a period of one year from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty. 

Article 73. 

The relations between the Greek administration and the local 
parliament shall be determined by the said administration in ac- 
cordance with the principles of the Greek Constitution. 



PEACE TREATIES. 345 

Article 74. 

Compulsory military service shall not be enforced in the city of 
Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66 pending the final 
determination of their status in accordance with Article 83. 

Article 75. 

The provisions of the separate Treaty referred to in Article 86 
relating to the protection of racial, linguistic and religious minori- 
ties, and to freedom of commerce and transit, shall be applicable to 
the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66. 

Article 76. 

The Greek Government may establish a Customs boundary along 
the frontier line defined in Article 66, and may incorporate the city 
of Smyrna and the territory defined in the said Article in the Greek 
customs system. 

Article 77. 

The Greek Government engages to take no measures which would 
have the effect of depreciating the existing Turkish currency, which 
shall retain its character as legal tender pending the determination, 
in accordance with the provisions of Article 83, of the final status of 
the territory. 

Article 78. 

The Provisions of Part XI (Ports, Waterways and Railways) re- 
lating to the regime of ports of international interest, free ports and 
transit shall be applicable to the city of Smyrna and the territory 
defined in Article 66. 

Article 79. 

As regards nationality, such inhabitants of the city of Smyrna 
and the territory defined in Article 66 as are of Turkish nationality 
and cannot claim any other nationality under the terms of the present 
Treaty shall be treated on exactly the same footing as Greek 
nationals. Greece shall provide for their diplomatic and consular 
protection abroad. 

Article 80. 

The provisions of Article 241, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) 
will apply in the case of the city of Smyrna and the territory de- 
fined in Article 66. 

The provisions of Article 293, Part IX (Economic Clauses) will 
not be applicable in the case of the said city and territory. 

Article 81. 

Until the determination, in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 83, of the final status of Smyrna and the territory defined in 



346 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 66, the rights to exploit the salt marshes of Phocea belonging 
to the Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt, including all 
plant and machinery and materials for transport by land or sea, shall 
not be altered or interfered with. No tax or charge shall be im- 
posed during this period on the manufacture, exportation or trans- 
port of salt produced from these marshes. The Greek administration 
will have the right to regulate and tax the consumption of salt at 
Symrna and within the territory defined in Article 66. 

If after the expiration of the period referred to in the preceding 
paragraph Grece considers it opportune to effect changes in the pro- 
visions above set forth, the salt marshes of Phocea will be treated 
as a concession and the guarantees provided by Article 312, Part IX 
(Economic Clauses) will apply, subject however to the provisions of 
Article 246, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Article 82. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not 
decided by the present Treaty and which may arise from the execu- 
tion of the provisions of this Section. 

Article 83. 

When a period of five years shall have elapsed after the coming 
into force of the present Treaty the local parliament referred to in 
Article 72 may, by a majority of votes, ask the Council of the League 
of Nations for the definitive incorporation in the Kingdom of Greece 
of the city of Smyrna and the territory defined in Article 66. The 
Council may require, as a preliminar}^ a plebiscite under conditions 
which it will lay down. ■ 

In the event of such incorporation as a result of the application 
of the foregoing paragraph, the Turkish sovereignty referred to in 
Article 69 shall cease. Turkey hereby renounces in that event in 
favour of Greece all rights and title over the city of Smyrna and the 
territory defined in Article 66. 

Section V. — Greece. 

Article 84. 

Without prejudice to the frontiers of Bulgaria laid down by the 
Treaty of Peace signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine on November 27, 1919, 
Turkey renounces in favour of Greece all rights and title over the 
territories of the former Turkish Empire in Europe situated out- 
side the frontiers of Turkey as laid down by the present Treaty. 

The islands of the Sea of Marmora are not included in the transfer 
of sovereignty effected by the above paragraph. 

Turkey further renounces in favour of Greece all her rights and 
title over the islands of Imbros and Tenedos. The decision taken 
by the Conference of Ambassadors at London in execution of Articles 
5 of the Treaty of London of May 17/30, 1913, and 15 of the Treaty 
of Athens of November 1/14, 1913, and notified to the Greek Gov- 
ernment on February 13, 1914, relating to the sovereignty of Greece 
over the other islands of the Eastern Mediterranean, particularly 



PEACE TREATIES. 347 

Lemnos, Samothrace, Mytilene, Chios, Samos and Nikaria, is con- 
firmed, without prejudice to the provisions of the present Treaty 
relating to the islands placed under the sovereignty of Italy and 
referred to in Article 122, and to the islands lying less than three 
miles from the coast of Asia. {See map No. 1.) 

Nevertheless, in the portion of the zone of the Straits and the 
islands, referred to in Article 178, which under the present Treaty 
are placed under Greek sovereignty, Greece accepts and undertakes 
to observe, failing any contrary stipulation in the present Treaty, 
all the obligations which, in order to assure the freedom of the 
Straits, are imposed by the present Treaty on Turkey in that por- 
tion of the said zone, including the islands of the Sea of Marmora, 
which remains under Turkish sovereignty. 

Article 85. 

A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the fron- 
tier line described in Article 27, I (2), This Commission shall be 
composed of four members nominated by the Principal Allied 
Powers, one member nominated by Greece, and one member nomi- 
nated by Turkey. 

Article 86. 

Greece accepts and agrees to embody in a separate Treaty such 
provisions as may be deemed necessary, particularly as regards 
Adrianople, to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State who 
differ from the majority of the population in race, language or 
religion. 

Greece further accepts and agrees to embody in a separate Treaty 
such provisions as may be deemed necessary to protect freedom of 
transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of other nations. 

Article 87. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Turkey 
which Greece will have to assume on account of the territory placed 
under her sovereignty will be determined in accordance with Ar- 
ticles 241 to 244, Part VIII (Financial Clauses) of the present 
Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will decide all questions which are not 
decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in consequence 
of the transfer of the said territories. 

Section VI. — Armenia. 

Article 88. 

Turkey, in accordance with the action already taken by the Allied 
Powers, hereby recognises Armenia as a free and independent State. 

Article 89. 

Turkey and Armenia as well as the other High Contracting Parties 
agree to submit to the arbitration of the President of the United 



348 PEACE TREATIES. 

States of America the question of the frontier to be fixed between 
Turkey and Armenia in the Vilayets of Erzerum, Trebizond, Van 
and Bitlis, and to accept his decision thereupon, as well as any stipu- 
lations he may prescribe as to access for Armenia to the sea, and as 
to the demilitarisation of any portion of Turkish territory adjacent 
to the said frontier. 

Article 90. 

In the event of the determination of the frontier under Article 89 
involving the transfer of the whole or any part of the territory of 
the said vilayets to Armenia, Turkey hereby renounces as from the 
date of such decision all rights and title over the territory so trans- 
ferred. The provisions of the present Treaty applicable to terri- 
tory detached from Turkey shall thereupon become applicable to 
the said territory. 

The proportion and nature of the financial obligations of Turkey 
which Armenia will have to assume, or of the rights which will pass 
to her, on account of the transfer of the said territory will be deter- 
mined in accordance with Articles 241 to 244, Part VIII (Financial 
Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Subsequent agreements will, if necessary, decide all questions 
which are not decided by the present Treaty and which may arise in 
consequence of the transfer of the said territory. 

Article 91. 

In the event of any portion of the territory referred to in Article 89 
being transferred to Armenia, a Boundary Commission, whose com- 
position will be determined subsequently, will be constituted within 
three months from the delivery of the decision referred to in the said 
Article to trace on the spot the frontier between Armenia and 
Turkey as established by such decision. 

Article 92. 

The frontiers between Armenia and Azerbaijan and Georgia re- 
spectively will be determined by direct agreement between the States 
concerned. 

If in either case the States concerned have failed to determine the 
frontier by agreement at the date of the decision referred to in Article 
89, the frontier line in question will be determined by the Principal 
Allied Powers, who will also provide for its being traced on the spot. 

Article 93. 

Armenia accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with the Prin- 
cipal Allied Powers such provisions as may be deemed necessary by 
these Powers to protect the interests of inhabitants of that State 
who differ from the majority of the population in race, language, 
or religion. 

Armenia further accepts and agrees to embody in a Treaty with 
the Principal Allied Powers such provisions as these Powers may 
deem necessary to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment 
for the commerce of other nations. 



PEACE TREATIES. 349 

Section VII. — Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine. 
Article 94. 

The High Contracting Parties agree that Syria and Mesopotamia 
shall, in accordance with the fourth paragraph of Article 22, Part I 
(Covenant of the League of Nations), be provisionally recognised 
as independent States subject to the rendering of administrative 
advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are 
able to stand alone. 

A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the com- 
ing into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the frontier 
line described in Article 27, II (2) and (3). This Commission will 
be composed of three members nominated by France, Great Britain 
and Italy respectively, and one member nominated by Turkey ; it 
will be assisted by a representative of Syria for the Syrian frontier, 
and by a representative of Mesopotamia for the Mesopotamia!! 
frontier. 

The determination of the other frontiers of the said States, and the 
selection of the Mandatories, will be made by the Principal Allied 
Powers. 

Article 95. 

The High Contracting Parties agree to entrust, by application of 
the provisions of Article 22, the administration of Palestine, within 
such boundaries as may be determined by the Principal Allied 
Powers, to a Mandatory to be selected by the said Powers. The 
Mandatory will be responsible for putting into effect the declaration 
originally made on November 2, 1917, by the British Government, 
and adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favour of the establish- 
ment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being 
clearly understood that nothing shall be clone which may prejudice 
the civil and religious rights of existing non- Jewish communities in 
Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any 
other country. 

The Mandatory undertakes to appoint as soon as possible a special 
Commission to study and regulate all questions and claims relating 
to the different religious communities. In the composition of this 
Commission the religious interests concerned will be taken into 
account. The Chairman of the Commission will be appointed by 
the Council of the League of Nations. 

Article 96. 

The terms of the mandates in respect of the above territories will 
be formulated by the Principal Allied Powers and submitted to the 
Council of the League of Nations for approval. 

Article 97. 

Turkey hereby undertakes ? in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 132, to accept any decisions which may be taken in relation to 
the questions dealt with in this Section. 



350 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section VIII. — Hedjaz. 

Article 98. 

Turkey, in accordance with the action already taken by the Allied 
Powers, hereby recognises the Hedjaz as a free and independent 
State, and renounces in favour of the Hedjaz all rights and titles 
over the territories of the former Turkish Empire situated outside 
the frontiers of Turkey as laid down by the present Treaty, and 
comprised within the boundaries which may ultimately be fixed. 

Article 99. 

In view of the sacred character attributed by Moslems of all 
countries to the cities and the Holy Places of Mecca and Medina, 
His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz undertakes to assure free and 
easy access thereto to Moslems of every country who desire to go 
there on pilgrimage or for any other religious object, and to respect 
and ensure respect for the pious foundations which are or may be 
established there by Moslems of any countries in accordance with the 
precepts of the law of the Koran. 

Article 100. 

His Majesty the King of the Hedjaz undertakes that in commercial 
matters the most complete equality of treatment shall be assured in 
the territory of the Hedjaz to the persons, ships and goods of na- 
tionals of any of the Allied Powers, or of any of the new States set 
up in the territories of the former Turkish Empire, as well as to the 
persons, ships and goods of nationals of States, Members of the 
League of Nations. 

Section IX. — Egypt, Soudan, Cyprus. 

1.— EGYPT. 
Article 101. 

Turkey renounces all rights and title in or over Egypt. This 
renunciation shall take effect as from November 5, 1914. Turkey 
declares that in conformity with the action taken by the Allied 
Powers she recognises the Protectorate proclaimed over Egypt by 
Great Britain on December 18, 1914. 

Article 10*2. 

Turkish subjects habitually resident in Egypt on December 18, 
1914, will acquire Egyptian nationality ipso facto and will lose their 
Turkish nationality, except that if at that date such persons were 
temporarily absent from, and have not since returned to, Egypt 
they will not acquire Egyptian nationality without a special authori- 
sation from the Egyptian Government. 



PEACE TREATIES. 351 

Article 103. 

Turkish subjects who became resident in Egypt after December 18, 
1914, and are habitually resident there at the date of the coming into 
force of the present Treaty may, subject to the conditions prescribed 
in Article 105 for the right of option, claim Egyptian nationality, 
but such claim may in individual cases be refused by the competent 
Egyptian authority. 

Article 104. 

For all purposes connected with the present Treat}', Egypt and 
Egyptian nationals, their goods and vessels, shall be treated on the 
same footing, as from August 1, 1914, as the Allied Powers, their 
nationals, goods and vessels, and provisions in respect of territory 
under Turkish sovereignty, or of territory detached from Turkey in 
accordance with the present Treaty, shall not apply to Egypt. 

Article 105. 

Within a period of one year after the coming into force of the 
present Treaty persons over eighteen years of age acquiring Egyptian 
nationality under the provisions of Article 102 will be entitled to 
opt for Turkish nationality. In case such persons, or those who 
under Article 103 are entitled to claim Egyptian nationality, differ 
in race from the majority of the population of Egypt, they will 
within the same period be entitled to opt for the nationality of any 
State in favour of which territory is detached from Turkey, if the 
majority of the population of that State is of the same race as the 
person exercising the right to opt. 

Option by a husband covers a wife and option by parents covers 
their children under eighteen years of age. 

Persons who have exercised the above right to opt must, except 
where authorised to continue to reside in Egypt, transfer within the 
ensuing twelve months their place of residence to the State for which 
they have opted. They will be entitled to retain their immovable 
property in Egypt, and may carry with them their movable property 
of every description. k No export or import duties or charges may 
be imposed upon them in connection with the removal of such 
property. 

Article 106. 

The Egyptian Government shall have complete liberty of action 
in regulating the status of Turkish subjects in Egypt and the con- 
ditions under which they may establish themselves in the territory. 

Article 107. 

Egyptian nationals shall be entitled, when abroad, to British diplo- 
matic and consular protection. 

Article 108. 

Egyptian goods entering Turkey shall enjoy the treatment ac- 
corded to British "roods. 



352 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 109. 

Turkey renounces in favour of Great Britain the powers conferred 
upon His Imperial Majesty the Sultan by the Convention signed 
at Constantinople on October 29. 1888, relating to the free navigation 
of the Suez Canal. 

Article 110. 

All property and possessions in Egypt belonging to the Turkish 
Government pass to the Egyptian Government without payment. 

Article 111. 

All movable and immovable property in Egypt belonging to 
Turkish nationals (who do not acquire Egyptian nationality) shall be 
dealt with in accordance with the provisions of Part IX (Economic 
Clauses) of the present Treaty. 

Article 112. 

Turkey renounces all claim to the tribute formerly paid by Egypt. 

Great Britain undertakes to relieve Turkey of all liability in re- 
spect of the Turkish loans secured on the Egyptian tribute. 

These loans are : 

The guaranteed loan of 1855 ; 

The loan of 1894 representing the converted loans of 1854 and 1871 ; 

The loan of 1891 representing the converted loan of 1877. 

The sums which the Khedives of Egypt have from time to time 
undertaken to pay over to the houses by which these loans were issued 
will be applied as heretofore to the interest and the sinking funds of 
the loans of 1894 and 1891 until the final extinction of those loans. 
The Government of Egypt will also continue to apply the sum 
hitherto paid, towards the interest on the guaranteed loan of 1855. 

Upon the extinction of these loans of 1894, 1891 and 1855, all 
liability on the part of the Egyptian Government arising out of the 
tribute formerly paid by Egypt to Turkey will cease. 

2.— SOUDAN. 

Article 113. 

The High Contracting Parties declare and place on record that they 
have taken note of the Convention between the British Government 
and the Egyptian Government defining the status and regulating the 
administration of the Soudan, signed on January 19, 1899, as amended 
by the supplementary Convention relating to the town of Suakin 
signed on July 10, 1899. 

Article 114. 

Soudanese shall be entitled when in foreign countries to British 
diplomatic and consular protection. 



PEACE TREATIES. 353 

V 

3.— CYPRUS. 

Article 115. 

The High Contracting Parties recognise the annexation of Cyprus 
proclaimed by the British Government on November 5, 1914. 

Article 116. 

Turkey renounces all rights and title over or relating to Cyprus, 
including the right to the tribute formerly paid by that island to 
the Sultan. 

Article 117. 

Turkish nationals born or habitually resident in Cyprus will ac- 
quire British nationality and lose their Turkish nationality, subject 
to the conditions laid down in the local law. 

Section X. — Morocco, Tunis. 

Article 118. 

Turkey recognises the French Protectorate in Morocco, and accepts 
all the consequences thereof. This recognition shall take effect as 
from March 30, 1912. 

Article 119. 

Moroccan goods entering Turkey shall be subject to the same treat- 
ment as French goods. 

Article 120. 

Turkey recognises the French Protectorate over Tunis and accepts 
all the consequences thereof. This recognition shall take effect as 
from May 12, 1881. 

Tunisian goods entering Turkey shall be subject to the same treat- 
ment as French goods. 

Section XL— Libya, Aegean Islands. 

Article 121. 

Turkey definitel} 7 renounces all rights and privileges which under 
the Treaty of Lausanne of October 18, 1912, were left to the Sultan 
in Libya. 

Article 122. 

Turkey renounces in favour of Italy all rights and title over the 
following islands of the Aegean Sea; Stampalia (Astropalia), 
Rhodes (Rhodos), Calki (Kharki), Scarpanto, Casos (Casso), 
Pscopis (Tilos), Misiros (Nisyros), Calymnos (Kalymnos), Leros, 
Patmos, Lipsos (Lipso), Sini (Symi), and Cos (Kos), which are now 
occupied by Italy, and the islets dependent thereon, and also over the 
island of Castellorizzo. (See map No. 1.) 

47S0S— S. Doc. 7, 67-1 23 



354 PEACE TREATIES. 

Section XII. — Nationality. 

Article 123. 

Turkish subjects habitually resident in territory which in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the present Treaty is detached from Tur- 
key will become ipso f(tcto, in the conditions laid down by the local 
law, nationals of the State to which such territory is transferred. 

Article 124. 

Persons over eighteen years of age losing their Turkish nationality 
and obtaining ipso facto a new nationality under Article 123 shall 
be entitled within a period of one year from the coming into force 
of the present Treaty to opt for Turkish nationality. 

Article 125. 

Persons over eighteen years of age habitually resident in territory 
detached from Turkey in accordance with the present Treaty and 
differing in race from the majority of the population of such terri- 
tory shall within one year from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty be entitled to opt for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece, 
the Hedjaz, Mesopotamia, Syria, Bulgaria or Turkey, if the majority 
of the population of the State selected is of the same race as the person 
exercising the right to opt. 

Article 126. 

Persons who have exercised the right to opt in accordance with the 
provisions of Articles 124 or 125 must within the succeeding twelve 
'months transfer their place of residence to the State for which they 
have opted. 

They will be entitled to retain their immovable property in the ter- 
ritory of the other State where they had their place of residence 
before exercising their right to opt. 

They may carry with them their movable property of every descrip- 
tion. Xo export or import duties may be imposed upon them in con- 
nection with the removal of such property. 

Article 127. 

The High Contracting Parties undertake to put no hindrance in 
the way of the exercise of the right which the parsons concerned 
have under the present Treaty, or under the Treaties of Peace con- 
cluded with Germany, Austria, Bulgaria or Hungary, or under any 
treaty concluded by the Allied Powers, or any of them, with llussia, 
or between any of the Allied Powers themselves, to choose any other 
nationality which ma}' be open to them. 

In particular, Turkey undertakes to facilitate by every means in 
her power the voluntary emigration of persons desiring to avail 
themselves of the right to opt provided by Article 125, and to carry 
out any measures which may be prescribed with this object by the 
Council of the League f Nations. 



PEACE TREATIES. 355 

Article 128. 

Turkey undertakes to recognise any new nationality which has 
been or may be acquired by her nationals under the laws of the 
Allied Powers or new States and in accordance with the decisions 
of the competent authorities of these Powers pursuant to naturali- 
sation laws or under Treaty stipulations, and to regard such persons 
as having, in consequence of the acquisition of such new nationality, 
in all respects severed their allegiance to their country of origin. 

In particular, persons who before the coming into force of the pres- 
ent Treaty have acquired the nationality of one of the Allied Powers 
in accordance with the law of such Powder shall be recognised by 
the Turkish Government as nationals of such Power and as having 
lost their Turkish nationality, notwithstanding any provisions of 
Turkish law to the contrary. No confiscation of property or other 
penalty provided by Turkish law shall be incurred on account of 
the acquisition of any such nationality. 

Article 129. 

Jews of other than Turkish nationality who are habitually resi- 
dent, on the coming into force of the present Treaty, within the 
boundaries of Palestine, as determined in accordance with Article 
95, will ipso facto become citizens of Palestine to the exclusion of any 
other nationality. 

Article 130. 

For the purposes of the provisions of this Section, the status of a 
married woman will be governed by that of her husband, and the 
status of children under eighteen years of age by that of their 
parents. 

Article 131. 

The provisions of this Section will apply to the city of Smyrna and 
the territory defined in Article 6G as from the establishment of the 
final status of the territory in accordance with Article 83. 

Section XIII. — General Provisions. 
Article 132. 

Outside her frontiers as fixed by the present Treaty Turkey hereby 
renounces in favour of the Principal Allied Powers all rights and 
title which she could claim on any ground over or concerning any 
territories outside Europe which are not otherwise disposed of by 
the present Treaty. 

Turkey undertakes to recognise and conform to the measures which 
may be taken now or in the future by the Principal Allied Powers, in 
agreement where necessary with third Powers, in order to carry the 
above stipulation into effect. 

Article 133. 

Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of the Treaties of 
Peace and Additional Conventions concluded by the Allied Powers 



356 PEACE TREATIES. 

with the. Powers who fought on the side of Turkey, and to recognise 
whatever dispositions have been or may be made concerning the ter- 
ritories of the former German Empire, of Austria, of Hungary and 
of Bulgaria, and to recognise the new States within their frontiers 
as there laid down. 

Article 134. 

Turkey hereby recognises and accepts the frontiers of Germany, 
Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Roumania, the Serb- 
Croat-Slovene State and the Czecho-Slovak State as these frontiers 
may be determined by the Treaties referred to in Article 133 or by 
any supplementary conventions. 

Article 135. 

Turkey undertakes to recognise the full force of all treaties or 
agreements which may be entered into by the Allied Powers with 
States now existing or coming into existence in future in the whole 
or part of the former Empire of Russia as it existed on August 1, 
1914, and to recognise the frontiers of any such States as determined 
therein. 

Turkey acknowledges and agrees to respect as permanent and in- 
alienable the independence of the said States. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article 259, Part VIII (Fi- 
nancial Clauses), and Article 277, Part IX (Economic Clauses), of 
the present Treaty, Turkey accepts definitely the abrogation of the 
Brest-Litovsk Treaties and of all treaties, conventions and agree- 
ments entered into by her with the Maximalist Government in 
Russia. 

Article 136. 

A Commission composed of four members, appointed by the Brit- 
ish Empire, France, Italy and Japan respectively, shall be set up 
Avithin three months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, to prepare, with the assistance of technical experts represent- 
ing the other capitulatory Powers, Allied or neutral, who with this 
object will each be invited to appoint an expert, a scheme of judicial 
reform to replace the present capitulatory system in judicial matters 
in Turkey. This Commission may recommend, after consultation 
with the Turkish Government, the adoption of either a mixed or an 
unified judicial system. 

The scheme aprepared by the Commission will be submitted to the 
Governments of the Allied and neutral Powers concerned. As soon 
as the Principal Allied Powers have approved the scheme they will 
inform the Turkish Government, which hereby agrees to accept the 
new system. 

The Principal Allied Powers reserve the right to agree among 
themselves, and if necessary with the other Allied or neutral Powers 
concerned, as to the date on which the new system is to come into 
force. 

Article 137. 

Without prejudice to the provisions of Part VII (Penalties), no 
inhabitant of Turkey shall be disturbed or molested, under any pre- 



PEACE TREATIES. 357 

text whatever, on account of any political or military action taken 
by him, or any assistance of any kind given by him to the Allied Pow- 
ers, or their nationals, between August 1, 1914, and the coming into 
force of the present Treaty; all sentences pronounced against any 
inhabitant of Turkey for the above reasons shall be completely an- 
nulled, and an}'' proceedings already instituted shall be arrested. 

Article 138. 

No inhabitant of territory detached from Turkey in accordance 
with the present Treaty shall be disturbed or molested on account 
of his political attitude after August 1, 1914, or of the determination 
of his nationality effected in accordance with the present Treaty. 

Article 139. 

Turkey renounces formally all rights of suzerainty or jurisdiction 
of any kind over Moslems who are subject to the sovereignty or pro- 
tectorate of any other State. 

No power shall be exercised directly or indirectly by any Turkish 
authority whatever in any territory detached from Turkey or of 
which the existing status under the present Treaty is recognised by 
Turkey. 

PART IV.— PROTECTION OF MINORITIES. 

Article 140. 

Turkey undertakes that the stipulations contained in Articles 141, 
145 and 147 shall be recognised as fundamental laws, and that no 
civil or military law or regulation, no Imperial Iracleh nor official 
action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations, nor shall any 
law. regulation. Imperial Iradeh nor official action prevail over them. 

Article 141. 

Turkey undertakes to assure full and complete protection of life 
and liberty to all inhabitants of Turkey without distinction of birth, 
nationality, language, race or religion. 

All inhabitants of Turkey shall be entitled to the free exercise. 
Avhether public or private, of any creed, religion or belief. 

The penalties for any interference with the free exercise of the 
right referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be the same what- 
ever may be the creed concerned. 

Article 142. 

Whereas, in view of the terrorist regime which has existed in 
Turkey since November 1, 1914, conversions to Islam could not take 
place under normal conditions, no conversions since that date are 
recognised and all persons who were non-Moslems before November 
1, 1914, will be considered as still remaining such, unless, after re- 
gaining their liberty, they voluntarily perform the necessary formali- 
ties for embracing the Islamic faith. 



358 PEACE TREATIES. 

In order to repair so far as possible the wrongs inflicted on indi- 
viduals in the course of the massacres perpetrated in Turkey during 
the war, the Turkish Government undertakes to afford all the assist- 
ance in its power or in that of the Turkish authorities in the search 
for and deliverance of all persons, of whatever race or religion, who 
have disappeared, been carried off, interned or placed in captivity 
since November 1, 1914. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to facilitate the operations of 
mixed commissions appointed by the Council of the League of Na- 
tions to receive the complaints of the victims themselves, their 
families or their relations, to make the necessary enquiries, and to 
order the liberation of the persons in question. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to ensure the execution of 
the decisions of these commissions, and to assure the security and the 
liberty of the persons thus restored to the full enjoyment of their 
rights. 

Article 143. 

Turkey undertakes to recognise such provisions as the Allied 
Powers may consider opportune with respect to the reciprocal and 
voluntary emigration of persons belonging to racial minorities. 

Turkey renounces any right to avail herself of the provisions of 
Article 16 of the Convention between Greece and Bulgaria relating 
to reciprocal emigration, signed at Neuilly-sur-Seine on November 
27, 1919. Within six months from the coming into force of the pres- 
ent Treaty Greece and Turkey will enter into a special arrangement 
relating to the reciprocal and voluntary emigration of the population 
of Turkish and Greek race in the territories transferred to Greece 
and remaining Turkish respectively. 

In case agreement cannot be reached as to such arrangement, 
Greece and Turkey will be entitled to apply to the Council of the 
League of Nations, which will fix the terms of such arrangement. 

Article 144. 

The Turkish Government recognizes the injustice of the law of 
1915 relating to Abandoned Properties (Emval-i-Metroukeh), and of 
the supplementary provisions thereof, and declares them to be null 
and void, in the past as in the future. 

The Turkish Government solemnly undertakes to facilitate to the 
greatest possible extent the return to their homes and re-establish- 
ment in their businesses of the Turkish subjects of non-Turkish race 
who have been forcibly driven from their homes by fear of massacre 
or any other form of pressure since January 1, 1914. It recognises 
that any immovable or movable property of the said Turkish sub- 
jects or of the communities to which they belong, which can be 
recovered, must be restored to them as soon as possible, in whatever 
hands it may be found. Such property shall be restored free of all 
charges or servitudes with which it may have been burdened and 
without compensation of any kind to the present owners or occupiers, 
subject to any action which they may be able to bring against the 
persons from whom they derived title. 

The Turkish Government agrees that arbitral commissions shall be 
appointed by the Council of the League of Nations wherever found 



PEACE TREATIES. 359 

necessary. These commissions shall each be composed of one repre- 
sentative of the Turkish Government, one representative of the com- 
munity which claims that it or one of its members has been injured, 
and a chairman appointed by the Council of the League of Nations. 
These arbitral commissions shall hear all claims covered by this 
Article and decide them by summary procedure. 
The arbitral commissions will have power to order : 

(1) the provision by the Turkish Government of labour for any 
work of reconstruction or restoration deemed necessary. This labour 
shall be recruited from the races inhabiting the territory where the 
arbitral commission considers the execution of the said works to be 
necessary ; 

(2) the removal of any person who, after enquiry, shall be recog- 
nised as having taken an active part in massacres or deportations or 
as having provoked them ; the measures to be taken with regard to 
such person's possessions will be indicated by the commission ; 

(3) the disposal of property belonging to members of a community 
who have died or disappeared since January 1, 1914, without leaving 
heirs; such property may be handed over to the community instead 
of to the State; 

(4) the cancellation of all acts of sale or any acts creating rights 
over immovable property concluded after January 1, 1914. The 
indemnification of the holders will be a charge upon the Turkish 
Government, but must not serve as a pretext for delaying the resti- 
tution, The arbitral commission will however have the power to im- 
pose equitable arrangements between the interested parties, if any 
sum has been paid bv the present holder of such property. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to facilitate in the fullest 
possible measure the work of the commissions and to ensure the exe- 
cution of their decisions, which will be final. No decision of the 
Turkish judicial or administrative authorities shall prevail over 
such decisions. 

Article 145. 

All Turkish nationals shall be equal before the law and shall enjoy 
the same civil and political rights without distinction as to race, 
language or religion. 

Difference of religion, creed or confession shall not prejudice any 
Turkish national in matters relating to the enjoyment of civil or 
political rights, as for instance admission to public employments, 
functions and honours, or the exercise of professions and industries. 

Within a period of two years from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty the Turkish Government will submit to the Allied 
Powers a scheme for the organisation of an electoral system based 
on the principle of proportional representation of racial minorities. 

No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any Turkish 
national of any language in private intercourse, in commerce, re- 
ligion, in the press or in publications of any kind, or at public meet- 
ings. Adequate facilities shall be given to Turkish nationals of non- 
Turkish speech ix>r the use of their language, either orally or in writ- 
ing, before the courts. 



360 peace treaties. 

Article 146. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to recognize the validity of 
diplomas granted by recognised foreign universities and schools, and 
to admit the holders thereof to the free exercise of the professions 
and industries for which such diplomas qualify. 

This provision will apply equally to nationals of Allied Powers 
who are resident in Turkey. 

Article 147. 

Turkish nationals who belong to racial, religious or linguistic 
minorities shall enjoy the same treatment and security in law and in 
fact as other Turkish nationals. In particular they shall have an 
equal right to establish, manage and control at their own expense, 
and independently of and without interference by the Turkish au- 
thorities, any charitable, religious and social institutions, schools for 
primary, secondary and higher instruction and other educational 
establishments, with the right to use their own language and to 
exercise their own religion freely therein. 

Article 148. 

In towns and districts where there is a considerable proportion of 
Turkish nationals belonging to racial, linguistic or religious minori- 
ties, these minorities shall be assured an equitable share in the enjoy- 
ment and application of the sums which may be provided out of 
public funds under the State, municipal or other budgets for educa- 
tional or charitable purposes. 

The sums in question shall be paid to the qualified representatives 
of the communities concerned. 

Article 149. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to recognise and respect the 
ecclesiastical and scholastic autonomy of all racial minorities in 
Turkey. For this purpose, and subject to any provisions to the con- 
trary in the present Treaty, the Turkish Government confirms and 
will uphold in their entirety the prerogatives and immunities of an 
ecclesiastical, scholastic or judicial nature granted by the Sultans to 
non-Moslem races in virtue of special orders or imperial decrees (fir- 
mans, hattis, berats, etc.) as well as by ministerial orders or orders 
of the Grand Vizier. 

All laws, decrees, regulations and circulars issued by the Turkish 
Government and containing abrogations, restrictions or amendments 
of such prerogatives and immunities shall be considered to such 
extent null and void. 

Any modification of the Turkish judicial system which may be 
introduced in accordance with the provisions of the present Treaty 
shall be held to override this Article, in so far as such modification 
may affect individuals belonging to racial minorities. 



PEACE TREATIES. 361 

Article 150. 

In towns and districts where there is resident a considerable pro- 
portion of Turkish nationals of the Christian or Jewish religions the 
Turkish Government undertakes that such Turkish nationals shall 
not be compelled to perform any act which constitutes a violation of 
their faith or religious observances, and shall not be placed under 
any disability by reason of their refusal to attend courts of law or 
to perform any legal business on their weekly da} T of rest. This 
provision, however, shall not exempt such Turkish nationals (Christ- 
ians or JeAYs) from such obligations as shall be imposed upon all other 
Turkish nationals for the preservation of public order. 

Article 151. 

The Principal Allied Powers, in consultation with the Council of 
the League of Nations, will decide what measures are necessary to 
guarantee the execution of the provisions of this Part. The Turkish 
Government hereby accepts all decisions which may be taken on this 
subject. 

PART V.— MILITARY, NAVAL AND AIR CLAUSES. 

In order to render possible the initiation of a general limitation of 
the armaments of all nations, Turkey undertakes strictly to observe 
the military, naval and air clauses which follow. 

Section I. — Military Clauses. 

CHAPTER I.— GENERAL CLAUSES. 
Article 152. 

The armed force at the disposal of Turkey shall only consist of: 

(1) The Sultan's bodyguard; 

(2) Troops of gendarmerie, intended to maintain order and se- 
curity in the interior and to ensure the protection of minorities ; 

(3) Special elements intended for the reinforcement of the troops 
of gendarmerie in case of serious trouble, and eventually to ensure 
the control of the frontiers. 

Article 153. 

Within six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty, the military forces other than that provided for in Article 
152 shall be demobilised and disbanded. 

CHAPTER II.— EFFECTIVES, ORGANISATION AND CADRES OF THE 
TURKISH ARMED FORCE. 

Article 154. 

The Sultan's bodyguard shall consist of a Staff and infantry and 
cavalry units, the strength of which shall not exceed TOO officers and 



362 PEACE TREATIES. 

men. This strength is not included in the total force provided for 
in Article 155. 

The composition of this guard is given in Table 1 annexed to this 
Section : 

Article 155. 

The total strength of the forces enumerated in paragraphs (2) and 
(3) of Article 152 shall not exceed 50,000 men, including Staffs, 
officers, training personnel and depot troops. 

Article 156. 

The troops of gendarmerie shall be distributed over the territory 
of Turkey, which for this purpose will be divided into territorial 
areas to be delimited as provided in Article 200. 

A legion of gendarmerie, composed of mounted and unmounted 
troops, provided with machine guns and with administrative and 
medical services will be organised in each territorial region; it will 
supply in the vilayets, sancljaks, cazas, etc., the detachments neces- 
sary for the organisation of a fixed protective service, mobile reserves 
being at its disposal at one or more points within the region. 

On account of their special duties, the legions shall not include 
either artillery or technical services. 

The total strength of the legions shall not exceed 35,000 men, to be 
included in the total strength of the armed force provided for in 
Article 155. 

The maximum strength of any one legion shall not exceed one 
quarter of the total strength of the legions. 

The elements of any one legion shall not be employed outside the 
territory of their region, except by special authorisation from the 
Inter- Allied Commission provided for in Article 200. 

Article 157. 

The special elements for reinforcements may include details of 
infantry, cavalry, mountain artillery, pioneers and the corresponding 
technical and general services; their total strength shall not exceed 
15,000 men, to be included in the total strength provided for in 
Article 155. 

The number of such reinforcements for any one legion shall not 
exceed one-third of the whole strength of these elements without the 
special authority of the Inter- Allied Commission provided for in 
Article 200. 

The proportion of the various arms and services entering into the 
composition of these special elements is laid down in Table II an- 
nexed to this Section. 

Their quartering will be fixed as provided in Article 200. 

Article 158. 

In the formations referred to in Articles 156 and 157, the proportion 
of officers, including the personnel of staffs and special services, shall 
not exceed one twentieth of the total effectives with the colours, and 



PEACE TREATIES. 363 

that of non-commissioned officers shall not exceed one twelfth of 
the total effectives with the colours. 

Article 159. 

Officers supplied by the various Allied or neutral Powers shall 
collaborate, under the direction of the Turkish Government, in the 
command, the organisation and the training of the gendarmerie. 
These officers shall not be included in the strength of gendarmerie 
officers authorised by Article 158, but their number shall not exceed 
fifteen per cent, of that strength. Special agreements to be drawn 
up by the Inter-Allied Commission mentioned in Article 200 shall 
fix the proportion of these officers according to nationality, and 
shall determine the conditions of their participation in the various 
missions assigned to them by this Article. 

Article 160. 

In any one territorial region all officers placed at the disposal of 
the Turkish Government under the conditions laid down in Article 
159 shall in principle be of the same nationality. 

Article 161. 

In the zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178, 
excluding the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, Tenedos and 
Mitylene, the forces of gendarmerie, Greek and Turkish, will be 
under the Inter- Allied Command of the forces in occupation of that 
zone. 

Article 162. 

All measures of mobilisation, or appertaining to mobilisation, or 
tending to an increase of the strength or of the means of transport 
of any of the forces provided for in this Chapter are forbidden. 

The various formations, Staffs and administrative services shall 
not, in any case, include supplementary cadres. 

Article 163. 

Within the period fixed by Article 153, all existing forces of gen- 
darmerie shall be amalgamated with the legions provided for in 
Article 156. 

Article 164. 

The formation of any body of troops not provided for in this Sec- 
tion is forbidden. 

The suppression of existing formations which are in excess of the 
authorised strength of 50,000 men (not including the Sultan's body- 
guard) shall be effected progressively from the date of the signature 
of the present Treaty, in such manner as to be completed within six 
months at the latest after the coming into force of the Treaty, in 
accordance with the provisions of Article 153. 



364 PEACE TREATIES. 

The number of officers, or persons in the position of officers, in the 
War Ministry and the Turkish General Staff, as well as in the admin- 
istrations attached to them, shall, within the same period, be reduced 
to the establishment considered by the Commission referred to in 
Article 200 as strictly necessary for the good working of the general 
services of the armed Turkish force, this establishment being in- 
cluded in the maximum figure laid down in Article 158. 

CHAPTER III.— RECRUITING. 

Article 165. 

The Turkish armed force shall in future be constituted and re- 
cruited by voluntary enlistment only. 

Enlistment shall be open to all subjects of the Turkish State 
equally, without distinction of race or religion. 

As regards the legions referred to in Article 156, their system of 
recruiting shall be in principle regional, and so regulated that the 
Moslem and non-Moslem elements of the population of each region 
may be, so far as possible, represented on the strength of the cor- 
responding legion. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraphs apply to officers as 
well as to men. 

Article 166. 

The length of engagement of non-commissioned officers and men 
shall be twelve consecutive years. 

The annual replacement of men released from service for any rea- 
son whatever before the expiration of their term of engagement shall 
not exceed five per cent, of the total effectives fixed by Article 155. 

Article 167. 

All officers must be regulars (officers de carriere). 

Officers at present serving in the army or the gendarmerie who are 
retained in the new armed force must undertake to serve at least up 
to the age of forty-five. 

Officers at present serving in the army or the gendarmerie who are 
not admitted to the new armed force shall be definitely released from 
all military obligations; and must not take part in any military 
exercises, theoretical or practical. 

Officers newly-appointed must undertake to serve on the active list 
for at least twenty-five consecutive years. 

The annual replacement of officers leaving the service for any cause 
before the expiration of their term of engagement shall not exceed 
five per cent, of the total effectives of officers provided b} 7 Article 158. 

CHAPTER IV. — SCIK >< >LS. EDU< ATI* )MAL ESTABLISHMENTS, MILI- 
TARY CLUBS AND SOCIETIES. 

Article 168. 

On the expiration of three months from the coming into force of 
the present Treaty there must only exist in Turkey the number of 



PEACE TREATIES. 365 

military schools which is absolutely indispensable for the recruit- 
ment of officers and non-commissioned officers of the units allowed, 
i. e. : 

1 school for officers ; 

1 school per territorial region for non-commissioned officers. 

The number of students admitted to instruction in these schools 
shall be strictly in proportion to the vacancies to be filled in the 
cadres of officers and non-commissioned officers. 

Article 169. 

Educational establishments, other than those referred to in Article 
168, as well as all sporting or other societies, must not occupy them- 
selves with any military matters. 

CHAPTER V.— CUSTOMS OFFICIALS, LOCAL, URBAN AND RURAL 
POLICE, FOREST GUARDS. 

Article 170. 

Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 48, Part III (Po- 
litical Clauses), the number of customs officials, local urban or rural 
police, forest guards or other like officials shall not exceed the num- 
ber of men employed in a similar capacity in 1913 within the terri- 
torial limits of Turkey as fixed by the present Treaty. 

The number of these officials may only be increased in the future 
in proportion to the increase of population in the localities or mu- 
nicipalities which employ them. 

These employees and officials, as well as those employed in the rail- 
way service, must not be assembled for the purpose of taking part in 
any military exercises. 

In each administrative district the local urban and rural police 
and forest guards shall be recruited and officered according to the 
principles laid down in the case of the gendarmerie by Article 165. 

In the Turkish police, which, as forming part of the civil admini- 
stration of Turkey, will remain distinct from the Turkish armed 
force, officers or officials supplied by the various Allied or neutral 
Powers shall collaborate, under the direction of the Turkish Govern- 
ment, in the organization, the command and the training of said 
police. The number of these officers or officials shall not exceed fifteen 
per cent, of the strength of similar Turkish officers or officials. 

CHAPTER VI.— ARMAMENT, MUNITIONS AND MATERIAL. 

Article 171. 

On the expiration of six months from the coming into force of the 
present Treaty, the armament which maye be in use or held in reserve 
for replacement in the various formations of the Turkish armed force 
shall not exceed the figures fixed per thousand men in Table III an- 
nexed to this Section. 

Article 172. 

The stock of munitions at the disposal of Turkey shall not exceed 
the amounts fixed in Table III annexed to this Section. 



366 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 173. 

Within six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty all existing arms, munitions of the various categories and war 
material in excess of the quantities authorised shall be handed over to 
the Military Inter-Allied Commission of Control provided for in 
Article 200 in such places as shall be appointed by this Commission. 

The Principal Allied Powers will decide what is to be done with 
this material. 

Article 174. 

The manufacture of arms, munitions and war material, including 
aircraft and parts of aircraft of every description, shall take place 
only in the factories or establishments authorised by the Inter- Allied 
Commission referred to in Article 200. 

Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty 
all other establishments for the manufacture, preparation, storage 
or design of arms, munitions or any war material shall be abolished 
or converted to purely commercial uses. 

The same will apply to all arsenals other than those utilised as 
depots for the authorised sticks of munitions. 

The plant of establishments or arsenals in excess of that required 
for the authorized manufacture shall be rendered useless or converted 
to purely commercial uses, in accordance with the decisions of the 
Militarv Inter-Allied Commission of Control referred to in Article 
200. 

Article 175. 

The importation into Turkey of arms, munitions and war mate- 
rials, including aircraft and parts of aircraft of every description, 
is strictly forbidden, except with the special authority of the Inter- 
Allied Commission referred to in Article 200. 

The manufacture for foreign countries and the exportation of 
arms, munitions and war material of any description is also for- 
bidden. 

Article 176. 

The use of flame-throwers, asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases 
and all similar liquids, materials or processes being forbidden, their 
manufacture and importation are strictly forbidden in Turkey. 

Material specially intended for the manufacture, storage, or use of 
the said products or processes is equally forbidden. 

The manufacture and importation into Turkey of armoured cars, 
tanks or any other similar machines suitable for use in war are equally 
forbidden. 

( TIAPTER VII — FORTIFICATIONS. 

Article 177. 

In the zone of the Straits and islands referred to in Article 178 
the fortifications will be disarmed and demolished as provided in that 
Article. 



PEACE TREATIES. 367 

Outside this zone, and subject to the provisions of Article 89, the 
existing fortified works may be preserved in their present condition, 
but will be disarmed within the same period of three months. 

CHAPTER VIII.— MAINTENANCE OF THE FREEDOM OF THE STRAITS. 

Article 178. 

For the purpose of guaranteeing; the freedom of the Straits, the 
High Contracting; Parties agree to the following provisions: — 

(1) Within three months from the coming- into force of the present 
Treaty, all works, fortifications and batteries within the zone defined 
in Article 179 and comprising the coast and islands of the Sea of 
Marmora and the coast of the Straits, also those in the Islands of 
Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace., Tenedos and Mitylene, shall be dis- 
armed and demolished. 

The reconstruction of these works and the construction of similar 
works are forbidden in the above zone and islands. France, Great 
Britain and Italy shall have the right to prepare for demolition any 
existing roads and railways in the said zone and in the islands of 
Lemnos. Imbros, Samothrace, and Tenedos which allow of the rapid 
transport of mobile batteries, the construction there of such roads 
and railways remaining forbidden. 

In the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace and Tenedos the 
construction of new roads or railways must not be undertaken except 
with the authority of the three Powers mentioned above. 

(2) The measures prescribed in the first paragraph of (1) shall 
be executed by and at the expense of Greece and Turkey as regards 
their respective territories, and under control as provided in Article 
203. 

(3) The territories of the zone and the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, 
Samothrace, Tenedos, and Mitylene shall not be used for military 
purposes, except by the three Allied Powers referred to above, act- 
ing in concert. This provision does not exclude the employment in 
the said zone and islands of forces of Greek and Turkish gendarmerie, 
who will be under the Inter- Allied command of the forces of occu- 
pation, in accordance with the provisions of Article 161, nor the 
maintenance of a garrison of Greek troops in the island of Mitylene, 
nor the presence of the Sultan's bodyguard referred to in Article 152. 

(4) The said Powers, acting in concert, shall have the right to 
maintain in the said territories and islands such military and air 
forces as they may consider necessary to prevent any action being 
taken or prepared which might directly or indirectly prejudice the 
freedom of the Straits. 

This supervision will be carried out in naval matters by a guard- 
ship belonging to each of the said Allied Powers. 

The forces of occupation referred to above may, in case of neces- 
sity, exercise on land the right of requisition, subject to the same 
conditions as those laid down in the Regulations annexed to the 
Fourth Hague Convention, 1907, or any other Convention replacing 
it to which all the said Powers are parties. Requisitions shall, how- 
ever, only be made against payment on the spot. 



368 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 179. 

The zone referred to in Article ITS is defined as follows (see map 
No. 1) : 

(1) In Europe. 

From Karachali on the Gulf of Xeros northeastwards, 

a line reaching and then following the southern boundary of the 
basin of the Beylik Dere to the crest of the Kuru Dagh ; 

then following that crest line, 

then a straight line passing north of Emerli, and south of Derelar, 

then curving north-north-eastwards and cutting the road from 
Rodosto to Malgara 3 kilometres west of Ainarjik and then passing 
6 kilometres southeast of Ortaja Keui, 

then curving north-eastwards and cutting the road from Rodosto to 
Hairobolu 18 kilometres northwest of Rodosto, 

then to a point on the road from Muradli to Rodosto about 1 kil- 
ometre south of Muradli, 

a straight line; 

thence east-north-eastwards to Yeni Keui, 

a straight line, modified however so as to pass at a minimum dis- 
tance of 2 kilometres north of the railway from Chorlu to Chatalja; 

thence north-north-eastwards to a point west of Istranja, situated 
on the frontier of Turkey in Europe as defined in Article 27, 1(2), 

a straight line leaving the village of Yeni Keui within the zone; 

thence to the Black Sen. 

the frontier of Turkey in Europe as defined in Article 27, I (2). 

(2) In Asia: 

From a point to be determined by the Principal Allied Powers 
between Cape Dahlina and Kemer Iskele on the gulf of Adramid 
east-north-eastwards, 

a line passing south of Kemer Iskele and Kemer together with the 
road joining these places; 

then to a point immediately south of the point where the Decau- 
ville railway from Osmanlar to Urchanlar crosses the Diermen Dere, 

a straight line; 

thence north-eastwards to Manias Geul, 

a line following the right bank of the Diermen Dere, and Kara 
Dere Suyu; 

thence eastwards, the southern shore of Manias Geul ; 

then to the point where it is crossed by the railway from Pan- 
derma to Susighirli, 

the course of the Kara Dere upstream ; 

thence eastwards to a point on the Adranos Chai about 3 kilo- 
metres from its mouth near Kara Oghlan, 

a straight line; 

thence eastwards, the course of this river downstream ; 

then the southern shore of Abulliont Geul ; 

then to the point where the railway from Mudania to Brusa crosses 
the Ulfer Chai, about 5 kilometres northwest of Brusa, 

a straight line; 

thence north-eastwards to the confluence of the rivers about 6 
kilometres north of Brusa, 

the course of the Ulfer Chai downstream; 



PEACE TREATIES. 



369 



thence eastwards to the southernmost point of Iznik Geul, 

a straight line; 

thence to a point 2 kilometres north of Iknik, 

the southern and eastern shores of this lake ; 

thence north-eastwards to the westernmost point of Sbanaja Geul, 

a line following the crest line Chirchir Chesme, Sira Dagh, Elmali 
Dagh, Kalpak Dagh, Ayu Tepe, Hekim Tepe ; 

thence northwards to a point on the road from Ismid to Armasha, 
8 kilometres southwest of Armasha, 

a line following as far as possible the eastern boundary of the 
basin of the Chojali Dere; 

thence to a point on the Black Sea, 2 kilometres east of the mouth 
of the Akabad R, 

a straight line. 

Article 180. 



A Commission shall be constituted within fifteen days from the 
coming into force of the present Treaty to trace on the spot the bound- 
aries of the zone referred to in Article 178, except in so far as these 
boundaries coincide with the frontier line described in Article 27, I 
(2). This Commission shall be composed of three members nomi- 
nated by the military authorities of France, Great Britain and Italy 
respectively, with, for the portion of the zone placed under Greek 
sovereignty, one member nominated by the Greek Government, and, 
for the portion of the zone remaining under Turkish sovereignity, 
one member nominated by the Turkish Government. The decisions 
of the Commission, which will be taken by a majority, shall be bind- 
ing on the parties concerned. 

The expenses of this Commission will be included in the expenses 
of the occupation of the said zone. 



Table I. — Composition of the Sultan's Bodyguard. 



( 



Units. 



Maximum 
strength. 



Remarks. 



Staff 

Infantry 

Cavalry 

Administrative services 

Total 



1100 
^Officers and 
lof —. 

700 



1 Included in this establishment are: 

(a) The staff of the Sultan's Bodyguard; 

(6) General officers, officers of all ranks and all arms, 

as well as military officials attached to the Sultan's 

military household. 



Table II. 



-Strength of the various Ann* and Services entermg into the Compo- 
sition of the Special Elements for Reinforcement. 



Units. 



Maximum Establish- 
ment. 



Staff (Command, officers, and personnel) 

Infantry 

Artillery 

Cavalry 

Pioneers and technical troops 

Technical and general services 

Total 



100 
8, 200] 

2 'fB Officers and 

2, 000 1 men - 
1, 500J 



15,000 



47! 



-S. Doc. 7, 67-1- 



-24 



370 PEACE TREATIES. 

Table III. — Maximum authorised Armaments and Munition Supplies. 



Material. 



Rifles or carbines 2 

Revolvers 

Machine guns, heavy or light. 
Mountain guns 3 



Quantity for 1,000 men. 



Sultan's 
Body- 
guard. 



Legions. 



Special 
elements 

for rein- 
force- 
ment. 



1,150 1,150 1,150 

[1 revolver per officer and perl 
mounted non-commissioned > 
. officer. 



15 



10 



15 



Quantity of Ammunition per 
Weapon (rifle or gun). 



Sultan's 
Body- 
guard . 



Legions. 



Special 
elements 

for rein- 
force- 
ment. 



1,000 1,000 1,000 

100 rounds per revolver. 



50,000 



100,000 



100, 000 
1,500 



1 Including increase for replacement." 

3 Automatic rifles and carbines are counted as light machine guns. 

3 No field gun or heavy .gun is authorised. 

* One battery of 4 gun's+1 spare gun, a total of 15 batteries. 

Section II. — Naval Clauses. 
Article 181. 

From the coming into force of the present Treaty all warships 
interned in Turkish ports in accordance with the Armistice of Octo- 
ber 30, 1918, are declared to be finally surrendered to the Principal 
Allied Powers. 

Turkey will, however, retain the right to maintain along her coasts 
for police and fishery duties a number of vessels which shall not 
exceed : 

7 sloops, 

6 torpedo boats. 

These vessels will constitute the Turkish Marine, and will be 
chosen by the Naval Inter- Allied Commission of Control referred 
to in Article 201 from amongst the following vessels : 



Sloops : 

Aidan Reis. 
Burack Reis. 
Sakiz. 
Prevesah. 
Hizir Reis. 
Kemal Reis. 
Issa Reis. 



TORPEDO-BOATS : 

Sivri Hissar. 
Sultan Hissar. 
Drach. 
Moussoul. 
Ack Hissar. 
Younnous. 



The authority established for the control of customs will be en- 
titled to appeal to the three Allied Powers referred to in Article 178 
in order to obtain a more considerable force, if such an increase is 
considered indispensable for the satisfactory working of the services 
concerned. 

Sloops may carry a light armament of two guns inferior to 77 
m/m. and two machine guns. Torpedo-boats (or patrol launches) 
may carry a light armament of one gun inferior to 77 m/m. All the 
torpedoes and torpedo-tubes on board will be removed. 



PEACE TREATIES, 371 

Article 182. 

Turkey is forbidden to construct or acquire any warships other 
than those intended to replace the units referred to in Article 181. 
Torpedo-boats shall be replaced by patrol launches. 

The vessels intended for replacement purposes shall not exceed : 

600 tons in the case of sloops; 

100 tons in the case of patrol launches. 

Except where a ship has been lost, sloops and torpedo-boats shall 
only be replaced after a period of twenty years, counting from the 
launching of the ship. 

Article 183. 

The Turkish armed transports and fleet auxiliaries enumerated 
below shall be disarmed and treated as merchant ships: 
Reehid Pasha (late Port Antonio). 
Tlr-i-Mujghian (late Pembroke Castle). 
Kiresund (late Warwick Castle). 
Millet (late Seagull). 
Akdeniz. 
Bosphorus ferry-boats Nos. 60, 61, 63 and 70. 

Article 184. 

All warships, including submarines, now under construction in 
Turkey shall be broken up, with the exception of such surface vessels 
as can be completed for commercial purposes. 

The work of breaking up these vessels shall be commenced on the 
coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Article 185. 

Articles, machinery and material arising from the breaking up 
of Turkish warships of all kinds, whether surface vessels or sub- 
marines, may not be used except for purely industrial or commercial 
purposes. They may not be sold or disposed of to foreign countries. 

Article 186. 

The construction or acquisition of any submarine, even for com- 
mercial purposes, shall be forbidden in Turkey. 

Article 187. 

The vessels of the Turkish Marine enumerated in Article 181 must 
have on board or in reserve only the allowance of war material and 
armaments fixed by the Naval Inter- Allied Commission of Control 
referred to in Article 201. Within a month from the time when the 
above quantities are fixed all armaments, munitions or other naval 
war material, including mines and torpedoes, belonging to Turkey 
at the time of the signing of the Armistice of October 30, 1918, must 
be definitely surrendered to the Principal Allied Powers. 



372 PEACE TREATIES. 

The manufacture of these articles in Turkish territory for, and 
their export to, foreign countries shall be forbidden. 

All other stocks, depots or reserve of arms, munitions or naval war 
material of all kinds are forbidden. 

Article 188. 

The Naval Inter-Allied Commission of Control will fix the num- 
ber of officers and men of all grades and corps to be admitted, in 
accordance with the provisions of Article 189, into the Turkish 
Marine. This number will include the personnel for manning the 
ships left to Turkey in accordance with Article 181, and the adminis- 
trative personnel of the police and fisheries protection services and 
of the semaphore stations. 

Within two months from the time when the above number is fixed, 
the personnel of the former Turkish Navy in excess of this number 
shall be demobilised. 

No naval or military corps or reserve force in connection with the 
Turkish Marine may be organised in Turkey without being included 
in the above strength. 

Article 189. 

The personnel of the Turkish Marine shall be recruited entirely 
by voluntary engagements entered into for a minimum period of 
twenty-five consecutive years for officers, and twelve consecutive 
years for petty officers and men. 

The number engaged to replace those' discharged for any reason 
other than the expiration of their term of, service must not exceed 
five per cent, per annum of the total personnel fixed by the Naval 
Inter-Allied Commission of Control. 

The personnel discharged from the former Turkish Navy must 
not receive any kind of naval or military training. 

Officers belonging to the former Turkish Navy and not demobilised 
must undertake to serve till the age of forty-five, unless discharged 
for sufficient reason. 

Officers and men belonging to the Turkish mercantile marine must 
not receive any kind of naval or military training. 

Article 190. 

On the coming into force of the present Treaty all the wireless 
stations in the zone referred to in Article 178 shall be handed over 
to the Principal Allied Powers. Greece and Turkey shall not con- 
struct any wireless stations in the said zone. 

Section III. — Air Clauses. 

Article 191. 

The Turkish armed forces must not include any military or naval 
air forces. 

No dirigible shall be kept. 



PEACE TREATIES. 373 

Article 192. 

Within two months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the personnel of the air forces on the rolls of the Turkish land 
and sea forces shall be demobilised. 

Article 193. 

Until the complete evacuation of Turkish territory by the Allied 
troops, the aircraft of the Allied Powers shall have throughout 
Turkish territory freedom of passage through the air, freedom of 
transit and of landing. . 

Article 194. 

During the six months following the coming into force of the 
present Treaty the manufacture, importation and exportation of 
aircraft of every kind, parts of aircraft, engines for aircraft and 
parts of engines for aircraft shall be fobidden in all Tukish territory. 

Article 195. 

On the coming into force of the present Treaty all military and 
naval aeronautical material must be delivered by Turkey, at her 
own expense, to the Principal Allied Powers. 

Delivery must be completed within six months and must be 
effected at such places as may be appointed by the Aeronautical 
Inter-Allied Commission of Control. The Governments of the 
Principal Allied Powers will decide as to the disposal of this 
material. 

In particular, this material will include all items under the follow- 
ing heads which are or have been in use or were designed for warlike 
purposes. 

Complete aeroplanes and seaplanes, as well as those being manu- 
factured, repaired or assembled. 

Dirigibles able to take the air, being manufactured, repaired or 
assembled. 

Plant for the manufacture of hydrogen. 

Dirigible sheds and shelters of every kind for aircraft. 

Pending their delivery, dirigibles will, at the expense of Turkey, 
be maintained inflated w T ith hydrogen; the plant for the manufac- 
ture of hydrogen, as well as the sheds for dirigibles, may, at the 
discretion of the said Powers, be left to Turkey until the dirigibles 
are handed over. 

Engines for aircraft. 

Nacelles and fuselages. 

Armament (guns, machine-guns, light machine-guns, bomb-drop- 
ping apparatus, torpedo-dropping apparatus, synchronising appa- 
ratus, aiming apparatus). 

Munitions (cartridges, shells, bombs loaded or unloaded, stocks 
of explosives or of material for their manufacture). 

Instruments for use on aircraft. 

Wireless apparatus and photographic and cinematographic appa- 
ratus for use on aircraft. 



374 PEACE TREATIES. 

Component parts of any of the items under the preceding heads. 

All aeronautical material of whatsoever description in Turkey 
shall be considered prima facie as war material, and as such may not 
be exported, transferred, lent, used or destroyed, but must remain 
on the spot until such time as the Aeronautical Inter-Allied Com- 
mission of Control referred to in Article 202 has given a decision 
as to its nature; this Commission will be exclusively entitled to 
decide all such points. 

Section IV. — Inter- Allied Commissions of Control and Organi- 
zation. 

Article 196. 

Subject to any special provisions in this Part, the military, naval 
and air clauses contained in the present Treaty shall be executed 
by Turkey and at her expense under the control of Inter- Allied Com- 
missions appointed for this purpose by the Principal Allied Powers. 

The above-mentioned Commissions will represent the Principal 
Allied Powers in dealing with the Turkish Government in all mat- 
ters relating to the execution of the military, naval or air clauses. 
They will communicate to the Turkish authorities the decisions 
which the Principal Allied Powers have reserved the right to take, 
or which the execution of the said clauses may necessitate. 

Article 197. 

The Inter-Allied Commissions of Control and Organization may 
establish their organisations at Constantinople, and will be entitled, 
as often as they think desirable, to proceed to any point whatever 
in Turkish territory, or to send sub-commissions, or to authorise 
one or more of their members to go, to any such point. 

Article 198. 

The Turkish Government must furnish to the Inter- Allied Com- 
missions of Control and Organization all such information and docu- 
ments as the latter may deem necessary for the accomplishment of 
their mission, and must supply at its own expense all labour and 
material which the said Commissions may require in order to ensure 
the complete execution of the military, naval or air clauses. 

The Turkish Government shall attach a qualified representative 
to each Commission for the purpose of receiving all communications 
which the Commission may have to address to the Turkish Govern- 
ment, and of supplying or procuring for the Commission all in- 
formation or documents which may be required. 

Article 199. 

The upkeep and cost of the Inter-Allied Commissions of Control 
and Organization and the expenses incurred by their work shall be 
borne by Turkey. 



PEACE TREATIES. 375 

Article 200. 

The Military Inter- Allied Commission of Control and Organiza- 
tion will be entrusted on the one hand with the supervision of the 
execution of the military clauses relating to the reduction of the 
Turkish forces within the authorised limits, the delivery of arms 
and war material prescribed in Chapter VII of Section I. and the 
disarmament of the fortified regions prescribed in Chapters VII 
and VIII of that Section, and on the other hand with the organiza- 
tion and the control of the employment of the new Turkish armed 
force. 

(1) As the Military Inter- Allied Commission of Control it will 
be its special duty: 

(a) to fix the number of customs officials, local, urban, and rural 
police, forest guards and other like officials which Turkey will be 
be authorised to maintain in accordance with Article 170; 

(h) to receive from the Turkish Government the notifications re- 
lating to the location of the stocks and depots of munitions, the arma- 
ment of the fortified works, fortresses and forts, the situation of the 
works or factories for the production of arms, munitions and war 
material and their operations; 

(c) to take delivery of the arms, munitions, war material and 
plant intended for manufacture of the same, to select the points 
where such delivery is to be effected, and to supervise the works of 
rendering things useless and of conversion provided for by the 
present Treaty. 

(2) As the Military Inter- Allied Commission of Organization it 
will be its special duty : 

(a) to proceed, in collaboration with the Turkish Government, 
with the organization of the Turkish armed force upon the basis 
laid down in Chapters I to IV, Section I of this Part, with the de- 
limitation of the territorial regions provided for in Article 156, and 
with the distribution of the troops of gendarmerie and the special 
elements for reinforcement between the different territorial regions ; 

(b) to control the conditions for the employment, as laid down 
in Articles 156 and 157, of these troops of gendarmerie and these 
elements, and to decide what effect shall be given to requests of the 
Turkish Government for the provisional modification of the normal 
distribution of these forces determined in conformity with the said 
Articles ; 

(c) to determine the proportion by nationality of the Allied and 
neutral officers to be engaged to serve in the Turkish gendarmerie 
under the conditions laid down in Article 159, and to lay down the 
conditions under which they are to participate in the different duties 
provided for them in the said Article. 

Article 201. 

It will be the special duty of the Naval Inter- Allied Commission 
of Control to visit the building yards and to supervise the breaking- 
up of the ships, to take delivery of the arms, munitions and naval 
war material and to supervise their destruction and breaking up. 

The Turkish Government must furnish to the Naval Inter- Allied 
Commission of Control all such information and documents as the 



376 PEACE TEEATIES. 

latter may deem necessary to ensure the complete execution of the 
naval clauses, in particular the designs of the warships, the compo- 
sition of their armaments, the details and models of the guns, muni- 
tions, torpedoes, mines, explosives, wireless telegraphic apparatus 
and in general everything relating to naval war material, as well 
as all legislative or administrative documents and regulations. 

Article 202. 

It will be the special duty of the Aeronautical Inter- Allied Com- 
mission of Control to make an inventory of the aeronautical mate- 
rial now in the hands of the Turkish Government, to inspect aero- 
plane, balloon and motor manufactories and factories producing 
arms, munitions and explosives capable of being used by aircraft, to 
visit all aerodromes, sheds, landing grounds, parks and depots on 
Turkish territory, to arrange, if necessary, for the removal of mate 
rial and to take delivery of such material. 

The Turkish Government must furnish to the Aeronautical Inter- 
Allied Commission of Control all such information and legislative, 
administrative or other documents as the Commission may consider 
necessary to ensure the complete execution of the air clauses, and 
in particular a list of the personnel belonging to all the Turkish air 
services and of the existing material as well as of that in process of 
manufacture or on order, and a complete list of all establishments 
working for aviation, of their positions, and of all sheds and landing 
grounds. 

Article 203. 

The Military, Naval and Aeronautical Inter- Allied Commissions 
of Control will appoint representatives who will be jointly respon- 
sible for controlling the execution of the operations provided for in 
paragraphs (1) and (2) of Article 178. 

Article 204. 

Pending the definitive settlement of the political status of the 
territories referred to in Article 89, the decisions of the Inter- Allied 
Commissions of Control and Organization will be subject to any 
modifications which the said Commissions may consider necessary in 
consequence of such settlement. 

Article 205. 

The Naval and Aeronautical Inter-Allied Commissions of Control 
will cease to operate on the completion of the tasks assigned to them 
respectively by Articles 201 and 202. 

The same will apply to the section of the Military Inter- Allied 
Commission entrusted with the functions of control prescribed in 
Article 200 (1). 

The section of the said Commission entrusted with the organisa- 
tion of the new Turkish armed force as provided in Article 200 (2) 
will operate for five years from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty. The Principal Allied Powers reserve the right to decide, at 



PEACE TREATIES. 377 

the end of this period, whether it is desirable to maintain or sup- 
press this section of the said Commission. 

Section V. — General Provisions. 

Article 206. 

The following; portions of the Armistice of October 30, 1918 : 
Articles 7, 10, 12, 13 and 24 remain in force so far as they are not 
inconsistent with the provisions of the present Treaty. 

Article 207. 

Turkey undertakes from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty not to accredit to any foreign country any military, naval or 
air mission, and not to send or allow the departure of such mission ; 
she undertakes moreover to take the necessary steps to prevent Turk- 
ish nationals from leaving her territory in order to enlist in the army, 
fleet or air service of any foreign Power, or to be attached thereto 
with the purpose of helping in its training, or generally to give any 
assistance to the military, naval or air instruction in a foreign 
country. 

The Allied Powers undertake on their part that from the coming 
into force of the present Treaty they will neither enlist in their 
armies, fleets or air services nor attach to them any Turkish national 
with the object of helping in military training, or in general em- 
ploy any Turkish national as a military, naval or air instructor. 

The present provision does not, however, affect the right of France 
to recruit for the Foreign Legion in accordance with French mili- 
tary laws and regulations. 

PAKT VI.— PRISONERS OF WAR AND GRAVES. 

Section I. — Prisoners of War. 

Article 208. 

The repatriation of Turkish prisoners of war and interned civil- 
ians who have not already been repatriated shall continue as quickly 
as possible after the coming into force of the present Treaty. 

Article 209. 

From the time of their delivery into the hands of the Turkish 
authorities, the prisoners of war and interned civilians are to be 
returned without delay to their homes by the said authorities. 

Those among them who, before the war, were habitually resident 
in territory occupied by the troops of the Allied Powers are likewise 
to be sent to their homes, subject to the consent and control of the 
military authorities of the Allied armies of occupation. 

Article 210. 

The whole cost of repatriation from October 30, 1918, shall be 
borne by the Turkish Government. 



378 peace treaties. 

Article 211. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians awaiting disposal or un- 
dergoing sentence for offences against discipline shall be repatriated 
irrespective of the completion of their sentence or of the proceed- 
ings pending against them. 

This stipulation shall not apply to prisoners of war and interned 
civilians punished for offences committed subsequent to June 15, 
1920. 

During the period pending their repatriation, all prisoners of 
war and interned civilians shall remain subject to the existing regu- 
lations, more especially as regards work and discipline. 

Article 212. 

Prisoners of war and interned civilians who are awaiting trial or 
undergoing sentence for offences other than those against discipline 
may be detained. 

Article 213. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to admit to its territory 
without distinction all persons liable to repatriation. 

Prisoners of war or Turkish nationals who do not desire to be 
repatriated may be excluded from repatriation ; but the Allied Gov- 
ernments reserve to themselves the right either to repatriate them 
or to take them to a neutral country or to allow them to reside in 
their own territories. 

The Turkish Government undertakes not to institute any excep- 
tional proceedings against these persons or their families not to take 
any repressive or vexatious measures of any kind whatsoever against 
them on this account. 

Article 214. 

The Allied Governments reserve the right to make the repatria- 
tion of Turkish prisoners of war or Turkish nationals in their hands 
conditional upon the immediate notification and release by the Turk- 
ish Government of any prisoners of war and other nationals of the 
Allied Powers who are still held in Turkey against their will. 

Article 215. 

The Turkish Government undertakes : 

(1) to give every facility to Commissions entrusted by the Allied 
Powers with the search for* the missing or the identification of Allied 
nationals who have expressed their desire to remain in Turkish terri- 
tory ; to furnish such Commissions with all necessary means of trans- 
port ; to allow them access to camps, prisons, hospitals and all other 
places; and to place at their disposal all documents whether public 
or private which would facilitate their enquiries; 

(2) to impose penalties upon any Turkish officials or private per- 
sons who have concealed the presence of any nationals of any of the 
Allied Powers, or who have neglected to reveal the presence of any 
such after it had come to their knowledge ; 



PEACE TREATIES. 379 

(3) to facilitate the establishing of criminal acts punishable by the 
penalties referred to in Part VII (Penalties) of the present Treaty 
and committed by Turks against the persons of prisoners of war or 
Allied nationals during the war. 

Article 216. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to restore without delay 
from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty all arti- 
cles, equipment, arms, money, securities, documents and personal 
effects of every description which have belonged to officers, soldiers or 
sailors or other nationals of the Allied Powers and which have been 
retained by the Turkish authorities. 

Article 217. 

The High Contracting parties waive reciprocally all repayment of 
sums due for the maintenance of prisoners of war in their respective 
territories. 

Section II.— Graves. 

Article 218. 

The Turkish Government shall transfer to the British, French and 
Italian Governments respectively full and exclusive rights of owner- 
ship over the land within the boundaries of Turkey as fixed by the 
present Treaty in which are situated the graves of their soldiers and 
sailors wdio fell in action or died from wounds, accident or disease, 
as well as over the land required for laying out cemeteries or erecting 
memorials to these soldiers and sailors, or providing means of access 
to such cemeteries or memorials. 

The Greek Government undertakes to fulfil the same obligation 
so far as concerns the portion of the zone of the Straits and the 
islands placed under its sovereignty. 

Art;cle 219. 

Within six months from the coming into force of the present 
Treaty the British, French and Italian Governments will respectively 
notify to the Turkish Government and the Greek Government the 
land of which the ownership is to be transferred to them in accord- 
ance with Article 218. The British, French and Italian Govern- 
ments will each have the right to appoint a Commission, which shall 
be exclusively entitled to examine the areas where burials have or 
may have taken place, and to make suggestions with regard to the 
re-grouping of graves and the sites where cemeteries are eventually 
to be established. The Turkish Government and the Greek Govern- 
ment may be represented on these Commissions, and shall give them 
all assistance in carrying out their mission. 

The said land will include in particular the land in the Gallipoli 
Peninsula shown on map No. 3 ; the limits of this land will be notified 
to the Greek Government as provided in the preceding paragraph. 
The Government in whose favour the transfer is made undertakes 
not to employ the land, nor to allow it to be employed, for any pur- 



380 PEACE TREATIES. 

pose other than that to which it is dedicated. The shore may not be 
employed for any military, marine or commercial purpose. 

Article 220. 

Any necessary legislative or administrative measures for the trans- 
fer to the British, French and Italian Governments respectively of 
full and exclusive rights of ownership over the land notified in ac- 
cordance with Article 219 shall be taken by the Turkish Government 
and the Greek Government respectively within six months from the 
date of such notification. If any compulsory acquisition of the land 
is necessary it will be effected by, and at the cost of, the Turkish Gov- 
ernment or the Greek Government, as the case may be. 

Article 221. 

• 

The British, French and Italian Governments may respectively en- 
trust to such Commission or organization as each of them may deem 
fit the establishment, arrangement, maintenance and care of the ceme- 
teries, memorials and graves situated in the land referred to in Arti- 
cle 218. 

These Commissions or organizations shall be officially recognized 
by the Turkish Government and the Greek Government respectively. 
They shall have the right to undertake any exhumations or removal 
of bodies which they may consider necessary in order to concentrate 
the graves and establish cemeteries; the remains of soldiers or sailors 
may not be exhumed, on any pretext whatever, without the authority 
of the Commission or organisation of the Government concerned. 

Article 222. 

The land referred to in this Section shall not be subjected by Tur- 
key or the Turkish authorities, or by Greece or the Greek authorities, 
as the case may be. to any form of taxation. Representatives of the 
British, French or Italian Governments, as well as persons desirous 
of visiting the cemeteries, memorials and graves, shall at ail times 
have free access thereto. The Turkish Government and the Greek 
Government respectively undertake to maintain in perpetuity the 
roads leading to the said land. 

The Turkish Government and the Greek Government, respectively, 
undertake to afford to the British. French and Italian Governments 
all necessary facilities for obtaining a sufficient water supply for the 
requirements of the staff engaged in the maintenance or protection 
of the said cemeteries or memorials, and for the irrigation of the 
land. 

Article 223. 

The provisions of this Section do not affect the Turkish or Greek 
sovereignty, as the case may be, over the land transferred. The Turk- 
ish Government and the Greek Government respectively shall take all 
the necessary measures to ensure the punishment of persons subject 
to their jurisdiction who may be guilty of any violation of the rights 
conferred on the Allied Governments, or of any desecration of the 
cemeteries, memorials or graves. 



PEACE TREATIES. 381 

Article 224. 

Without prejudice to the other provisions of this Section, the 
Allied Governments and the Turkish Government will cause to be 
respected and maintained the graves of soldiers and sailors buried in 
their respective territories, including any territories for which they 
may hold a mandate in conformity with the Covenant of the League 
of Nations. 

Article 225. 

The graves of prisoners of war and interned civilians who are 
nationals of the different belligerent States and have died in captivity 
shall be properly maintained in accordance with Article 224. 

The Allied Governments on the one hand and the Turkish Govern- 
ment on the other reciprocally undertake also to furnish to each 
other : 

(1) a complete list of those who have died, together with all infor- 
mation useful for identification : 

(2) all information as to the number and position of the graves 
of all those who have been buried without identification. 

PART VII.— PENALTIES. 

Article 226. 

The Turkish Government recognises the right of the Allied Powers 
to bring before military tribunals persons accused of having com- 
mitted acts in violation of the laws and customs of war. Such per- 
sons shall, if found guilty, be sentenced to punishments laid down by 
law. This provision will apply notwithstanding any proceedings 
or prosecution before a tribunal in Turkey or in the territory of her 
allies. 

The Turkish Government shall hand over to the Allied Powers or 
to such one of them as shall so request all persons accused of having 
committed an act in violation of the laws and customs of war, who are 
specified either by name or by the rank, office or employment which 
they held under the Turkish authorities. 

Article 227. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of one of the 
Allied Powers shall be brought before the military tribunals of that 
Power. 

Persons guilty of criminal acts against the nationals of more than 
one of the Allied Powers shall be brought before military tribunals 
composed of members of the military tribunals of the Powers con- 
cerned. 

In every case the accused shall be entitled to name his own counsel. 

Article 228. 

The Turkish Government undertakes to furnish all documents 
and information of every kind, the production of which may be con- 
sidered necessary to ensure the full knowledge of the incriminating 
acts, the prosecution of offenders and the just appreciation of respon- 
sibility. 



382 PEACE TREATIES. 

Article 229. 

The provisions of Articles 226 to 228 apply similarly to the Gov- 
ernments of the States to which territory belonging to the former 
Turkish Empire has been or may be assigned, in so far as concerns 
persons accused of having committed acts contrary to the laws and 
customs of war who are in the territoiy or at the disposal of such 
States. 

If the persons in question have acquired the nationality of one of 
the said States, the Government of such State undertakes to take, at 
the request of the Power concerned and in agreement with it, or 
upon the joint request of all the Allied Powers,